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Ferry Hill Plantation Journal:
January 4, 1838-January 15, 1839:
Electronic Edition.

Blackford, John, 1771-1839


Funding from the Library of Congress/Ameritech National Digital Library Competition
supported the electronic publication of this title.


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First edition, 1998.
ca. 500K
Academic Affairs Library, UNC-CH
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
1998.

        © This work is the property of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text.
        This text has been made available with permission of Thomas F. Hahn and Nathalie W. Hahn.

Call number F187.W3 B5 1961 (Davis Library, UNC-CH)


        The electronic edition is a part of the UNC-CH digitization project, Documenting the American South.
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Library of Congress Subject Headings



Cover


Frontispiece


Title Page


FERRY HILL PLANTATION JOURNAL
January 4, 1838-January 15, 1839

Edited with An Introduction and Notes

BY FLETCHER M. GREEN

CHAPEL HILL
THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS
1961

Copyright, 1961, by
THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA PRESS
Printed in the United States of America The Seeman Printery, Inc. Durham, N. C.


Page v

        To
E. H. G. and M. F. G.
Both of Them Helped


Page vii

PREFACE

        In 1909 Ulrich Bonnell Phillips published his Plantation and Frontier Documents, which incidentally remains today the most important single collection of published source documents on the plantation regime of the pre-Civil War South, in which he defined a plantation as "a unit in agricultural industry in which the laboring force was of considerable size, the work was divided among groups of laborers who worked in routine under supervision, and the primary purpose was in each case the production of a special staple commodity for sale. The laborers were generally in a state of bondage. Wage earners might be employed; but for the sake of certainty in maintaining a constant and even supply of labor from season to season, indented servants and negro slaves were the commoner resort." He defined a farm as "an agricultural unit in which the labor force was relatively small. There was no sharp distinction between workman and supervisor. A less regular routine was followed and the primary purpose was divided between producing commodities for market and commodities for consumption within the family. Farmers might hire help and might buy slaves. With unfree labor as such, however, they had little or no vital concern."1 These definitions are generally accepted as correct but it should be noted that there were plantations that had characteristics ascribed to the farm and vice versa. For instance, some plantations did not grow a single major staple for sale but produced a number of crops - grain, fruits, and livestock - for sale, and used slave labor which was not worked in routine under constant supervision.

        Since 1909 many excellent journals and diaries of the rice, sugar, and cotton plantations of the lower South have been published, 2 but there has been a dearth of significant journals of combination grain, hay, fruit, and livestock plantations of the Virginia-Maryland area. And it is still true, as Phillips said in 1909, "On the subject of small farms....,



1. Plantation and Frontier Documents: 1649-1863. Illustrative of Industrial History in the Colonial & Ante-Bellum South, 2 volumes (Cleveland, Ohio: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1909), I, 72-73.

2. See below, Bibliography V, Plantation Diaries and Journals, p. 135.

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the reader must keep in mind that there is a hiatus in the documents." 3 It is a well know fact, however, that the farms constituted a most important element in the general agricultural and economic life of the Old South although they were overshadowed by, and attracted less attention than, the large and more striking plantations.

        It was my good fortune as editor of Henry Kyd Douglass, I Rode with Stonewall (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1940), to find in the attic at Ferry Hill Plantation a bound volume of a journal of that plantation kept by the then owner, John Blackford, for the year January 4, 1838, to January 15, 1839. This plantation, located on the Maryland side of the Potomac River across from Shepherdstown, Virginia (now West Virginia), had characteristics of both the plantation and the farm as defined by Phillips. The regular labor force was slave but the plantation produced no special major staple crop. Instead it grew grain of various kinds, hay, fruits, potatoes, livestock and timber for sale as well as home consumption. Mr. J. Howard Beckenbaugh, the owner of Ferry Hill in 1942, deposited the journal and other papers in the Southern Historical Collection of the University of North Carolina, but withdrew them in 1954 and gave them to the newly established Historical Society of Washington County in Hagerstown, Maryland. I had made a copy of the journal while it was on deposit in the Southern Historical Collection, and Mr. Beckenbaugh kindly gave his permission for its publication.

        The preparation of this document for publication presented a number of editorial problems. There is ample evidence to show that Blackford had kept a record of his plantation for many years, probably since 1816 when he purchased the ferry, but this document is the only part of the record known to exist. Kept in a bound ledger about ten by fourteen inches, the journal begins abruptly on January 4, 1838. It has no title, but I have chosen to call it a "journal" rather than a "diary." It was written, not in response to spontaneous impulse to record the observations, thoughts, and deeds of the author, but to record the day by day happenings at Ferry Hill Plantation. It includes home life, the operation of the ferry, and work in the fields, barns, and woods - in a word the everyday life of the Blackford family, their slaves and hired workers, and the coming and going of relatives and visitors.

        Life at Ferry Hill was very different from that on a major staple crop plantation where the laborers worked in gangs, in routine, and under close supervision. The cultivation and harvesting of corn, wheat, barley, oats, rye, clover, hay, and potatoes; the threshing and milling of the grain; the daily feeding and care of cattle, horses, sheep and hogs, and the slaughter of animals and curing of meats; the growing,



3. Plantation and Frontier Documents, I, 97.

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harvesting, and preservation of apples, and the manufacture of cider, vinegar, and apple butter therefrom; the daily supervision of the ferry; and the cutting of wood for fuel and timber for lumber and shingles for sale, all of which took place at Ferry Hill, could not easily be carried on by slave gangs in routine and under supervision. Consequently the laborers at Ferry Hill worked individually with little or no supervision. Nor were they assigned tasks to do. Blackford never employed an overseer, he chose to manage the plantation himself and to give general supervision to his slaves and hired laborers. But he did not, as a small farmer would have done, work with his slaves. He did no manual labor. It was his function to formulate policies and see that they were carried out. Nor was Blackford and his plantation unique in this respect. They were typical of many planters and plantations of the Maryland-Virginia area.

        The Ferry Hill Journal furnishes its own warranty of truth and authenticity. It deals concretely, unconsciously, generally impersonally, and in evident faithfulness with life as it was lived on the plantation. Since Blackford was the supervisor as well as owner he not only saw but experienced the life about which he wrote. Only twice during the year was he absent from the plantation for a full day. On one occasion he, some members of his family, and friends made a business and pleasure trip of seven days' duration to Washington and Baltimore. Again he and his invalid wife spent a week at one of the Virginia resort springs. During these absences one of his sons, and a relative who lived on the plantation, supervised the work. From them and from slaves and hired workers Blackford gathered information to fill in the journal.

        Blackford, an intelligent, well educated, and widely read man, made no effort to use correct English in his journal. The entries were hurriedly written for his own use, and he intended to transcribe them into a more permanent journal. He generally wrote short notes, using single words, phrases, clauses, including numerous abbreviations, instead of complete sentences. His capitalization, spelling, and punctuation or lack thereof are not only abominable but also maddening to the reader. For instance in the spelling of the name of one of his close friends and a frequent visitor at Ferry Hill there are at least four variations. As editor I have chosen to reproduce faithfully the journal as written; I have made no corrections, nor have I supplied missing words and punctuation. After the reader has mastered Blackford's original and unique writing practices in the first few pages he can readily grasp the meaning of the erratic English construction.

        In order to make the appearance of the printed version of the journal more pleasing to the eye, and to enable the reader to grasp at a glance the day of the month and the day of the week I have chosen to insert the names of the months as chapter divisions and to give the date


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and day as the key to each paragraph. In these two items only have I departed from the original text. For the daily entry Blackford generally gave the date followed by the day, e.g., 4th March. Sometimes he reversed the order; sometimes he inserted the name of the month between, and occasionally he inserted the year also. I have chosen to make all daily entries uniform.

        The journal is filled with hundreds of names of Blackford's family, relatives, visitors, acquaintances, strangers crossing the Potomac River on the ferry, and Blackford's slaves and hired laborers. I have made no attempt to identify all these people. It would have been impossible to do so. I have identified those whose identity is essential to an understanding of the story. Most of these appear early in the text. I have kept documentation to a minimum.

        I am indebted to many people for aid in this undertaking, most of all to Mr. J. Howard Beckenbaugh who very graciously gave his consent to publication of the journal. Mrs. Frank W. Mish, Jr., of the Washington County (Maryland) Historical Society was untiring in her efforts to locate materials on Ferry Hill. The Clerk of the Court of Washington County, made available John Blackford's will, deeds, and other legal papers bearing on the Blackford family and plantation. The Institute for Research in Social Science at the University of North Carolina gave me a Grant-in-Aid for research and typed a clean copy of the journal. I owe a special debt of gratitude to Miss Dena Neville, Secretary of the Department of History at the University of North Carolina, who typed the final copy and whose sharp eye and good judgment saved me from errors which otherwise would have appeared in print.

        The University of North Carolina Research Council aided in both the research for and the publication of the Ferry Hill Plantation Journal.

        

Fletcher M. Green

Chapel Hill, N. C.
Page xi

INTRODUCTION

I
BUILDING THE PLANTATION

        When the first settlers - Germans, Irish, and Scotch-Irish from Pennsylvania, and Dutch from New York - began to push into western Maryland in the 1720's they followed the old Indian and packhorse trail from York, Pennsylvania. Those who wished to cross the Potomac River into Virginia found the Packhorse Ford, one mile below the site of the present Shepherdstown, West Virginia, the one and only good crossing for many miles east or west of it. The area on both sides of the Potomac had much to offer the newcomers: a salubrious climate, rich and fertile soil, streams well stocked with fish and fields and forests with game, numerous springs of excellent water and rapidly flowing streams for power, limestone quarries for fertilizer and building stone, and timber for fuel and lumber. The region was rapidly settled. Maryland organized Frederick County in 1748 with Frederick Town as the seat of government and Washington in 1776 with the government at Hagerstown. Virginia organized her Frederick County in 1743 with Winchester as the seat of government and cut off Berkeley and Jefferson counties from Frederick along the Potomac in 1772, with Martinsburg and Shepherdstown as the county seats respectively.

        As the population increased Packhorse Ford no longer met the needs for crossing the Potomac River, and in 1765 the Virginia Assembly authorized Thomas Shepherd, who had founded Shepherdstown, to establish a ferry between the town and the Maryland side of the river. Before he began the project, however, Shepherd learned that Thomas Van Swearingen had already been authorized to establish a ferry from the Maryland side and Shepherd abandoned his project. Swearingen began the operation of his ferry in 1765 with charges of three pence per person and the same for each horse. Shepherdstown agreed to maintain a road from the town to the ferry landing on the Virginia side. Meanwhile Washington County, Maryland, constructed a road from Boonsboro via Sharpsburg to the Swearingen Ferry landing on the Maryland side of the Potomac. Sherpherdstown had road connections with Charles Town, later the county seat of Jefferson, Martinsburg, Winchester, Harpers Ferry, and the Shenandoah Valley; and Boonsboro had road connections with Hagerstown, Frederick, and Baltimore,


Page xii

Maryland. Hence Swearingen's Ferry was strategically located. It was well patronized, and soon became a successful business enterprise.

        John Blackford, son of John Blackford "Captain of the Independence Blues" of the American Revolution and an early and leading citizen of Boonsboro, purchased land from Thomas Shepherd on the Maryland side of the Potomac River. This land, which lay below the ferry, connected land already owned by Blackford with the ferry landing. In 1816 Blackford purchased from Henry Thomas Van Swearingen of Shepherdstown, Virginia, his ferry together with his franchise, boats and apparatus, three tracts of land in Maryland, namely "Antietam Bottom," "Ferry Landing," and "Ferry Landing Enlarged," and also houses and unoccupied lots in Shepherdstown. He later acquired lands from the Bedinger and Hays families which gave him contiguous holdings of above seven hundred acres of land. Thus was consolidated the Swearingen Ferry and lands and the Blackford lands to be called Ferry Hill Plantation.

        Blackford and his family lived in a large, two-story red brick house which they called Ferry Hill Place. Erected in 1812 the house still stands in 1961 although remodeled and somewhat changed. On Ferry Hill Plantation were three other dwelling houses and "The Cottage" erected by Van Swearingen for the ferry attendant. The three residences were occupied in 1838 by Franklin, Blackford's married son, and Charles and Joseph Knode, brother and nephew of Mrs. John Blackford. Franklin had his own business interests but gave some assistance to his father in managing the plantation. The Knodes cultivated Blackford's land on a rental basis paying him a share of the crops grown. Blackford placed the ferry under the control of two of his slaves and rented "The Cottage" and his houses in Shepherdstown, generally but not always, to people employed on his plantation.

        Ferry Hill Plantation was located in a fertile and thickly populated area. Joseph Scott, a well known geographer of his day, surveyed the region in 1807 and reported that the lands of Washington County were "esteemed equal if not superior in fertility to any in the state." Another writer declared that the Antietam Valley was "remarkable for its fertility and the wheat grown here is of the finest quality and is manufactured into superior brands of flour." There were on Antietam Creek some fourteen flour mills and several sawmills and iron works. The average yield of wheat per acre in Washington County in 1840 was 34 bushels, of corn 26 bushels. The county led the state in per acre yield of corn and was second in wheat. Other principal products were oats, rye, hay, potatoes, apples, honey, livestock, limestone, and lumber. Agriculture was conducted in a scientific manner; implements of the most improved kind were used; livestock was improved by the best of foreign breeds; and the rewards of planting were most gratifying.


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The population of Washington County in 1840 was 28,850 of which 24,724 were white, 2,546 were slave, and 1,580 were free Negroes. A contemporary writer described the people of the area as "noted for their thrift, intelligence, and prosperity."

        Ferry Hill Place was located on the Potomac River four miles from Sharpsburg, eleven from Boonsboro, twenty-two from Hagerstown, and twenty-five from Frederick, Maryland, and less than three miles from Shepherdstown and about fifteen from Harpers Ferry, Virginia. By 1838 it had turnpike connections with all these places and thence to Baltimore, Maryland, and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The turnpike to Frederick crossed the National, or Cumberland Road to Wheeling, Virginia. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal ran through the plantation on its way to Williamsport giving water transportation to Washington, D. C. And the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad gave rail connection at both Frederick and Harpers Ferry.

II
THE BLACKFORD FAMILY

        John Blackford (July 18, 178-, November-, 1839) was a wealthy and prosperous business man. In addition to his plantation and ferry he owned stock in the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the Baltimore Insurance Company, the Boonsboro Turnpike Company, and other unidentified business ventures. Furthermore he lent considerable sums of money at interest. He was a public spirited leader in his community. He served in the War of 1812 and commanded a company that, because of its action at the disastrous battle of Bladensburg, was dubbed the "Bladensburg Racers." Despite the poor showing of his troops Captain Blackford's reputation did not suffer. He at least was later promoted to a colonelcy in the volunteers. He served for many years as a justice of the peace; was supervisor of the public roads in his district; was active in organizing and building the Boonsboro Turnpike; was a delegate to several county conventions held to encourage the building of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and, when it was organized in 1828, invested in its stock. In 1830 he was appointed to a committee of Boonsboro citizens to try to get the Baltimore Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church to locate its proposed college in that town. He never sought public office but presided over a county Democratic Republican convention in 1828. He became an ardent Whig and on occasion bitterly condemned the Democratic majority in the county for what he termed "questionable action" in the conduct of local elections.


Page xiv

Blackford was a comunicant of the Episcopal Church but not a regular attendant upon its services. He contributed to its support and to the German Reformed, Presbyterian, and Methodist churches. He gave handsome sums toward the building of new church edifices of both Episcopal and German Reformed congregations, but he refused to contribute to the Maryland Bible Society.

        Blackford married into the Knode family which had migrated into western Maryland and Virginia with the earliest German settlers from Pennsylvania. His wife was an invalid for some years and was confined to her bed for most of the period covered by the Ferry Hill Plantation Journal. Blackford was deeply devoted to her, gave her all possible medical attention, sent her to the Belinda Springs, two miles southeast of Sharpsburg, to take advantage of its medicinal waters, and himself took her for a week's stay at the more famous Shannondale Springs near Charlestown, Virginia. But all to no avail, Mrs. Blackford died on October 7, 1838.

        Mrs. Blackford bore her husband five children, three sons and two daughters. Franklin, the eldest son, was married and had one child. He and his wife Elizabeth lived in one of the dwelling houses on his father's plantation. He engaged in various enterprises, among them running a tavern, breeding horses, and operating a line of packet boats on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. He sometimes assisted his father in managing Ferry Hill, but did not seem to have his father's full confidence. Jeannette Y., Blackford's eldest daughter, married Dr. Otho Josiah Smith of Boonsboro. He was a graduate of the University of Maryland and had studied medicine under Dr. Charles MacGill of Hagerstown. Blackford's second son Henry V. S. was a student at the Mercersburgh (Pennsylvania) Academy in 1837-1839. Helena, the youngest daughter, was unmarried and lived with her parents. William Moore, the youngest child, was just beginning his schooling in 1838 at Francis Deary's School in Boonsboro.

        Three of Blackford's wife's relatives lived on Ferry Hill Plantation. Catherine Knode, a sister, never married and John Blackford, in his will, provided for her an annuity for life. Charles Knode, a brother, rented the Bedford Place from Blackford and cultivated it on shares. Joseph Knode, a nephew, rented the Shepherd Farm as a share tenant. He sometimes assisted Blackford with the plantation, boarded some of his hired hands, and permitted his slaves to work in the fields with Blackford's slaves. In fact it seems that slaves belonging to John Blackford, Franklin Blackford, Mrs. Otho J. Smith, Charles Knode, and Joseph Knode worked interchangeably for their respective masters. The Knodes, a large clan, were frequent visitors at Ferry Hill Place.


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III
PLANTATION MANAGEMENT

        Blackford, like most Southern planters, was a busy and hard working man. He did not of course do manual labor but he chose to manage his plantation and supervise his varied business interests without the help of an overseer. The only manual labor he reported doing during 1838 was to replace the crank and handle of a grindstone broken by one of his hired laborers, and it took him the entire day to perform this minor task. The only time he mentioned an overseer in his journal for 1838 was when an overseer from a neighboring plantation sought a job with Blackford because his current employer had decided to rent rather than cultivate his plantation. Much of Blackford's time was spent in his office where he kept the plantation journal published herewith, a financial record of the ferry, records of his activities as a justice of the peace, and other business transactions.

        As noted above Blackford rented farms to his son and two of his wife's relatives. This relieved him of close supervision over the cultivation of these lands. How profitable his rental lands were the records do not show. Joseph Knode paid him 385 bushels of corn, 138 3/4 bushels of wheat, and 85 1/2 bushels of rye for the Shepherd Farm in 1837. In addition Blackford received unspecified quantities of forage including shucks and fodder from the corn, straw from wheat and rye, and clover and timothy hay. Blackford appointed two of his slaves as "Foremen of the Ferry." They did the work themsleves, called on other slaves to assist, and even hired free labor, both white and black, to assist in rush periods. They kept the receipts from the ferry and were permitted to spend money therefrom for supplies as the need arose. They generally reported the receipts daily, but sometimes they did not report for several days. Obviously Blackford devoted little of his time to the management of the ferry.

        The slaves and hired laborers who did the general plantation work carried on with a minimum of direct supervision. Occasionally Blackford might ride into the fields, the range, or the woods to give general directions or to specify exactly what work was to be done. For instance, "I rode out and marked off the land I wish cleared." Blackford seems to have found this system satisfactory. Certainly he recorded few complaints about the work done. Blackford himself looked after his rental property, including "The Cottage" and the houses in Shepherdstown. And he gave considerable time and attention to lending money


Page xvi

and supervising his investments. These affairs caused him considerable difficulty and he employed Joseph I. Merrick, a prominent lawyer of Hagerstown and Baltimore, to assist him in these matters.

        The most important money crop grown at Ferry Hill was wheat. Blackford experimented with various types, particularly Blue Stem and White, in an effort to increase the yield. Other crops grown were corn, rye, oats, buckwheat, hay including timothy and red and white clover, broom corn, potatoes, apples, pumpkins, turnips, hemp, and flax. Blackford harvested his own seed and sold seed to the neighboring farmers and planters. He had his grain milled at Mumma's, Staub's, and Glassford's mills located on Antietam Creek, and shipped flour and meal to Baltimore for sale. Apples, vinegar, cider, apple butter, and potatoes were sold in the local markets.

        Second in economic importance to general field crops at Ferry Hill was timber. The forests supplied wood for fuel in the homes; posts, rails, and palings for fences; and plank, scantling, and shingles to keep the barns, stables, storage houses, and dwelling houses in repair. Blackford employed a large number of hired laborers for work in the woods during the fall and winter months. He sold large quantities of wood for fuel to the inhabitants of Shepherdstown, Sharpsburg, and Boonsboro. The wood sold for $2.50 per cord, and Blackford sold as many as one hundred cords per year to a single customer in Shepherdstown. Some householders sent their own laborers to cut and haul their wood. In addition to wood for fuel Blackford sold posts, plank, scantling, and shingles in considerable quantities. In some instances he sold logs to the mills. He supplied various mills and factories with their particular needs. For instance he sold the Antietam Iron Works gum, oak, and hickory suitable for making helves for the huge hammers used in its plant. And he sold timber to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company for fuel and repairs.

        The ferry across the Potomac River was an important adjunct to the plantation. Blackford bought a one half interest in the ferry from Henry Thomas Van Swearingen in 1816 for $900.00. He later bought the remaining half from Mrs. Swearingen for an undisclosed sum. Blackford rarely failed to close the daily entry in his journal without some comment on the ferry business. Usually it was a laconic note running from "Very Poor" through "Poor," "Tolerable," "Middling," "Good," to "Very Good." The state franchise laid down general regulations for ferriage but Blackford could fix specific charges. Thus the foremen charged a sheep herder $4.00 for ferrying a herd of five hundred sheep across the river but charged the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company $133.16 for ferrying two loads of gun stocks destined for Harpers


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Ferry. The foremen had some difficulty in agreeing upon charges for a circus company. The owner appealed to Blackford and only after "considerable haggling" did he pay the charges. The ferry was a profitable investment. In 1837 it brought Blackford $697.00 above the cost of operation. And it continued to yield a profit to Blackford's son Franklin, to whom it descended in 1839, until he sold it to a company which built a bridge across the river which in turn abandoned the ferry in 1850.

        Blackford took great pride in livestock breeding of all sorts. He raised enough hogs to supply Ferry Hill with ample pork, sausage, and hams, with a surplus for sale. He cured his own meats and in 1838 bought a machine for making and stuffing sausage and liver pudding which he found greatly facilitated the process. So successful was the machine that neighboring planters made use of it. Blackford raised sheep for food and wool. Among others he raised Saxons and Merinos. The wool was processed on the plantation and made into coarse cloth which the seamstress made into garments for the work force. Blackford sent yarn to the Conrodt Woolen Mills in Frederick and had it made into fine grade carpets. Blackford raised cattle to supply the plantation with milk, butter, beef, and work oxen. He kept a blooded bull to maintain the quality of his herd. Blackford kept brood mares and a stallion and raised horses to be used on the plantation. Occasionally he bred his mares to stallions widely known throughout the region. Blackford practiced the arts of a veterinarian, not always successfully. And he raised bees, chickens, turkeys, and pea fowl. Feathers from the latter were marketed in Washington, D. C.

        Blackford might be called a progressive farmer. He made extensive use of natural manures and purchased agricultural lime which he applied to his grain and hay crops. Although he continued to use out-moded tools and time worn methods of cultivation he adopted and used new and improved farm implements and machinery, including harrows and rollers. Some of his grain was cut with scythes and hand cradles but in 1838 he rented a harvesting machine, probably a McCormick reaper, for cutting his wheat. Some grain was threshed by wooden flails or by treading, but in 1838 Blackford used a threshing machine driven by horses, and he owned a windmill, or as he called it a "revolving machine," powered by nine horses. He used blooded cattle, horses, hogs, and sheep for improving his livestock. It is not known that Blackford took any prizes at the local county agricultural society fair, but he was certainly aware of the extensive prize lists, published in the local newspaper, which included horses, cattle, sheep, hogs, poultry, wheat, corn, rye, oats, clover, potatoes, domestic linsey and carpets, apples, cider, and vinegar, all of which were produced at Ferry Hill.


Page xviii

IV
THE LABOR FORCE

        The Ferry Hill labor force consisted of twenty-five slaves and a large number of hired workers. Among the slaves were seven young children. Two of the adults regularly attended the Ferry and an unknown number were household servants. The remainder worked at whatever was to be done on the plantation - cutting fire wood and saw timber, caring for the livestock, planting, cultivating, and harvesting the grain, hay, and apple crops, and such irregular jobs as filling the two ice houses, and rebuilding the cistern and water works for Ferry Hill Place. During the year three births were recorded, two of which were stillborn.

        The slaves were generally satisfactory workers. Ned and Jupe, who were assigned as "Foremen of the Ferry," were never criticized in regard to their work. Occasionally Blackford would complain that some of the field hands or woodcutters were "piddling at the job" but only one severe criticism was recorded of any of the slaves workers. Once, three slaves and an equal number of hired laborers, including one German, were hauling wheat from the fields and storing it in the barns. Blackford found their work wanting, and recorded of their activities, "Bad planned and poorly managed Negroe dictation."

        The slaves were generally trusted and rarely closely supervised. As already noted Ned and Jupe were given full command of the Ferry. They were premitted to hire extra labor at rush periods and to spend money from the ferriage receipts without specific authorization. Other slaves were sent to Shepherdstown, Sharpsburg, or even to Boonsboro with cash with which to purchase groceries, tobacco, clothing, and various other commodities. In fact Blackford once sent one of his slaves to town to purchase trimming for a fancy vest he had had a tailor cut for himself. They were permitted to drive horses and carriages to the neighboring towns, and in no instant was this trust violated.

        The slaves were well clothed and well fed. Blackford bought clothing for his slaves individually and when needed, and did not distribute it to them at stated periods in the fall and spring as most planters did. In fact he often let the slave purchase his own clothing. The following entries taken from the journal are typical. "Gave Ned $1.50 to pay for a Blanket which he bought of Lane and Webb." "Gave Murf a new coat good Lindsey." "Gave Will 12 1/2 cents to buy him some tobacco."

        Blackford was most solicitous about the health and well-being of his slaves. Little Caroline fell while playing in the barnyard and Doctor


Page xix

Richard Parran was called to treat her bruises. Little George fell ill and Blackford immediately sent for Doctor Parran to attend him. When Hannah, Will's wife, was delivered of a female child Mrs. Israel Fry a midwife attended her. Daphney, who was pregnant, was taken ill and Doctor Parran and Mrs. Fry were both called. She had a miscarriage and was hospitalized for eleven days.

        Blackford showered his slaves with special favors. In addition to furnishing them with tobacco he bought and distributed whiskey to the workers. He permitted them to visit the family and slaves of his daughter, Mrs. Otho J. Smith, in Boonsboro. They drove a cart and carried chickens, eggs, butter, and other such commodities to them. Occasionally they were given stagecoach fare to make the trip of some eleven miles to Boonsboro. Despite such treatment Blackford's slaves were not a contented lot. Caroline, Daphney, Will, and Isaiah were all reported as runaways more than once. Daphney, on one occasion, got to Sharpsburg where she spent the night before Henry, who "went in parsuit," overtook her. Isaiah, a house servant who was reported "absent without parmition," went to Boonsboro. Were they merely taking advantage of their liberties; were they stimulated in their efforts by the numerous free Negroes who resided in the neighborhood; or did they seek freedom as a natural right?

        Some of the Blackford slaves were an ill-behaved lot. They frequently indulged in excessive use of liquor. Ned, a foreman of the Ferry was reported by Helen Blackford to be "quite much intoxicated" at high noon. Again he "came up from the Ferry after dark quite stupid with liquor." The following entries in the Journal are typical. "Murf and Julious both drunk." "Murf drunk as usual," "Murf down at the ferry pretty drunk." Blackford, who reported that he once got "very high" on champagne when on a business trip to Hagerstown, did not punish his slaves for drunkenness. In fact he seemed to condone the practice, and once excused them for being a little "slow and stiff" at the harvesting of wheat because "they had no bitters the whiskey which they all love dearly has given out."

        But Blackford did not fail to administer punishment when he felt it was deserved. Careless or deliberate destruction of property he would not tolerate. Enoch "suffered the grey mare to run off and broke off shafts of the cart" and Blackford "corrected him. . . by giving him a few lashes." "Isaiah sat the peoples victuals down and the hoggs destroyed it," and Blackford "whipped him." Again Blackford "punished Isaiah pretty severely for his misconduct." Among other offenses recorded, several of which went unpunished, were "use of profane language," "bad conduct eave dropping and attempt to break into [Blakney's] house," "Caroline behaved bad in the kitchen," "Ned beat Little John," "Jupe and Caroline behaved bad," and Ned "confessed to the destruction


Page xx

of 2 pea cocks." Two of the young slaves "little Caroline" and "little George" were accused of "pilfering money" from members of the Blackford family but neither charge was proven.

        Judging from the record Blackford was a kindly, even indulgent, master. His slaves were well fed, well clothed, worked almost entirely without supervision, were given all sorts of special privileges, were given the same sort of medical care as members of their master's family, and were not severely punished. Blackford hired out two of his slaves to close personal friends and in each case the contract called for "good and sufficient clothing and provisions." Finally, in his will Blackford declared "It is my will and desire that care shall be taken to prevent any of my slaves being sold out of the State or to slave traders or their agents unless for grave faults, or to any but humane and good masters."

        Blackford employed a large number of hired laborers for seasonal farm work, for cutting wood and timber, and for special jobs such as filling the ice houses and repair work on barns and houses. Some few were hired for the year. The hired laborers included native whites, foreigners whom Blackford called Germans, Dutch, Scotch, Irish and Italian, free Negroes, slaves belonging to his neighbors, and Indians. Most of these were unskilled workers but Blackford occasionally hired skilled carpenters and brick masons. The latter were employed to remodel his own house and to rebuild a cistern and water works. It is impossible to say just how many workers Blackford employed, but a count for two months in 1838 discloses 3 slaves, 4 free Negroes, 3 Indians, 2 Dutchmen, 6 Germans, 1 Irishman, 1 Italian, and 21 local whites. Nor is there sufficient evidence to generalize about wages or the quality of work done. One white man was paid $1.00 per day, a white woman 62 1/2 cents, and a Negro girl 87 1/2 cents in wheat harvesting. An old man who did what Blackford called "piddling work" was given his keep, a little tobacco, and an occasional sum of money for making fence palings. An "old Negro" was hired to make brooms of broom corn grown on the plantation at 6 1/4 cents each. One free Negro cut 18 1/2 cords of wood, split 550 fence rails, and sawed blocks for shingles and logs for lumber, but his wages were not recorded. One white laborer split 2,640 shingles by hand, a carpenter pulled off the old roof on the barn and smokehouse on Shepherd Farm and nailed on 6,800 shingles on the house in Shepherdstown. The brick mason who rebuilt the cistern and water works at Ferry Hill Place was engaged in the task for more than a month.

        The hired laborers generally proved satisfactory workers, but they occasionally fell under condemnation. For instance two free Negro wood cutters were denied the use of Blackford's grindstone because "they had carelessly broken the handle off of the crank." Isaac Widows, a white wood cutter also "broke the crank of my grindstone. I conclude


Page xxi

he is very Trifeling." Martin Shellman, another white man and a "trifeling fellow," was discharged but continued on the place and "ate in the kitchen with the Negroes." Both these men had been employed for the year and both were re-employed after having been discharged.

        Blackford's chief grievance against his hired laborers was their excessive use of whiskey. He himself contributed to this habit by serving them liquor and by furnishing them money to purchase it for themselves. On one occasion Nicholas and Martin came to work, but "booth are for a sprey." Blackford gave "Nicholas $2.75 and Martin $1.00 which will keep them drunk for some time." After Shellman "went on a sprey for more than a week," which he had spent in Sharpsburg and where he had taken one of Blackford's sheep dogs, Blackford called him in on August 26 and gave him a lecture on whiskey drinking. "He said he would quit and drink no more." On September 4, Blackford wrote "Shellman making shingles, sober and stedy"; September 20, "Shellman still perfectly sober." Blackford thought he had worked a cure. But alas, on September 30, "Shellman came in the evening. has been Drunk in Sharpsburg all last night." A few days later a stranger called and asked for a job but Blackford decided "he looked like a drinker therefore I would not imploy him." It might be noted that Blackford treated his hired laborers as individuals be they black or white, slave or free, and judged each on his own merits. One example will suffice. Isaac Widows, a white man employed for the year, "called wants meat, bread, & money gave him none. Negro George came, gave him $1 to purchase a hat."

V
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL LIFE

        The members of the Blackford family seem never to have had a dull moment. Situated in a thickly populated area and within easy driving distance of Hagerstown, Boonsboro, and Sharpsburg, Maryland, and Shepherdstown and Harpers Ferry, Virginia, Ferry Hill Place was hardly ever without one or more visitors, some of whom spent days and weeks at a time. Furthermore the Ferry led many travelers and strangers to stop at the plantation house. Many of Blackford's close friends and relatives called every day to inquire about Mrs. Blackford's health and dined or supped with them, and travelers often ate at the plantation. A check for one month shows that daily callers ranged from two to ten, those who dined ranged from two to five, those who spent the night ranged from two to four, and that individual guests remained three, five, nine, and twenty-four days. Some came, like Miss


Page xxii

Berry of Sharpsburg, to bring delicacies, "cake and jelly for Mrs. B" and remained for only a few minutes. Some were business men, and some laborers seeking employment. And among them were Scotsmen seeking subcriptions to magazines and Irish and German peddlers with their packs on their backs.

        The Blackford family, white and black, suffered many ills. Mrs. Blackford had been ill for some time before January 4, 1838, when the journal opens. Dr. Richard Parran paid professional calls nearly every day for several months, sometimes twice per day. But he was also a close friend and he, his wife, and the widow of Doctor Charles MacGill paid many social calls and often dined at Ferry Hill Place. Dr. Otho J. Smith, Blackford's son-in-law, paid professional calls as did Mrs. Israel Fry, a midwife who attended the Blackford slave women. But she also paid social calls. Blackford himself administered drugs and patent medicines to members of both his black and white families. These medicines included Sedlitz Powers, Brandreth Pills, castor oil, calomel, epsom salts, spirits of niter, saltpeter, magnesia, and laudanum.

        Another person who was often at Ferry Hill Place was Mrs. Nafe, a seamstress. She seems to have made most of the clothing for the slaves and much of that for the Blackford family. Blackford and his sons patronized tailors in the nearby towns who measured and cut their garments but Mrs. Nafe would sew the garments which the tailor had cut. This was true also of the clothing of his wife and daughter. But Mrs. Nafe was more than a hired worker, she was a friend and she and her daughter were often guests in the home.

        Blackford was a well educated and widely read man; his family too was educated and well read. Blackford was an avid reader of the Baltimore Patriot and always noted in his journal the failure of its arrival. He also subscribed to the Hagerstown Torch Light, the New York Whig, a Virginia paper probably the Richmond Whig, and an unidentified Philadelphia paper. He subscribed to the American Farmer of Baltimore and the Ladies' Companion of New York. His library consisted of a "Large collection of books" including encyclopaedias, dictionaries, a set of State Papers, history, classics, and biographies. Among the latter were John Marshall's Life of Washington and Plutarch's Lives. Blackford's son Franklin and other young men of the vicinity made use of both the newspapers and books at Ferry Hill Place. Blackford sent one of his sons, Henry, to the well known Mercersburgh (Pennsylvania) Academy and the youngest one, William, to Francis Dreary's School in Boonsboro. It was to please Henry that Blackford subscribed to the Philadelphia newspaper.

        The Blackford family was deeply religious and, except for Blackford himself, were ardent churchgoers. Blackford was a member of the


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Episcopal Church, Mrs. Blackford of the Presbyterian and the children were divided in their affiliation. Jeannette married a Roman Catholic. The other children attended various churches, including Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, German Reformed, and Dunkard. They attended also inter-denominational revival services in Sharpsburg and a camp meeting in Pleasant Valley. The Blackfords entertained seven different ministers, two Episcopalian, two Presbyterian, and one Methodist, one Dunkard, and one German Reformed, at Ferry Hill Place during the year. All of them dined at least once and two of them spent the night. The family contributed regularly to the support of the Episcopal, Presbyterian, and German Reformed churches and made large contributions to building both Episcopal and German Reformed edifices. They also made small contributions to the Methodist church program.

        The Blackfords enjoyed the social life typical of the rural farmer and planter class. Men and boys enjoyed fishing and hunting and the women quilting parties. Blackford himself took great delight in shooting foxes because of their destruction of birds and poultry. Franklin shot quail and pigeons in Virginia which abounded in great numbers "flying in all directions." The young people of both sexes enjoyed boat riding on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal during the summer and skating and sleigh riding in the winter. They organized "Oyster Parties" at Shepherdstown and "fishing parties" at "Anti Eatem" Creek, as Blackford always wrote it. Three circuses made their appearance at Shepherdstown and Boonsboro during the summer of 1838 one of which the Blackford boys attended "to the great dissatisfaction of their mother." The Blackfords also enjoyed the visits of Irish and German peddlers from whom they purchased linens and trinkets. They joined in the public celebration of Washington's birthday and July Fourth in Shepherdstown where they enjoyed military parades, martial music, and the firing of small arms as well as the "refreshments at the Springs as customary." But Blackford looked askance at the "Fandango barbacue or whatever you call it" given in the park.

        The Blackfords enjoyed visits to the Virginia Springs, to Hagerstown and Harrisburg, and to Washington and Baltimore. All members of the family made short visits to the Belinda Springs near Sharpsburg where they took the baths and the mineral water, and enjoyed the social entertainment. On these trips they were often entertained by Colonel John Miller's family who were devoted friends of long standing. Blackford and his sons visited Hagerstown and Harrisburg chiefly on business but on one of his trips he attended a party at Kalhoofers "where we drank prety freely of Champain wine," and he arose the next morning "with head ache and bad feelings from having taken too much Champain." Blackford and his daughter Helena made an extended business


Page xxiv

and pleasure trip by boat to Washington, thence by train to Baltimore and back home. They were accompained by Colonel and Mrs. Miller and their daughter. In Washington they visited the City Hall, the Capitol, and the White House where they talked with President Martin Van Buren. They attended musical performances at Miss English's Female School and other salons. Blackford took his wife to the Shannondale Springs in the Shenandoah Valley where they spent a week and took the medicinal waters and baths and enjoyed a quiet and peaceful rest. The season was over, so they saw few people and found little social entertaining.

        Various exciting incidents and accidents occurred at Ferry Hill. Among others was the drowning of a horse that fell from the tow path into the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. More tragic was the accidental drowning of a young man in the Potomac River. He was a member of a skating party. The thin ice broke and he sank beneath the surface and was drowned before his companions could rescue him. The incident that caused greatest excitement, however, was the robbery at Ferry Hill Place. While Blackford was away at the Shannondale Springs a slave boy, belonging to Dr. Joseph Hays of Sharpsburg, broke into his office and took $170.77 from his cash box. "Yealow boy Charles," as Blackford called him, was tried and convicted of the crime in the Washington County Superior Court on November 27, 1838.

VI
DISSOLUTION

        John Blackford, author of the Ferry Hill Plantation Journal published herewith, died from a lingering illness in less than a year after he made the last entry in the Journal on January 15, 1839. In his will, dated November 1, 1839, he disposed of his large estate. He divided Ferry Hill Plantation among his three sons. To Franklin he bequeathed lands purchased from Thomas Van Swearingen, including the Ferry, the Ferry House Landing and Lot, together with the boats and apparatus, the franchises and privileges, and the Landing in Virginia and the land thereto attached. In addition Franklin was given Orchard Field, the Lot along the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and the dwelling house and vacant lot in Shepherdstown. With the Ferry went Edmund and Julious the Foremen. Henry Blackford was given Ferry Hill Place. William Moore Blackford was given the Lower Farm, the Shepherd Place, the Bedford or Bedinger Farm, and his father's gold watch. Jeannette Smith, Blackford's eldest daughter, received $12,000 in money and her mother's gold watch. Helena Blackford received $12,000 and the family portraits.


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Catherine Knode, Blackford's wife's sister, received the income on $3,333.00 which yielded an annuity of $200.00 for life. After the above bequests were taken care of the executors were to sell the other property and divide the proceeds equally among the five children.

        The executors ordered a public sale of Blackford's personal estate to begin on December 10, 1839. The inventory of the property reveals a house well stocked with sliver; a large quantity of Brussels, Ingrain, and Garth carpets some completely new; a large number of mahogany and cherry bedsteads, tables, sofas, lounges and secretaries; eight dozen Windsor chairs; a "Large Collection of valuable books"; lamps of all kinds; glass ware, clocks, and Williams and Frankin stoves; and a great variety of kitchen furniture. The plantation was stocked with work and breeding horses; milk, beef, and breeding cattle; fifty fat hogs and numerous brood sows and stock hogs; a large herd of Saxon and Merino sheep; wagons, carts, plows, cultivators, rollers, and wind mills; large quantities of hay, wheat, rye, corn, oats, hemp, and flax; timber, plank, shingles, locust posts, saw logs, and fire wood; a blacksmith shop and saw mill; a carriage, barouche, sleigh, gig, cart, and harness; and, finally, sixteen slaves. The executors reported $30,917.22 derived from the sale. No report was made on debts collected, sale of stocks and shares, or the Kentucky lands Blackford is known to have purchased.

        A clearer understanding of the value of the estate may be gotten from the knowledge that in 1846 Henry Blackford sold Ferry Hill Place to his brother Franklin for $17,180. Assuming that the portions of the landed estate which fell to Franklin and William were about equal in value to that which went to their brother, John Blackford left a landed estate of something like $52,000 exclusive of the land in Kentucky. His personal estate amounted to about $54,000, exclusive of the value of shares in various business enterprises and money, certainly over $2,500, at interest. The total would have amounted to about $110,000, a very handsome estate in 1840.


Page 1

FERRY HILL PLANTATION JOURNAL
January 4, 1838-January 15,1839


Page 3

January 1838

        4th Thursday. Weather Remarcable soft and pleasant. It is as warm as a day in May. Doct. Parran1 called. Mrs. B2 appears to be better. Parran and Franklin3 rode shooting. Birds. Doct. Smith4 called, dined and spent two hours. he brought Mr. Samuel Powells receipt, dated Decr. 2d for $50 in full. I placed in the Doct. hans this day $100 to be paid to Jno. A. & S. Bentz & Co. 5 on account. I rode out and marked off the land I wish cleared. Helena 6 and Mary Miller 7 Rode out this afternoon. discovered a sheep ded in the pasture. Will puled the wool off him and Murf threshing clover seed off the straw Enoch 8 hauling manure from Hogg pen to Barnyard. My Balt newspaper 9 did not come By the last nights mail. So says the Shepherds Town poastmaster. Ned complaining him and Jupe 10 in the Boat. 11



1. Doctor Richard Parran of Shepherdstown, Virginia, was the Blackford family physician and a close personal friend of John Blackford whose will he witnessed.

2. Mrs. B. was John Blackford's wife. She never fully recovered from her illness and died October 7, 1838.

3. Franklin was John Blackford's eldest son. Married and with one son, Franklin lived in one of the houses on Ferry Hill Plantation and assisted his father in the management of his various business enterprises.

4. Otho Josiah Smith of Boonsboro, Maryland, a graduate of the University of Maryland (1833), had studied medicine under the famous Doctor Charles McGill of Hagerstown. Smith married Jeannette Y. Blackford, eldest daughter of John Blackford.

5. John A. and Samuel Bentz were general merchants in Boonsboro, from whom Blackford purchased many of the supplies for his family and plantation.

6. Helena, also called Helen, was Blackford's youngest, and unmarried, daughter.

7. Mary Miller, daughter of Colonel John Miller of Sharpsburg, Maryland, was a close friend of Helena Blackford and a frequent visitor at Ferry Hill where she sometimes spent a month on a single visit.

8. Will, Murf or Murphey, and Enoch were slaves on Ferry Hill Plantation.

9. Blackford was a regular and an avid reader of the Baltimore Patriot. He also subscribed to newspapers published in Hagerstown, Maryland, Richmond, Virginia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and New York City.

10. Ned or Edmund and Jupe or Julious were slaves who regularly attended the Ferry Boat on the Potomac River. Blackford called them "Foremen of the Ferry." Other slaves sometimes assisted at the Ferry as did hired hands including free Negroes, Indians, native whites, and Irish and German immigrants.

11. Blackford bought a one half interest in the Ferry on the Potomac River from Henry Thomas Van Swearingen of Shepherdstown, Virginia, in 1816.

Page 4

        5th Friday. Weather morning cloudy and some little Rain. only a sprinkle. Mrs. Hoffmyer12 and Mrs. Miller13 called. Doct. Parran called. Enoch suffered the grey mare to run off and broke off the shafts of the Cart the wind has sprang up and the clouds dispersed the wind is from the south. it continues warm The Revd. Hoffmier 14 & Mrs. Miller dined with us then set off home. I corrected Enouch by giving him a few lashes. Exchanged $30 with Franklin for Canal scrip. 15 he has taken the colt to brake. he rode my mare to Sharpsg in the evening. recd a letter from C K16 informing of the Birth of a son. that Jennett Smith17 was delivered of a fine son at 10 o clock this morning Helena sent a small bundle and a note by the stage before she knew her sisters situation I recd 2 patriot papers having missed one the last mail Ned and Jupe in the Boat. The hands finished the clover seed.

        6th Saturday. Weather continues soft and warm like unto spring. Doct. Parran called. Mrs. B. appears some better. took a doass Magnetia and spirit of niter.18 Mr. Hargrave and Lady19 and Mrs. Swearingen20 called spent a short time. I wrote a letter addressed to C. Knode on the subject of the Birth which Jennett has given to a son. Sent Daphney 21 with the letter and a bottle and money to get yeast. J. K. 22 called left two receipts one for 60 B. 44 w 23 wheat left in Mammas mill and



12. Mrs. Hoffmyer of Hoffmier, a close friend of Mrs. Blackford, was the wife of a Lutheran minister of Sharpsburg, Maryland.

13. Mrs. Miller, a close friend of the Blackford family and a frequent visitor at Ferry Hill, was the wife of Colonel John Miller of Sharpsburg.

14. The Reverend Mr. Hoffmier was a minister of Sharpsburg. Blackford, himself an Episcopalian, contributed to Hoffmier's church which he sometimes referred to as the German Reformed and sometimes as the Lutheran Church.

15. The scarcity of small coins in circulation, caused by the disappearance of specie during the panic of 1837, led the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company in June of 1837 to issue notes of $5.00 or less and later up to $20.00 in value. By July 1838 a total of $436,513.50 had been issued. The scrip circulated widely in Maryland and Virginia and spread also into Pennsylvania and Ohio.

16. Charles Knode, Mrs. Blackford's brother, resided in one of the houses on Ferry Hill Plantation and cultivated a tract of land, called "the lower farm," on which he paid rent.

17. This was Blackford's eldest daughter who married Doctor Otho J. Smith of Boonsboro. Christened Jeannette the family called her Jennett or Janet.

18. Blackford, as did most planters of the pre-Civil War South, administered patent medicines and standard drugs to members of his household both white and black.

19. John T. Hargrave was a Presbyterian minister residing in Shepherdstown. Mrs. Hargrave was a friend of Mrs. Blackford.

20. Mrs. Swearingen, widow of Henry Thomas Van Swearingen from whom Blackford purchased the Ferry, and her family were close friends of the Blackfords and frequent visitors at Ferry Hill.

21. Daphney, more often called Daph, was a slave woman.

22. Joseph Knode was Mrs. Blackford's nephew and, as a share tenant, cultivated the Bedford farm of the Ferry Hill Plantation.

23. Blackford used the letter w to represent pounds.

Page 5

32 B. Rye in Staubs Mill24 which sett[l]ed up his last years rent being 138 B 44 w wheat 85 1/2 Bushel Rye and 385 Bushel corn. Elizabeth 25 called spent the afternoon. Mrs. Eaton 26 left before dinner she has spent 24 days with us. Hannah Van Swearingen and Quigleys little son27 called spent a short time. Murf has hauled 6 logs to the mill. Will pidling about feeding the hoggs and cutting a little wood Enoch helping Murf Ned & Jupe in the Boat.

        7th Sunday. Weather continues soft and pleasant. Doct. Parran called quite early with a promise to call again in the afternoon. Mrs. B. dose not appear much Better. - one lamb only up to this date. 4 Sows have 24 Pigs. Doct. P. called again this evening. J. K.'s wife came up in the evening and spent a short time. - the wind sprang up from the S. West this evening. have spent a very quiet day. There has been no company to interupt the quiet of the family. - Mary Miller Helena and myself and little William28 composed the family - Ned and Jupe in the Boat. a midling Business. The weather moderate.

        8th Monday. Weather Wind blew nearly all the last night. clouded over and commenced raining about day Break this morning. Wind shifted to N. W. and cleared at 12 oclock. Doct. Parran called Mrs. B. appears to be Better. Abraham Smith called paid the balance of his acct. in canal scrip $12 - Elizabeth came up and spent an hour and returned home. Murf and Enoch have hauled to the saw mill 2 popler logs and brought over some pailings scantling and plank. Will has been pidling about the hoggs and cuting some wood, two more lambs is reported, which is 3 now come Franklin Exhibited the colt in his breaking gears. - Ned & Jupe in the Boat. very small Business. -

        9th Tuesday. Weather. A large white frost this morning. Col. Miller's 29 Black Boy called to inform us of the decease of Mrs. Johnson George Knodes Daughter Elizabeth.30 She died at Harpers ferry, is to be buryed



24. Blackford patronized both Samuel Mumma's and Henry Staub's wheat and grist mills and stored his grain in their warehouses awaiting grinding and sale.

25. Franklin Blackford's wife, as well as Joseph Knode's wife, was named Elizabeth and each had a small child. Since they lived on the plantation and were frequently at Ferry Hill it is not always possible to distinguish between the two Elizabeths.

26. Mrs. Eaton of Shepherdstown was a frequent, as well as long staying, guest at Ferry Hill.

27. Hannah was the daughter of Mrs. Henry T. Van Swearingen. Quigley's little son was Mrs. Van Swearingen's grandson.

28. William Moore was Blackford's youngest child.

29. John Miller (1787-1885) of Sharpsburg, Maryland, captain in the War of 1812, wealthy planter and business man, was a close friend whom Blackford named in his will as an executor of his estate.

30. The Knodes of Harpers Ferry, Virginia, were close relatives of Mrs. Blackford.

Page 6

this day at 12 oclock. Mrs. Hargrave called this morning Doct. Parran called remained to Dinner as did Mrs. Hargrave Doct. Smith arrived while we were at Dinner. spent an hour and returned home Murf and Enoch hauled 2 logs to the saw mill. and Brought over some pailing stuff. Will cut some wood. put up the stuff for pailings. Mrs. Hargrave returned home in the evening Mary Miller here Mrs. B. is much Better Murf & Enoch hauled some rails together this afternoon. The weather continues fine changed a little cooler. Ned & Jupe in the Boat a very small Business.

        10th Wednesday. Weather changed. Cooler. A white frost last night. J. K. called this morning. Brought my Bags home. Mrs. Miller came Murf and Enoch hauling Rails together in the woods Mrs. McFarlin 31 came over and little John. Boath remained all night. Mrs. Miller returned home after supper. Will cut some hickory wood brought a small load home. Widows32 called to know about cuting wood. the weather is quite cold began feezing before sunset. I have been writing on my Books.33 Ned & Jupe in the Boat.

        11th Thursday. Weather has changed. much colder, the last night froze quite hard. Doct. Parran called this morning Mrs. B. is mending. is still confined to her bed. Mrs. Eaton came over Mrs. McFarlin and her son John was here all night. J. Knode called this morning left his account for Boarding some hands34 which I credited him; a young man left an account from Adam Licklider 35 for mending harness &ct amt. $8.87 1/2. Murf went out after late breckfast with wagon to haul Rails he Broke off the wagon Toung. brought home a load hickory wood which Will cut. There has come 7 lambs one of which perished last night. sent Enoch to Sharpsburgh. had my mare and the Bob Horse shod. Brought some Beef from Col. Miller called on Mrs. Nafe 36 and



31. Mrs. McFarlin, sometimes written McFarlen and McFarlan, and members of her family of Shepherdstown were frequent visitors at Ferry Hill.

32. Isaac Widows of Shepherdstown was a day laborer hired by Blackford as wood cutter and field hand.

33. Blackford kept an account book of his Ferry, another of his dealings with the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, a record of his justice of the peace activities, and a consolidated financial record. None of these books are known to exist.

34. Occasionally some of Blackford's hired laborers ate their meals with Knode who rented his farm and house from Blackford. When they did so Blackford credited the board bill to Knode's account.

35. Adam Licklider, who ran a leather and harness shop in Shepherdstown patronized by Blackford, had difficulty in collecting this bill which Blackford characterized as an "Extravegent Harness mending account." He finally paid it on May 10.

36. Mrs. Nafe, also written Neff, who lived in Shepherdstown was a seamstress often employed at Ferry Hill. She and her daughter were accepted socially at Ferry Hill where they often visited and dined with other guests.

Page 7

Mrs. Morrison37 Widows called again. Mrs. McFarlen gone home this evening - Ned & Jupe in the Boat. poor poor Business - John Brien38 has been very ill is geting better.

        12th Friday. Weather Cold froze hard last night. Isaac widows came and commenced cuting wood. I went out and shewed him a lot then rode through the woods to where J. K. was cuting fire wood. a horse sent for Mary Miller she went home Mrs. Eaton here. Doct. Parran called Mrs. B. sat up some. Lickliders young man called wants money for the accounts he left yesterday Murf and Enoch geting out clover seed with 9 horses and the revolving machine. Franklin rideing the Bay mare colt Rose Will cuting wood and takeing care of the stock Ned & Jupe in the Boat. done but poor Business recd. the Patriot of 10th & 11th.

        13th Saturday. Weather clear more moderate and pleasant. Franklin called has rode my mare to Sharpsg Murf and Enoch Treading the clover seed.39 Enoch took a Bag Corn to mill. Will cuting some wood Miss V. Swearingen & Miss Henry called and spent a few minutes; Miss Berry came over and brought some cake and jelly for Mrs. B. Will hauled a load wood with the ox cart for Franklin in the evening Martin Shellman40 called to say he wants come on Monday to cut timber. Sent $1.25 to buy sugar coffee & pepper. Ned and Jupe in the Boat has been a very poor Business done this week. Mrs. Eaton here. she came on Thursday. Enoch took one other Bag white corn to the mill and Brought a Bag of corn meal home. Mrs. B. is recovering her strength & health.

        14th Sunday. morning clear cold a white frost. I arose this morning with unpleasant feelings. swimming gidiness in my head with my stomach affected. eat no breckfast. Helena and William gone to Sharpsburgh to meeting - Elizabeth and J. K.s wife called, eat dinner and spent a short time with Mrs. B. who is recovering. Daphney and Isaiah came Isaiah returned in the evening. he rode the Doct. gray Horse took with



37. Mrs. Morrison was the wife of the Reverend J. H. Morrison an Episcopal minister in Sharpsburg.

38. John McPherson Brinn was the owner of a forge, a nail factory, and a blacksmith shop connected with the Antietam Iron Works. Blackford patronized Brinn's shops and sold Brinn timber and sand.

39. Blackford followed such time worn methods of threshing grain but also made use of horse powered threshing machines.

40. Martin Shellman of Shepherdstown was employed intermittently throughout the year although Blackford, exasperated with his constant and excessive use of whiskey, often threatened to dismiss him. At one time he persuaded Shellman to give up the use of whiskey and expressed the view that Shellman was cured. Alas, a short time later Shellman was drunk again.

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him in a Bag some off fall sausage &ct. and 3 Chickens 41 from C. Knodes. Salley Williams came in the evening and spent the night. I took 4 of the Breandrith 42 pills going to Bed. Ned & Jupe in the Boat. Very little doing. no Traveling -

        15th Monday. morning windy which sprang up some time before day. the pills I took opperated before day which sickened and gave me unpleasant feelings. Isaac Widows came over to cut wood he broke the crank of my grind stone, I conclude he is very Trifeling Sally Williams left after Breckfast. Doct. Parran called. Murf and Enoch are cleaning clover seed. Will cuting wood. I have been ingaged all this day, mending the crank of the grind stone that Widows broke - this day has been very pleasant. I recd no paper by this nights mail. This is the second failure within two weeks. Ned and Jupe in the Boat. gave Ned $1.50 to pay for a Blanket which he bt. of Lane & Webb. 43

        16th Tuesday. morning pleasant I took 4 pills last night which sickened me this morning when they commenced opperating - Martin Shellman came eat his breckfast and him and Will went out to cut shingle timber. Mr. Kirk called wants popler plank and to sent the warehourse in S. Town. A. Humerickhouse called to request me to make out my acct. against the Packet Coy. 44 for ferriages which I have done amt. $11.75 to sent to Mr. Wm Shortt. Mrs. Nafe came after Breckfast. Murf and Enoch working at the clover seed. Sent the P. Coy. acct. to Mr. Shortt by Ned. I finished poasting my Books. Mrs. Nafe took two coats to make home with her. Ned and Jupe in the Boat but little doing -

        17th Wednesday. morning cloudy and a small sprinkle of Rain. Still warm for the season clears off and is as warm as a May day Morrison came down ingaged to cut wood next week I rode out to the woods. Shellman & Will cuting and sawing shingle timber. Isaac Widows cuting



41. Daphney and Isaiah, slaves at Ferry Hill, often visited and worked for Dr. and Mrs. Otho J. Smith of Boonsboro. On numerous occasions they took supplies from Ferry Hill to the Smiths.

42. Brandreth pills were a very popular patent medicine. A Shepherdstown newspaper advertised them as "an effective remedy for consumption, influenza, colds, indigestion and headache." It declared that 9,000,000 boxes had been sold in a five year period, and that more than 300,000 patients had been cured of their ills by the use of the pills.

43. Lane and Webb was a merchandising firm in Shepherdstown often patronized by Blackford. As this entry shows Blackford did not distribute clothing to his slaves as a group at stated periods but purchased, or permitted the slaves to purchase for themselves, for each slave individually as the need arose.

44. The Packet Company operated a line of boats on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal from Georgetown to Williamsport, Maryland. It unloaded goods at Ferry Hill to be ferried across the Potomac to Shepherdstown on the Virginia side. Humerickhouse was a boatman, Short an official of the company.

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cord wood. Martin boarding at J. K.s I rode down to J. Ks. Nicholas45 called to settle and ingage the house for the next year. added up his account and find he owes me $16.22 1/2 Including his house Rent which is $20. Murf and Enoch working at the clover seed. Jacob Miller46 called wants some timber which I granted him privilege to cut on my land. I have counted this day 22 Sucking Piggs and 5 lambs. Murf reports that he has cleaned up 11 1/4 clover seed and put in Bags Ned and Jupe in the Boat light Business.

        18th Thursday. Weather is Remarcably warm for this season of the year. Franklin and Helena sat out for Boons on horseback after an early Breckfast gave Helena $1.50. sent Enoch with the cart and wagon to Sharpsg to have shafts and a Tounge Murf commenced geting out wheat Will assisting Martin Shellman to fall and saw shingle Timber. There was a second failure in my newspapers none by the last nights mail. Recd a letter from Amanda Shepherd 47 dated November. Springfield. Illanois F & his sister returned after sunset report that Catherine Miller went and returned with them. Ned complaining say he is troubeled with great heat in his abdomen and thies. Mrs. B. has sat up a part of this day, in her room. Ned and Jupe in the Boat -

        19th Friday. Cloudy and raining has rained during the night. The wind shifted and blew from W. & N ceased raining about 9 oclock. Murf and Enoch in the Barn geting out wheat. Will gone to assist Martin saw Shingle Timber. Widows not at work wants something to eat. I walked out where Martin and Will are at work found a young lamb. dead which is the 7th that has come. Col. Millers Boy came for the Bull48 The weather has changed much colder this evening. Murf reports that he has maschsoned 49 850 sheaves wheat, this day and yeasterday. I am informed that Caroline50 pilferd money from Helena. I Recd By the mail this evening 2 papers the 15 & 16 and 17 & 18 am missing the 12 & 13. Ned and Jupe in the Boat. Small Receipts. Quite cold this evening.

        20th Saturday. The weather Clear morning. Cool, the ground slightly froze this morning. Franklin called. Got the Bill gray mare to ride



45. George Nicholas, a wood cutter and farm laborer at Ferry Hill, rented a house in Shepherdstown owned by Blackford.

46. Jacob Miller a carriage maker of Shepherdstown, not to be confused with Colonel John Miller of Sharpsburg.

47. Amanda and her husband Thomas Shepherd had sold their farm to Blackford and removed to Illinois.

48. Blackford kept a blooded bull which he let his friends and neighbors use to improve their cattle.

49. No longer in common usage, the verb masch meant to beat or thresh, hence to beat the grain from the sheaves of wheat.

50. Caroline was a young slave girl.

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to Boonsg, gave him $2.50 to purchase coffee sugar and Ink. Murf and Enoch geting out wheat. Will assisting M Shellman to cut Shingle timber. They broke the handle of the saw. Sent Enoch for the wagon & cart and sent the saw to have mended. Franklin returned from Boonsg Brought sugar Coffee and Ink, paid for them $2 a 12 1/2 Licklider sent again for the amt. of his Extravegant Harness mending account. Mrs. Eaton left gone to S. Town. Elizabeth came up with the child. I bought half Bishel oysters and a string of Pearch Pd 37 1/2 Murf reports 500 sheaves got out this day Shellman called a few minutes this evening. Enoch brought the wagons home the cart and saw not done. Ned & Jupe in the Boat -

        21st Sunday. Morning Cloudy and looks like snow might soon fall. The air is cold, it froze last night a white frost this morning. a ewe had twins last night one of the lambs dead this morning C Knode and little son Elizabeth and Child came spent the day and dined with us on Peafowl Mrs. B. is still confined to Bed she sits up some little. Michael Swiger called after candle light. has been down at J. Knode's says he is in search of coment stone 51 that wants to ingage to take down the canal. he give me to understand that wished to stay all night I shewed him to Bed. little Miss Pennal staid with Helena. William slept in the Room with them. Ned and Jupe in the Boat

        22nd Monday. Weather, morning clear and cool froze some little during the last night. Michael Swiger remained for breckfast. went out to examine for sement stone. I am to write to him stateing the price I will take pr. pearch for the privilage to qu[a]rry them. Doct. Parran called to see Mrs. B. James Elgen 52 called. wants a team to haul a load lime from Sharplessy Kiln. Helena wrote to her brother Henry. 53 sent Enoch to Sharpsg. for the cart sent $1 to purchase sugar. Murf treading out wheat. Will gone to the woods to help Shellman who is not there but at Sharpsg. drunk, Jonathan Miller called, eat his dinner, and I paid him for makeing 2640 shingles $8.27. Shellman brought the saw from Sharpsburgh him and Miller went down to the ferry House. I rode out to shew two free negroes where to cut wood. four Germans called want wood to cut. Will has cut some wood Murf has done sheaves 500 Enoch returned with the cart at dark. Ned & Jupe in the Boat. Small Business.



51. There was a quarry on the plantation but for some reason Blackford refused to sell the lime - or as Blackford called it cement - stone to Michael Swiger or Swigart of Washington, D. C.

52. James Elgen of Shepherdstown was a business associate of Franklin and a friend of the Blackford family.

53. Henry V. S. Blackford, second son of John, was a student at the Mercersburg (Pennsylvania) Academy.

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        23rd Tuesday. Weather clear morning. Cold a large white frost the ground slightly froze. recd two papers by the last nights mail. which gives the number the 12th & 13th has been detained untill last night it came with the 19th & 20th. Murf & Enoch geting out wheat. Will helping Martin who he says has resumed his work. Helena gone to S. Town gave her $2. to purchase some small articles. Received a lettle from Jos. I. Merrick54 enclosing one from A. Barnes55 to him of the 13th Inst. have got out 500 sheaves this day Widowns and two free negroes cuting cord wood Prisila Miller56 came home with Helena M Shellman called sober wants tobacco. gave Will 12 1/2 to buy him some Ned and Jupe in the Boat

        24th Wednesday. Weather continues moderate freezing at night and thawing in the day Murf & Enoch get out 400 sheaves wheat and in all 2700 sheaves. quit and caned up. Franklin & Enoch hauled him a load fire wood. Will hung up in the smoak house the poort of our first Butcher 18 hoggs. makes 108 pieces ham shoulder & midlings took down pieces old Bacon which he placed in a Hogshed sold Isaac Widows one side 10 1/2 a 10 cents a pound. Mrs. Juett her daughter and Miss Welchons called spent some time supped and returned home. Martin Shellman spliting shingle wood Widows & the 2 free negroes cuting wood I rode out to see them in the evening. a young man called with S. Costs57 account which he left amt. $13.12 1/2 Ned and Jupe in the Boat small Business.

        25th Thursday. Weather changed first fair then cloudy then fair and pleasant. Mrs. & Miss Gibon & Miss Hammond called to see Mrs. B. spent but a few minutes Urias Knode his wife and David Knode 58 called Murf Enoch & Caroline cleaning wheat. Will cuting and sawing shingle timber with Martin Shellman The Bay mare Bill had a nail in her hind foot which I drew out. Urias K and wife went home after dinner David rode down to see Franklin & Joseph Knode returned this evening. Miss Prisila Miller is here since Tuesday. There is at this 8 lambs. Murf and Enoch finished passing the wheat twice through the windmill which does not make it clean. Enoch Brought 5 bags from J. Knodes Ned and Jupe in the Boat. This day the weather has been fine spring weather.



54. Joseph I. Merrick, a well known lawyer and business man in Hagerstown, Maryland, was Blackford's business agent and attorney.

55. A. Barns of Baltimore was heavily indebted to Blackford. Barns finally became bankrupt and Blackford lost the large sum of money he had lent him.

56. Priscila Miller intimate friend of Helena Blackford and a frequent guest at Ferry Hill.

57. Samuel Costs, a merchant of Boonsboro with whom Blackford did business.

58. Urias Knode and his brother David were relatives of Mrs. Blackford.

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        26th Friday. weather Remarcable moderate and as mild as Spring. a sprinkle of Rain fell during the night. David Knode remained all night and left here after Breckfast for his brother Uriases. Murf & Enoch measured up 68 1/4 wheat it being what was out of 2700 sheaves - he sat out with it for Mummas mill. Franklin has gone on with him to see it measured - Mrs. Swearingen Henry and McFarlen came. - little George59 taken strangely with a fainting spell quite insensable for a short time. suppose worms to have caused the spell. Mrs. S & Mrs Henry went home after they supped Mrs. McFarlen remained. her son John came both to spend the night - Rebecah Neff 60 Brought Murfs & Neds coats which her mother has made. 8 hands cuting in the clearing including Will & Martin Franklin reports that there is brought from S. Mummas mill 2 Bbls S. fine flour 1595 w Bran. 1 Bbl of the flour changed to F.B. Ned & Jupe in the Boat. -

        27th Saturday. Weather. morning cloudy and commenced at 8. Oclock to snow hail and Rain all together. Murf and Daph unloaded the wagon and put the Bran away and deld the Bbl flour to Franklin. Then went to hauling plank and pailings from the saw mill. Isaac Widows came from the wood cuting wanted money or an order. I gave him neither. Mrs. McFarlin her son Miss Naff and Miss P. Miller all here. It has changed to snowing in turn and that very fast, all the afternoon. Shellman came up in the evening he is prety well soaked. wanted an order for a shirt I gave little George a doase Calomel last nigh 5 grains and caster oyl this morning he has discharged worms and is quite peart. Ned and Jupe in the Boat. Seased snowing at dark and no more fell all night.

        28th Sunday. Weather is moderate tho the ground is covered with snow it is not cold. some wind clouds and the wind blowing some from N West. Rebecah Naff walked home before Breckfast this morning, Martin came up from Franklins is a little drunk. the two free negroes went off for Sharpsburg J Knode rode up eat dinner and spent the afternoon Mrs. McFarlin & son John & Miss P. Miller are here. could not well leave on account of the snow. Will reports a yew to have two lambs last night under the straw house the snow is very much reduced in the course of the day by the wind and sun. It appears like freezing tonight - Mrs. B. has sat up moast of this day. Ned & Jupe in the Boat.

        29th Monday. Weather changed. cold the last night froze and this morning the wind has sprang up and is now blowing. Cold from the N.W. Franklin called up gave him a Doore latch and fixing for one of



59. George was a young slave.

60. Rebecca Neff or Nafe was the daughter of the Blackford seamstress.

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the Doores of the ferry House. Martin Shellman ground his ax directed Will to take the last killing of pork out of the Hogshed preparitory to hanging it up to smoak. gave to John McFarlin Mr. Deary's 61 account with an order on George Rynolds for $11.40 him and his mother left here after dinner. Will went to the woods to cut after taking out the meat. Martin went out to split wood for Franklin Murf and Enoch resumed geting out wheat with the revolving machine and horses. have got out 750 sheaves J. Ks wife sent the girl up with some Tripe for Mrs. B. who has sat up moast of this day and is recovering rapidly from her illness. There was no paper came by this evening mail. Isaiah came home in the stage from Boosg. Ned and Jupe in the Boat very small receipts from the ferry -

        30th Tuesday. Weather morning cold and cloudy. has the appearance of snow - Will hanging up in the smoke house the last Butchering of Pork of 16 hoggs which was butchered the 28th of December. - Martin Shellman is drunk and not doing any work old Nicholas called he is not sober says he came from the wood cuting. complains of its being too cold to work. Some little snow fell about 12 Oclock then ceased. I am informed of the Bell mares situation supposed she has the lock jaw Franklin bled her she is very Bad must die I suppose - Mr. Raw called wants to borrow money. Will hauled a load wood with the ox cart for Frann Murf & Enoch geting out wheat. Isaiah pounding hominy sent him to S. Town Brought coffee pd. $1 and Brought shoes twice. J.Ks wife called spent some time supped with us then went home.

        31st Wednesday. Weather cold morning calm. The Bay Bell mare died last night occationed from a nail which she by some means got into her near hind foot five or six days since Murf and Enoch geting out wheat Will gone to the woods to cut wood. Isaac Widows called and beged me for 2 Bushel corn says the family has no bread. a man from the Forge called wants wood to cut. I wrote a letter to Michael Swigart. Welch called says he worked 15 1/2 days at the sheds & 6 at ferry House at $1 pr. day is $15.50 nailed on 6800 shingles on the Barn and smoke house at Shepherd Farm which charged 25 cents per hundred or $2.50 pr. thousand and pulling off the old roof amt. $17.00 in all $32.50. Murf & Enoch report they have got out 1650 sheaves William reports that Nicholas skined the Bay mare and Murf hauled her to the woods. gave Murf a new coat good Linsey Martin Shellman at Sharpsg. drunk. Ned & Jupe in the Boat.



61. Francis Deary was a school master in Boonsboro to whom Blackford later sent his son William.

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February 1838

        1st Thursday. Weather continues cold cloudy this morning and looks likely to snow, Franklin and J. Elgin called took one No. of the Encyclopedia1 - Catherine & Mary Miller came. Nicholas M. 2 called let him have 2 side old Bacon 8 1/2 w Murf & Enoch treading out wheat. Will gone to the wood cuting. there is none but him and George Nicholas and his man cuting so reports Nicholas. 3 Catherine & Mary Helena & Prisila Miller all four and Wm. went down to Franklins to eat oysters returned and dined then the girls sat off home F. and Elgin went with them. F. rode my mare. his wife is at her fathers went there last evening. Carpenter called gave him 56 cents for work done some time since Franklin and Engin returned from Sharpsburgh brought the dog Wallis that went with Shellman who is there drunk for the last two days, Ned & Jupe in the Boat - very little done.

        2nd Friday. Weather changeable morning Snowing some little then quit S. M. Hitt called offers his farm in Virginia asks $60. pr. acre he paid me $60.37 1/2 on account of premium which should have been $120.63 3/4 by calculation. 4 Will gone to the woods to cut. I see by a memom.. which I made that the off fall had from S. Hitt was 1343 w. Franklin came says Elizabeth 5 has returned lent him $5. The Red whiteface cow had a heifer calf last night in the stable. Enoch gone with the ox cart to haul some wood for Franklin. The River is froze over below the landing. Murf & Enoch report 2700 sheaves wheat got out. Helena recd a



1. John Blackford possessed a "Large collection of valuable books" said the Hagerstown Mail, November 29, 1839. It included encyclopaedias, files of The American Farmer and several newspapers, a set of American State Papers, histories, the classics, and biographies. Among the latter were John Marshall, Life of George Washington in five volumes and Plutarch's Lives.

2. Nicholas Matua or Matern was an elderly, poverty-stricken Greek immigrant sometimes employed by Blackford who occasionally gave him bacon and other supplies. He was a bad character. See entry for February 3.

3. George Nicholas of Shepherdstown hired himself and his slave to cut wood and do other farm work at Ferry Hill.

4. Blackford held stock in the Baltimore Life Insurance Company and had sold Hitt a policy in this company.

5. Elizabeth, Franklin Blackford's wife, had been on a visit to her father.

Page 15

letter from Henry by the mail this evening. I received one from Samuel Bentz asking for money. Two patriot papers came this mail. the 26.27 & 31 & 1st. Febry the 29 & 30 having been received by the Wednesday nights mail. Ned & Jupe in the Boat very little done. Cloudy and looks likely to snow before morning Prisila Miller here all this week.

        3rd Saturday. Weather Cloudy has fallen a Snow during the past night two inches deep - Mrs. Fry6 called says Nicholas Matern has abused and threatened her in such a manner last evening that she had him taken before a magistrate and gave security for his better behaviour. I gave her parmition to move into the cottage 7 untill spring. J. Knode is hauling her goods up. Negroe free George called to ask for money for wood cuting did not give him any - Murf & Enoch caveing up 8 preparitory to cleaning up. Will hauling fire wood with oxen and cart. Martin Shellman has come up from Sharpsg. where he has been drunk for the last three of four days. Helena & P. Miller rode over to S. Town Eliza Miller returned with Helena. Will Hauled Franklin one cart load wood and some he had sawed and split by the road side.

        4th Sunday. Weather cloudy and cold. Franklin Elgan Eliza Miller and Helena went to Sharpsg in the Sleigh on the Bare ground as the small quantity of snow and that very light rendered no service to the sleighing. They returned in the evening with Elenora Miller with them. Elizabeth spent the day with Mrs. B. and myself and dined with us. She returned home in the sleigh after they came from Sharpsg. The River is covered prety much over with Ice. Except a curved channel for the Boat to pass. Will reports 11 lambs. - The thermometer has ranged between 4 & 8 degrees below freezing point for the last three or four days. Mrs. B. is still confined to her room. This siting up and recovering her strength. Ned and Jupe in the ferry Boat a very small Business doing.

        5th Monday. Weather cold and cloudy. Mrs. Nafe came early. Miss Eliza and Ellen Miller here. Murf and Enoch went to cleaning wheat. Eliza Miller walked home after breckfast. Mrs. Nafe went to sewing. Will went to the woods to cuting. Morrison called says him and his son is cuting wood wants 2 loads wood one for himself and one for his son. Daphney cleaning out the Ice House. Capt. Ashberry 9 returned



6. Mrs. Israel Fry practiced midwifery and was called in by John Blackford to attend his slave women in child birth.

7. This cottage, known as The Stone Cottage, was situated on the Potomac River near the Ferry landing.

8. To "cave up" was to separate grain, which had been beaten or trod from the chaff, with a rake or similar tool.

9. Captain Ashberry of Shepherdstown was a friend and business associate of Franklin Blackford.

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from Washington last night. Ned & Jupe in the Boat. Recd. a letter dated Washington the 2d. Int. from M Swigart by post. I had wrote him 6 days since by mail.

        6th Tuesday. Weather has moderated. The morning calm and pleasant. a young man named Mintstagh drowned was sceating near the lift lock broke through the Ice. he was a shoemaker to trade, and a connection of the Crokers family. Murf has gone to Mummas Mill with a load of wheat. Franklin gone on ahead to have the grey mare shod and see the wheat measured at the Mill. Will cleaning out the Ice House Ashberry Elgan & Eaty geting out Ice to fill Franklin Ice House The Shepherds Town people are geting out Ice commenced yesterday. Mrs. Nafe sewing. Helena Elen Miller & Wm. gone down to J.Ks. Enoch went to the Mill with a Bag corn and brought Buckwheat flour to amt. of 3 bushels Buckwheat which is to be sent to Mr. Staubs. Franklin returned brought S. Mummas receipt for 55 B. 11 w wheat deld. this day. There is now in that mill 182 B. 23 w had the horses shod at Millers Shop. Murf brought home a load wood from the clearing and took the wagon Body full of the old straw and stuff from the Ice House to the Barnyard. Ned and Jupe in the Boat. Still a very small business at the ferry. Receipts are very small.

        7th Wednesday. Weather changed this morning. Cloudy a damp cold air from the east. Commenced hauling Ice from the river to the Ice house Murf & Enoch with the wagon and Will in the house Breaking. Franklin was at the River assisting to load and geting out Ice Nicholas Martin Mrs. Fry's son and a German. Sent William down to inform J. Knode I wanted him to haul Morrison 2 cords wood to Sharpsg which he said he would do. Joseph Gauf called to ingage to cut wood. directed him when to cut. I rode out. Morrison and J. Gauf cutting. J. Knode loading the second load cord wood for Morrison requested him to haul one for negroe George, Helena & Ellen Miller went over to S. Town, gave H. 62 1/2 to purchase some small articles. 12 wagon loads Ice put in the house this day. Mrs. Eaton came this afternoon. J. K. hauled 3 cords wood to Sharpsg. 2 for Morrison & 1 for negroe George to Coon the Taylor.10

        8th Thursday. Weather morning soft and thawing. Rained smartly in the early part of last night. resumed hauling Ice. J. Knode came after Breckfast with his wagon and joined in the hauling. have hauled 13 loads and 12 yeasterday is 25 in the House say about 23 good loads as some hauled this day was not full; about the middle of the afternoon the[y]



10. Free Negro George cut the wood, sold the wood to one Coon a tailor, and Joseph Knode hauled the wood to Coon.

Page 17

finished here and then commenced filling the Ice House at the ferry House put in 4 loads. Franklin has ingaged at the Ice Martin Shellman Israel Fry a German and Indians. Mrs. Nafe Mrs. Eaton & Elenora Miller here. has the appearance of clearing this morning. the wind is from the N.W. has been quite warm. most of this day and thawed prety much it may freze some this night. Ned & Jupe in the Boat. very limited Business. Will is pounding the Ice.

        9th Friday. Weather changed somewhat colder. Sat out after Breckfast for Boonbg. met Mary Miller and Miss Cambell between home and Sharpsg. arrived at Boonh. 12 Oclock after haveing met S. Bentz & wife I paid Lawson Welk $222.00 the Balance of Jno. A. & S. Bentz & Co. a/c and took their Receipt in full which states $222.66[.] paid Samuel Costs a/c in full $11.87 1/2. I Bought some goods to amt. of $15.09 on credit. I dined at Doct. Smiths and sat out from there 1/2 after 3 ocl. Called at Col. Millers bought a Phial of worm destroying medicine pd .25 and 12 1/2 at Bruckharts for my mare. 11 the hands report 20 loads Ice put in the lower House and 2 loads more brought up to this house Murf drunk. him and Caroline has behaved bad. J. Knode all day with his wagon & Team Martin Nicholas Israel the German Murf Will and Enoch, all working at the Ice. Ned & Jupe in the Boat.

        10th Saturday. weather changed colder still froze hard last night. my goods brought by the stage charges 25 cents Mrs. Nafe went off home after Breckfast. Murf & Enoch put the two loads Ice brought up yeasterday evening into the house which will be 25 wagon loads in the house. They then went to hauling fire wood hauled 4 loads. Will pileing up plank. Franklin and J. K gone to Sharpsg. Patrick Welch called and proved an account against Charles Nourse I requested him to give an answer as respects his keeping the house in Shepherd Town. 12 Ann Miller & Mrs. Eaton here. this day has continued cold very little thawed Ned and Jupe in the ferry Boat. a very small business. Morrison and his son cuting wood. none others of the cuters for the last two days. I remained in the office all this day. Weather rough and unpleasant out.

        11th Sunday. Weather Rough windy & cold the Ice moveing. started by the wind blowing. gave Martin an order to Nicholases wife for a pair gloves price 25 cents. Elizabeth & child and J.Ks wife and little son came, dined with us and returned to their homes in the evening. Helena Ann Miller and William went down to the lower house with them.



11. Bruckhart kept a livery stable in Boonsboro which was often patronized by Blackford.

12. Patrick Welch rented a house in Shepherdstown owned by John Blackford.

Page 18

        Wm. finger pained and kept him from sleap all the early part of the night. Ned made no return.

        12th Monday. Weather continues cold. Ice still moveing slowly on, which the past night has increased. Mrs. Nafe came this morning. half after 8 oclock. Mrs. Fry called to see about wood and to know if she could keep the house for a year. Murf and Enoch to getting out wheat. Will sheling a Bag corn and delivered 3 Bushels Buckwheat for which we have the flour last week. Mrs. Eaton left here after breckfast for Shepherds Town. Nicholas called let him have a midling old Bacon 4 w. asked him conserning the afray between him and Mrs. Fry. Franklins stove from Webb Will brought over in the cart. he took over a bag corn. The two free negroes came this evening to assume their wood cutting. I refused them to grind on my stone. Ned came up this evening, but small receipts.

        13th Tuesday. Weather cloudy in the morning. about 12 hailed and snowed. J. K. came up and assisted to Butcher the steer. C. K. & Jennett with her babe came in Mrs. Chaneys little carriage the carriage returned immediately. gave Franklin a peck hominy corn. which Martin shelled and pounded and Brick to cloose his fireplace. Will took over in the cart the hide and to bring a Bag Corn meal Murf and Enoch geting out wheat, report 1700 sheaves yeasterday and this day. C. K sick after his arrival. The ground is covered an inch and better with hail and snow. Ned & Jupe in the Boat. Very small Receipts. very little crossing. This is winter weather.

        14th Wednesday. Valuntines Wednesday. Williams Birthday. Morning cloudy. J. K. came up cut up the Beef & returned. Murf and Enoch geting out wheat Will assisting about the Beef cuting wood short &ct. The lock Keeper from the lock above called says Rogers 13 noticed two logs which I have in the Canal. his name is Girm 14 Franklin brought his wife and child up in his Sleigh. but poor sleighing not snow sufficient, is thawing this afternoon. Will took down the hams of bacon which have been some smoked and I had them diped in weak lye and then sprinkled well with ground Black pepper I put 3 w on the hams. Jennett wrote a note to the Doct. and I wrote an order for 25 w sugar and 3 w Raisins to S. Bentz to be sent by the stage driver this night. Ned and Jupe in the Boat. Very small receipts -



13. G. W. Rogers was an official at one of the dams on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal above Ferry Hill.

14. Despite the lock keeper's warning Blackford failed to remove the logs and on March 11 Rogers himself called on Blackford and threatened action.

Page 19

        15th Thursday. Weather morning cloudy and Rained & snowed some little, Catherine & Mary Miller came wrote a note and sent Enoch to Corbans for some apples. Murf hauled Franklin a load wood. then him & Will went to geting out wheat. Mrs. Nafe is still here sewing makeing some shirts for myself. Sent Isaiah to S. Town gave him 37 1/2 to purchase Brooms and Buttons. he returned and brought 12 1/2 cents would not pass. Catherine & Mary dined with us and returned home in the evening Enoch returned brought 3/4 B. apples reports that all are well 1/2 Bushel of the Apples from G. fathers Corbans hand is sore Ned & Jupe in the Boat. still little doing.

        16th Friday. Weather morning cloudy dark cold unpleasant. has hailed last night and is hailing and freezing through the day. Prisila Miller here came yeasterday. Snowed and hailed this afternoon for an hour briskly. Cleared off about sun set and then came on a sevear Blow of wind almost a harican which drifted the snow that had so lately fell and continued to Blow nearly all night and was very cold. made much Ice on the River Ned is reported to be sick. no return of this days Business Murf Enoch and Will at the Barn geting out wheat &ct &ct.

        17th Saturday. Weather cold and windy The past night has been the coldest this winter there is two or three Inches snow hail and Ice on the ground this morning. Murf reports 2600 sheaves of wheat got out since Monday. Sent Will to S. Town for some articles to the store for which he pd. $1.72 1/2 assisted over with a wagon then cut off some wood at the house. Doct. Smith came and dined and returned home Franklin and Capt. Ashberry and William gone in the Sleigh to Sharpsburgh. Murf and Enoch have been rakeing off and caveing up the wheat. Mrs. Naff gone home . sent Isaiah with her on my mare. Isaac Widows called wants meat Bread and money gave him none negro George came gave him $1 to purchase a hat. Murf hauled two loads wood one of which for Franklin. did not finish caveing up the wheat Ned came up this evening.

        18th Sunday. weather clear with some little wind. J. K's wife rode up in the morning and spent the day. Franklin and Joseph Knode went in the sleigh to G. fathers - Elizabeth and child came up after dinner spend an hour and returned home as did J. Ks wife. Prisila Miller went home Jennett and Babe here. Ned & Jupe in the Boat

        19th Monday. weather clear and more moderated - Franklin had a horse in the sleigh to Hedricks. Licklider sent to me again for money gave him none 4 men called to get wood to cut. Mr. Shay called wants sand


Page 20

for the furnace.15 Will and Martin went to the woods to cuting shingle timber. Ellen Hiser called to rent a room says she lives at Mrs. Lines, sent Caroline down to assist Elizabeth Murf & Enoch cleaning up wheat. I rode out to the clearing. Widows puting up his wood. Morrison & son the two negroes Nicholas all cuting. Brien got sand. Franklin got a Bee hive from Corban and one from Hedrick Murf has put the wheat through the fan the first time. Ned & Jupe in the Boat. small receipts has thawed prety much

        20th Tuesday. Weather clear reather pleasant Jennett & child with Helena and little negroe Ann sat out after 10 Oclock for Boonboro. Franklin driving the carriage to whome I gave Stagdon & Stokes account to hand to Shafer the Tavern Keeper gave Helena $1 and Jennett a memom to get some articles at Bentzes store. Murf sat out for Mummas Mill with a load wheat has J. Knodes Black man in the team Doct. Quigley16 called wants money for Mrs. Swearingen recd a letter by last nights mail from the Revd Mr. Johns 17 asking for money the Balance of his a/c $82.40 as stated again. Will and Martin cutting shingle timber he reports 3 additional hands joined the wood cuting Isaac Widows called says he has been cuting wood paid him $1 he wants everything. Murf returned from Mummas Mill where he deld 52 B 41 w wheat. Franklin returned at sun set, has changed very cold. Brought sundry goods from J. A. & S. Bentz & Co. amt. $4.65 1/2. Murf hauled a load wood. Ned & Jupe in the Boat. tolerable Business.

        21st Wednesday. Weather clear and very cold. the last night the coldest this winter. the Ink froze for the first time in the office. the River is closed this morning with Ice. Murf and Enoch loaded the wagon with wheat and Murf sat out for Mummas Mill directed Will to assist Ned to cut the Ice for to pass the Boat. Negro Will belongs to Grove called gave him wood to cut he is to commence tomorrow. - Franklin called to get change for a 10 Dollar note. has Bought a horse from Emert at $45. between him Ashberry Elgen have formed a partnership to run a Boat with marketing Martin Shellman called is prety much disused with liquor Murf returned from the mill Brought Bran for Franklin. he deld. 52 Busl 49 w wheat. says he had the horses shoes roughed at Kribzers shop Murf is pretty well done says he got it at the ferry House Ned and Jupe in the Boat. small receipts -



15. Shay was a workman at the furnace belonging to John M. Brinn of the Antietam Iron Works.

16. Doctor John Quigley was Mrs. Henry T. Van Swearingen's son-in-law and business agent. He sought payment of Mrs. Swearingen's share in the Ferry receipts.

17. The Reverend Mr. L. H. Johns was the rector of an Episcopal church in Sharpsburg of which the Blackfords were communicants.

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        22nd Thursday. Washingtons the anniversary of his birth. The Shepherds Town folks are making some music and firing some platoons of small arms. The Weather is considerably moderated clear and calm. Henry, Rye James H Elgen & Franklin called. Elgen confessed judgment on a warrant which Patrick Welch had issued and served on him for $26.13 3/4 which Franklin superseded for him for 6 months. Costs 58 cents not paid paid me 25 cents for the Judment & supersedes 18 Murf & Enoch geting out wheat Will gone to the clearing to assist Martin to cut shingle Timber - William rode down to J. Ks with sugar & Coffee & beef Franklin rode up looking for little negroe John who he suspects for pilfering some pieces of money. a letter from Henry B. to C. K came by the last nights mail and one from Miss Bell to Helena. Franklin says he bought Elgens debt from Welch. Will reports that Groves negroe man Will was cutting. Ned & Jupe in the Boat.

        23rd Friday. weather morning cold and cloudy. Mrs. B. has a bad pain in her stomach and bowels. J. K. came up for the wagon Body. took his Bags says he bt. a horse from Detrich gave $45 and his colt. Murf & Enoch geting out wheat. Will gone to the clearing to cut shingle timber. Mrs. Williams son Charles came over. two Scotch men called one of them wanted to rent part of my house in S. Town - he says he works with Price in the factory the other lives at Reynolds mill named Jack Mr. & Mrs. Hargrave and Mrs. Quigley 19 called supped with us and returned. It has thawed some in the middle of this day. the evening turned cold. I have recd my Balto. regularly this week some corn crossing for Brien at the forge. Will reports 12 lambs now liveing. Ned and Jupe in the ferry Boat. continue to do a very small Business.

        24th Saurday. Weather continues cold it is clear and thawing some where the sun shines. the wind which is light is cold. Franklin has taken the wagon and team put his horse in befor on the off side him & Ashberry went to the woods for a load fire wood. Murf & Enoch geting out wheat. Will in the clearing with Martin cuting shingle timber untill dinner when they quit Franklin hauled 2 loads wood for himself and one cord for me Will helped load. it was cut by the free negroes which is 3 cords of their cuting hauled 2 of which brought home and 1 taken to Sharpsg for George Snavely hauled by J. Knode Ned & Jupe in the Boat.

        25th Sunday. Weather continues cold this morning is clear and calm. Elizabeth spent part of the day with us, dined and returned in the



18. This is an example of Blackford's services or duties as a justice of the peace.

19. Mrs. Quigley, nee Mary Van Swearingen, was the wife of Doctor John Quigley.

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evening. Franklin here for a few minutes. Mrs. Williams son Charles here most of the day. Helena absent with her sister in Boonsg - Ned and Jupe in the boat. small Business. -

        26th Monday. Weather morning clear and cold the river covered with prety strong Ice. Sent Enoch down to J. K.s he sat out with his wagon very early for Harrisburgh Pensa I wished him to do some business for me in Hagers Town Will gone with Martin to cut shingle timber. Murf & Enoch geting out wheat in the Barn. wrote a letter to The Reved. Mr. Johns stateing that I could pay his acct. in Canal money Franklin got away the stove and pipe. Enoch hauled it down for him. directed Will to Butcher the calf which is 3 weeks & 2 days old it is from the Red white faced cow a heifer calf Recd by this nights mail my Balt. & Richmond papers and a letter from Henry dated the 23 requesting me to send him money $70 to pay his Board and Tuition 20 Ned and Jupe in the Boat - The River continues covered with Ice. Cold weather

        27th Tuesday. Weather cold and cloudy Patrick Welch called to say that he would not keep my house in Shepherds Town Says G. Price will rent it. recd. the sugar came by the stage last night. suppose 25 w N. O sent by S. Bentz. Will and M. Shellman sawing shingle timber in the clearing all the people cuting there except Widows he is absent I rode to Sharpsg. Bot a vest patern from Md Mackay Trimings & Ribon paid $2.93 3/4. Dulony cut it and a pair pantaloons of the Casimer bot. at Boong. Mrs. Nafe promises to come on Monday next to sew had my mares shoes removed. Murf and Enoch geting out wheat in the Barn. Ned and Indians in the ferry Boat a midling Business done -

        28th Wednesday. Weather. clear and more pleasant is thawing after the sun was up to some hight. Murf and Enoch finished geting out the crop of Wheat. They Report 2800 Sheaves at the last and before 2700 the first cleaning up, the next 2600 in all. 8100 sheaves. which averages about 3 Bushel of wheat to the hundred sheaves which is considered a poor yeald. C. Knode and Wm rode down to J. Knodes, he is absent gone to Pensya with his wagon removing a family from the forge. Helena is absent at Boonsboro with her sister Smith. Margaret Fry called to say her mother wanted half cord wood hauled directed Murf to haul her the wood and haul home two loads Nicholas called got a side of bacon 13 w has been cuting wood him and his wife. Brother. Negroe Caroline is laid up with an injury which she recd by a fall on Sunday while playing in the Barnyard. Ned and Jupe in the Boat.



20. Henry V. S. Blackford was attending the Mercersburgh Academy. Blackford later paid an additional $100.00 on his board and tuition.

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March 1838

        1st Thursday. Weather moderated the morning clear. afternoon clouds over. Mrs. Fry is gone to Sharpsg. to see after a house Murf and Enoch commenced cleaning wheat. Will gone to the clearing to assist Martin to cut and saw shingle timber. Franklin Brought me a letter from the Sharpsburgh post office from John Coburn Washington City on the subject of cement stone.1 wrote a note to Mr. Mantz respecting the ferriages of the wagons taking corn to the forge likewise a note to Doct. Parran to call and see the girl Caroline, lent Franklin my Patriot paper for Bushrod Herbert who wishes to see the acct. of the Duel fought by Graves and Cilley.2 Doct. Parran called and prescribed for Caroline salts and rub the swolen parts with spirits in which Indian pepper is straped.3 Ned & Jupe in the Boat. This day I am informed the mail commenced crossing every dat 3 Trips with Stage pr week and 3 on horseback.

        2nd Friday. Weather. It has began to snow before daylight and continued, now 10 Oclock, by spells. Murf and Enoch cleaning up wheat. Will went out to the clearing he returned as it continued to snow. assisted Murf to load the wagon with wheat which he sat off with for the mill. Enoch took a note over to Mr. Webb requesting him to Exchange some money for me he Brought a Bag corn meal and my Balto. Patriot of the 28 and March 1st which was yeasterday. This came by the new arangement of the mail. Sent Enoch the second time to Mr. Webb who has Exchanged 50 dollars for me gave me Hagers Town Notes for small paper alias shin plasters. Murf returned from Mummas Mill where he deld 64 B 41 w Wheat. Brot Franklin a load wood from the



1. For some unknown reason Blackford refused to sell cement stone to Coburn as he had earlier refused to sell to Michael Swigert also of Washington.

2. William Jordan Graves (1802-1848), native of Kentucky and Whig member of the United States House of Representatives (1835-1841), killed Jonathan Cilley (1802-1838), native of New Hampshire and Democratic member of the House of Representatives from Maine (1837-1838), in a duel at Turnecliffe's Bridge near Bladensburg, Maryland, on February 24, 1838. A committee of the House investigated the duel and made a long report back to the House which took no further action.

3. Caroline, a slave girl, had fallen and injured herself while playing in Blackford's barnyard on February 25.

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clearing as he returned brought the Torch light 4 and was prety tolerable drunk. Ned and Jupe in the Boat. The Business light.

        3rd Saturday. Weather clear and pleasant. I rode to Sharpsg after writing a letter to Henry and Enclosing $70 to him but not meeting with Mr. Brimbarger I brought the letter home again. Will assisting Martin to saw shingle Timber Murf finished cleaning up the wheat and gone to Mummas Mill with it. he lost a Bushel yeasterday on the road. setled with Samuel Mumma and paid him $6.41 1/2 the balance due his brother Johns estate. took his receipt on the account I dined at Col. Millers. Murf returned from the mill some time after night. deld. 52 Bushels wheat as per Receipt which is the balance of the corp of wheat

        4th Sunday. weather a large white frost. this morning the day clear and pleasant. I rode to Sharpsburgh after Breckfast with an expectation of meeting with Mr. Brimbarger in which I was disapointed. attended in the Episcopal Church at 11 Oclock where I heard Mr. Johns deliver a sermon. returned and dined at Col. Millers with Mrs. Hoffmire and Miss Campbell at two Oclock attend in the German Reformed Church where Mr. Hoffmire delivered a sermon. Catherine Miller is confined to bed with sickness. After seeing her in her room I returned home where I found J. Ks wife and Elizabeth who had been spending a short time with Mrs. B. sent J Ks wife on horseback home the roads being so muddy Enoch & Isaiah has been very rude and Wm. likewise Ned and Jupe in the Boat. have a tolerable Business. -

        5th Monday. The weather morning Raining snowing and hailing had fallen smart snow before day light it continued to be a fall untill afternoon when it broak off to the west. I finished my letter to Henry and wrote one to Mr. John Coburn in Washington. sent them to the office by Will who took a lock to Rickhart to have repaired he brought the patriot of Friday & Saturday 2 & 3. The stage crossed and recrossed with the mail in the early part of this day. Isaac Widows called paid him $2.25 on account of wood cuting. Murf and Enoch brought a load of wood this morning from the clearing. which he reports the 5th cord from free John & George cutting recd a note from Helena and sent by return of stage a note and a Bundle to Jannett. sent Isaiah to Sharpg for Mrs. Nafe and a note to Mr. Renner for the old horse the boy brought the horse he lost a note Mr. R. wrote me Mrs. Nafe came as it was geting dusk. Ned and Jupe in the Boat Poor Poor Business

        6th Tuesday. Weather Morning Cloudy the snow and hail that fell Sunday night nearly all disolved which has made the roads very soft



4. The Torch Light was published in Hagerstown, Maryland.

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and unpleasant traveling. Martin called says he is spliting his timber, sent Will to S. Town with 10 Bushels oats to have chopped and 2 1/2 B corn to have ground for Bread and to have 2 Bushel Rye that is in the mill chopped for the two old horses. Mrs. Nafe sewing at a pair pantaloons for me. recd. anote from D. Sniveley in answer to one I wrote him respecting the house5 Will Brought the lock and put it on the celler doore he bought screws & muslin pd. 25 cents. J. Knode Brought up my wagon Body which he borrowed. Murf & Enoch cleaning out the stables and fodder hangs. C. K has gone to Sharpsg this evening rode old poney a Marriage at the ferry house this evening by Mr. Hargrave The Horse mail crossed and recrossed. The Ice is decreasing smartly the last two days. Franklin hauled a load wood with the team Ned and Jupe in the Boat

        7th Wednesday. Weather morning snowing which has commenced some time in the night Came down very fast and is quite moderate - Sent Will to S Town brought me some trimings for my vest pd. 37 1/2. Helena arrived in the mail Coach about 10 Oclock brought a piece muslin 30 yds from Bentzes & Co cost $3.75. Daph taken Ill Murf & Enoch cleaning out stables. Mr. Renners son called with a note from his father requesting payment for the horse $15 which I paid him in small notes. Mrs. Fry sent for to see Daph. sent Will with a note to Doct. Parran to come see Daph. who is very ill. he brought me a letter from John Coburn Washington on the subject of cement stone. Isaac Widows called sent by him a note which I wrote Samuel M. Hitt to put in the post office. heard of old Aunt Shroders death and young Shaw in Virginia. sent by return of stage minspie to Jennett. Doct. Parran came over in the evening to see Daph. left medicine that relieved her. Will brought from the mill a Bag Corn Meal & 2 Bushels Chopt Rye Ned & Jupe

        8th Thursday. Weather. Morning. Very dark with clouds&smoke wind from N.E. looks very much like Rain. Mrs. Nafe sewing the German who is Mrs. Frys son in law called wants money. I spoke to him to qarry which he said he would provided the tools was found him at 87 1/2 pr day and Board himself. sent Will to S. Town with a letter to the post office for Thos Shepherd Illanois. Murf & Enoch hauled one load wood. Will returned from S. Town Bought caster oyl & screws pd. 31 1/4 brought a letter for Helena & my patriot of the 5 & 6 It has snowed hailed and rained most of the day, Martin Shellman called wanted money I gave him none. C. K is in Sharpsburgh with Poney - gave Will assifity for horse - gave Daph a doase oyl. Daph misscarryed two children this morning. sent for Mrs. Fry who came, she is quite ill. the two children



5. Blackford was negotiating the rental of one of his houses in Shepherdstown to Daniel Sniveley.

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which Daph miscarryed she is supposed to have gone with 4 months Both female. It was an hour or upwards between their birth. It is thought she took medicine to produce their distruction.

        9th Friday. Weather. the wind from the west and it is partially clear is not cold. the River is partially raised, is muday. I paid Mrs. Nafe $9.50 it being in full up to this date. Sent Isaiah with her on horse back home after breckfast. I sent the grey horse to have a shoe put on him. C. K. came home on my mare which Mrs. Nafe rode home Isaiah waits to have the horse shod and bring Poney home. he returned and brought some yeast & had the horse shod. Mr. Mecany who I understand is in the imploy of George Price called and informed me that he Mr. Price desired him to call and inform me that he would take my house in S. Town Repair it and give me $75 for the next year commencing the first day of April next. Murf and Enoch pushing the straw off the Barnyard Will hauling up g[r]avel for the walks in the yard. Isarel Fry and two dutchmen called report that they have cut and put up 20 1/2 cord of wood. young Greenwood called again for Lickliders claim gave him none. Ned & Jupe in the boat

        10th Saturday. Weather. Clear partially Cool. froze some little last night. Prices man Mecany called to say Price would not take the house at the price offered yeasterday that if he could have the whole premices for $75 he would take it. I presume him and Snively has had some coalition Israel Fry called paid him $3 for the Dutchman Neopotian for wood cuting. Philip Flemon is the name of him who is maried to Mrs. Frys girl. Murf & Enoch has hauled one load wood home from John & Georges cuting. I then sent them out to pick up and burn Brush. Capt. Ashberry returned from Williamsport Will has been pidling about doing but little. Daph is in the hospital. Mrs. B. corrected Isaiah. Isaac Widows called gave him 25 cents. Franklin left a letter which B. Herbert recd. from Henry. The ground is very soft which makes it very unpleasant traveling. Will brought over from S. Town 5 Brooms made by an old negroe at Browns. he has made 8 in all at 6 1/4 cents each. Ned and Jupe in the Boat have done a tolerable Business.

        11th Sunday. Weather. Clear and pleasant froze the surface of the ground last night. - The weater let into the Canal. The River riseing is quite muddy wrote a note sent Enoch with it to Col. Miller requesting to know the state of Catherines health. the Boy returned with an answer that but little if any change in Catherine. Joseph Knode of Jacob. from the Canal at Hancock came he dined spent the day and night with us. Elizabeth and Franklin here a spell. Franklin & Elgen sat out for


Page 27

Williamsport for a Boat6 borrowed my sleigh harness. they intend to [go to] D. H. Schnebleys to night - the companys 7 scow and Boarding House Boat came down Rogers with it has made some threats relative to two popler logs which I have in the canal the lower level filled in the course of the day - Ned and Jupe in the Boat a tolerable Business

        12th Monday. Weather Clear fine and pleasant. Joseph Knode left here after Breckfast. The two popler logs came down the canal. Will secured them. John Distonly the Taylor sent his son with his acct and an order for me to pay which I did amt. $5.50. I rode out to the clearing. Will and Murf burning Brush. all the wood cutters at work. Briens man Peter came with a note from Mr. Mantz requesting a tree for forge 8 Hammer helve he cut a Beach down below the clearing. appears to be upwards of 20 feet. Peter says they give $2.50 for a stick 12 feet. I rode down to J. K.s looked at the cement stone. 9 Franklin & Elgen returned in the evening report they left the Boat on the way was obstructed by Ice the Roan mare Pete got a severe cut in her shoulder by a nail passing through the gate. I sewed it up and put a pitch plaster on it. Ned & Jupe and Enoch in the Boat. poor Business.

        13th Tuesday. Morning. clear and pleasant the ground froze some during the last night. Will Murf and Enoch sowed some clover seed on the hill part of the lower field after breckfast went to Burning Brush Enoch went into the Boat. Franklin Ashberry & Elgen sat out early after the Boat they bot. at Williamsport and brought a piece yesterday. Negroe Peter called and paid for a stick of Timber for 2 forge Hammer helves $4.50 gave me a very suspicious looking note of the Lancaster Bank of Ohio. the wagon came to haul it down to the forge. J. Ks wife called and spent the day saw Mr. Mantz sent from Frederick. Mrs. Morgan Mrs. Parran and Mrs. Magill10 came over dined with us. I rode out to new ground where the men are cuting wood. J. Ks wife went home in the afternoon and Mrs. Morgan and Mrs. Parren and her 2 children went home in the evening. Mrs. Magill remained intending to take the stage tomorrow for Hagers Town Ned Jupe Enoch & Israel Fry in the Boat. small Business

        14th Wednesday. Weather. the morning cloudy and somewhat cool. Franklin came down last night with the Boat. he called to get the wagon



6. They went to purchase a new boat for use in their river-canal marketing business.

7. This was the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company.

8. This was John M. Brinn's forge at Antietam.

9. Blackford's cement stone quarry was on the section of the plantation rented to Joseph Knode.

10. Mrs. Parran was the wife of Doctor Richard Parran of Shepherdstown, Virginia; Mrs. Magill was the wife of Doctor Charles Magill of Hagerstown, Maryland, and Doctor Parran's sister.

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& horses to haul wood this morning Martin with him, Will and Murf burning Brush. too much wind to sow clover seed. Mrs. Fry called to advise respecting her case with Nicholas Matua. 11 Mrs. B. and Mrs. Magill sat out 1/2 after one Oclock in the stage for Boonsg. Helena rode to Sharpsburgh William rode a peace with her then rode old poney to meet her. F. hauled one load wood has gone over to Town to see Welch about the house rent. I Widows called pd. him $2. Helena returned and Wm. with her report Catherine Miller much Better. There is considerable stir about the River & Canal the River is quite full rose considerable last night and was at a stand all day commenced riseing in the evening Ned Jupe Enoch and Israel Fry in the ferry Boat but little done

        15th Thursday. Weather. pleasant is somewhat smoukey. J. Knode called let him have 2 Bushels Clover seed of the old seed Kept over as he said he had not sufficient to sow his fields. he says Col. Miller wants 2 Bushels clover seed from me if I can spear it. Will Murf & Enoch sowed clover seed report they have gone over the whole of the lower field and only sowed about 3/4 of a Bushel. Recd a letter from Henry dated the 12th Rode out to the clearing with William. hands all cuting and mauling wood. Nicholas called. and got a midling of Bacon weighed 9 w a 10¢ . 90 cents charged. Measured the wood cut by Philip Flemon Israel Fry and Neapolian and find it to measure 20 cord. Ned Jupe Enoch & Israel Fry in the Boat which is 3 days for Israel Small Business

        16th Friday. Weather cloudy in the morning. Murf siveing the clover seed and cleaning it over again Will has taken the saw says Martin has got sober and is going to work. Miss Hizer called offers me 1 1/2 dollar pr month for a Room in my house in S. Town Mrs. B returned from Boonsborough at 10 Oclock in the stage She brought goods to amount of $3.93 on credit from J. A. & S. Bentz & Co. Murf and Enoch have sowed on the hill side in front of the house 1 B. clover seed. Mrs. Hickman called returned the 3 dollars I had lent her last fall. she dined with us. - I rode to Sharpsg Wm Rode the Bald poney had his hind shoes moved directed Mr. S. Mumma to have 8 Bbl flour made especually for families use, Bt. 2 cards & 2 curry combs cost 50 cents. Shellman off to Sharpsg drunk Will has been trifeling away the day at the clearing Ned Jupe Enoch and Israel Fry in the Boat. done but a small Business Harrises Boat sat out for George Town several Boats. passing on the River full

        17th Saturday. Weather morning cloudy and storming. Snowing and raining very unpleasant. Murf and Will hauled one load wood from the



11. See entry of February 3.

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clearing Martin Shellman called not sober. Nicholas called Shelled and got one Bushel corn which he said he would take to the mill to have ground. gave him a note to Doct. Parran stateing how Mrs. Magill got on to Hagers Town Franklin called. Spoake of Boating wood down the canal. Murf and Will brought up 10 Bushel Clover seed deposited in office up stares. Negroe George Called paid him $2.00. The River continues to swell and It continues to Rain and snow. Archey Knode 12 arrived this afternoon supped with us. then went down and lodged at Franklins left his uncle Johns horse here has continued to storm nearly all day. Ned Jupe Enoch and Israel Fry in the Boat. light Business -

        18th Sunday. Weather has been raining hailing and snowing most of the past night. the snow this morning 3 inches deep and continues untill 9 Oclock to come down the River fery full Arch Knode left about 9 Oclock gone to Sharpsg intends to Pleasant Valley then to Balto & Phila. Franklin came up in the evening for hands to take George Reynolds and Scott Keneday over the River 13 which is very high no return of this day nothing done

        19th Monday. Weather clear and calm the whole country covered with snow. Nicholas called got a hoggjole and cabage and a bag to carry it in. Mrs. Nafe came down after Breckfast. Will & Murf threshing Rye Enoch shelling a grist corn. the river is falling off. len[d] the cart to Mrs. Elgen to haul some sand. Enoch cleared the sod from the Roots of the peach trees and Transplanted 3 in the Backyard. The Boat has made 2 Trips Ned Jupe and Israel Fry. Ned Brought me 75 cents for the last two days receipts. poor poor poor

        20th Tuesday. Weather clear and calm in the morning Will Murf and Enoch sowing clover seed in the lower field Licklider the sadler sent a Boy with an order for the amt. which I owe him. The boy is Thos. Thornburghs son. says his father has been dead three weeks. Franklin came with his doubled barreled gun. has been after pigeons which are very plenty flying in all directions. F wants the team to haul him some wood. took it and hauled a load. then Murf & Will hauled 2 loads. They report that they have sown 2 Bushels clover seed this day on the lower field and 3/4 of a B sowed on the 13th Janes Elgen called to advise about his appeal case. Trimed and dressed up some trees. Franklin rode out to Corbans. J. Ks wife rode up and spent a short time Elizabeth spent part of the afternoon and supped with us. Philip Fleming called paid



12. Another of Mrs. Blackford's numerous relatives who were so much in evidence at Ferry Hill.

13. Since the Ferry did not make regular runs at night Franklin had to go to the main plantation house to get men to make a special trip.

Page 30

him $3.81 1/4 for wood cuting. Ned Jupe and Israel Fry in the Boat which is 6 days he has worked in the Boat -

        21st Wednesday. Weather morning some clouds and very smoakey. but moderate. hands sowing Timothy seed have sown a Bushel on the Hill in front of the House Will and Murf went out to the clearing after Breckfast Edward Morrison called pd. him on acct. of wood cuting $6.50 Mr. Renners son brought a 50 cent note and exchanged Enoch part of the day in the Boat went to Town Brot. my paper bought a ball Candle wick cotton pd. 25 Cents. Mrs. Nafe sewing. Daph came out after her miscariage.14 Franklin and Ashberry gone to Virga to shoot Pigeons. The river continued to rise all day nothing done with the Boat no return. Will and Martin sawing shingle timber. all hands cuting & spliting wood Ned has made no return as nothing done

        22nd Thursday. Weather. Smoakey and moderate River very full not passable with ferry Boat Will Murf and Enoch gone out to the clearing. to sawing and Burning Brush. Mr. Morrison called to return a five dollar note which I pd. his son who mistated the transaction by saying I had only paid him 5 dollars when I paid him $6.50 I rode out to the new ground and down to J. Ks he has exchanged his horse for a grey mare he gave $10 Isaac Widows called wants money. lent my wagon to Myers who is moveing to the farm S. M Hitt sold to Emert. left his wagon at the river not being able to cross. Ned reports Israel 8 days helping some days but little done. Ned returned this day $11.12 1/2 for the Recipts of the two last day for him Jupe & Israel

        23rd Friday. Weather. morning. fogy and damp Murf tryed the Roller on the hill side is too wet quit after going a few rounds found the Horses feet went to deep. he then went to the clearing where Will and Enoch is. Franklin called wants hands to go in the ferry Boat to Bring his horses from the other side the River very little lowered. I copyed B. Herberts letter to Henry and sealed his; I rode out to the clearing and to J. K. he has cut his hand badly. Frank. and his wife gone to Sharpsg he brought my Torch light I wrote a letter to John Coburn; Widows called wants money. William Morrison is not cuting. the negroes, John Thomas and George Snavely sawing off logs. negroe Will has nearly finished his wood cuting he ingaged to maul the Rail cuts left by Philip Fleming & Co. and to cut out the balance of Isaac Widows lott Ned Jupe and Israel Fry in the Boat made but one trip with the Boat. one or two with the skiff.



14. Dafney had been hospitalized for eleven days.

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        24th Saturday. Weather cloudy and smokey the wind sprang up about 10 Oclock. Nicholas came this morning. commenced spading in the Garden. Will Murf and Enoch gone to the clearing. the River falling very slow sent the letter written by Bushrod Herbert to the post office and one I wrote to John Coburn Washington City stating I could not attend to having any stone quarried for him. Isaac Widows called again for money & says it is worth $25 to build the wall of the Celler to the House in S. Town. Shellman called drunk again has been to Sheps Town. Colo. Miller sent his man Nelson with an order. I sent him one Bushel clover seed Franklin rode the Bay Colt. sent Murf to help with the ferry Boat. they did not go with the Boat for Corban who wanted to cross over. he returned home I rode out. Negros Will Grove has finished has cut he says 18 1/2 cord wood and mauled 550 Rails Ned Jupe and Israel Fry attending the Boat -

        25th Sunday. Weather morning clear calm and pleasant. the River has risen during the night continues stationary during the day. Helena & Wm walked down to J. Ks his wife came up in the afternoon with Helena. I walked down through the fields sown with wheat which does not look so promising as I expected It is uneven and much cokle 15 One of the lambs has lost both its hind legs. J. K came and him and his wife supped with us. gave Julsom 2 new strong muslin shirts.. River falling a little this evening Nothing done at the Ferry no return. - Will skulking about all day. the family has been quiet nothing worth note has occured

        26th Monday. Weather clear and pleasant. had Enoch to plant some small locusts in the pit and one apple tree. Will and Murf in the clearing. The River is falling. George Reynolds and his son crossed from the other side going up to Hancock. Nicholas working in the garden. I have Trimed several peach trees had Enoch ingaged all day taking up sprouts Hon Jacob F. Grove16 called spent a short time The Ferry Boat has made several trips in the course of the day Ned Jupe & Israel Fry in the Boat. done but a poor Business -

        27th Tuesday. Weather fine and pleasant. I rode in the Gig with Mrs. B. to Sharpsg spent the day and dined at Colo. Miller. I rode to the Mill. Briser says on Saturday I can have the 8 Bbls flour for Bread. Bot. articles in the store to amt. of $2.62 1/2 and returned home in the



15. Cockle - an annual weed that tends to choke out wheat or other grain.

16. Jacob Grove a Democratic member of the Maryland legislature. In 1843 he headed a legislative committee that investigated and reported on the fraudulent and illegal action of the Farmers and Millers Bank of Hagerstown which resulted in the revocation of the Bank's charter. This Bank had been the one with which Blackford did business.

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evening. Saw Hoffman the hoggspeyor who is to come on the 5th of Aprile to spey my piggs. Franklin had the wagon & Team to haul two loads wood Will and Murf working in the new ground. Enoch took to the mill corn and Buckwheat. Helena went to Shepherds Town. spent some short time and returned. Colo. Miller son David is in Bed sick as is likewise his little daughter Ann. Mr. Mackey is complaining talks of seting out to the west in the course of a week or ten days. Nicholas in the garden which is the 3d day. Ned Jupe and Israel Fry in the Boat which is 12 days for Israel in the Boat this day has been prety good Business. the river full

        28th Wednesday. weather morning cool damp and cloudy. Hannah, Wills wife17 delivered of a female child about 12 Oclock last night so reports Mrs. Fry who delivered her. Nicholas came to work in the garden and Martin went to the Barn to makeing straw faggots for the Ice House roof Myres the man who borowed my wagon crossed over at Harpers ferry Bridge and returned this way. let him the wagon for another Trip. Mrs. Berry & Mrs. Juett called Spent the afternoon and supped with us. Martin Shellman patched the roof of the Ice House an old German woman and a man she called her son called Beging gave them 12 1/2. a young man with Books to sell called. Murf & Will in the new ground at work Enoch took Buck wheat to the Mill and brought a Bag Corn meal home then hauled a few cart loads manure in the garden Ned Jupe & Israel Fry in the Boat small business

        29th Thursday. Weather. clear and pleasant with some wind. my throat is some better. John Smith the sadler called I paid the balance of his account $24.67 1/2 and took his receipt on the account. Franklin called lent him my mare to ride to Palmers sale, Enoch took to the mill 7 Bushels Rye & 8 Busls oats to have chopped. Nicholas is working in the garden planing potatoes. have taken some from the holes Mrs. Fry called setled and paid her for Israels working in the Boat 15 days and his cuting wood and her own services as midwife amounting in all to $12.87 1/2 Will and Murf in the new ground. a letter from Henry to Helena, recd my Patriot of the 26 & 27. The River has fallen off considerably. a very considerable Breach in the Canal. The Viaduct below the Iron works18 has given way and all fell in. Ned Jupe and Israel Fry and Enoch part of the day in the Boat. Small business

        30th Friday. Weather partially cloudy was frost last night Murf & Will cuting out in the new ground. Nicholas working in the Garden. Frann rode up Fo ts poney and then rode him to Sharpsburgh Martin



17. Hannah and Will were slaves.

18. The Antietam Iron Works.

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called says he has finished spliting out the shingle timber. he then said he would cut some wood for Franklin Capt. Ashberry brought my Torchlight from Sharpsg Josiah Smith and Jennett and child arrived a short time before sunset. C. K. & Helena was over and spent the afternoon in Sherpherds Town Enoch brought from the mill 7 B. Chop Rye and 8 Bushels oats. Ned Jupe & Israel Fry in the Boat. have done a prety good Business -

        31st Saturday. Weather morning cloudy and threatens to Rain. I had reather a bad nights rest with sore throat. Took a doace sedlitz before Breckfast. Mr Elgen & Rogers called. disuaded them from taking Rogers deposition, gave Rogers my acct. against the Company am't. $24.29. Elgen & Franklin gone on to the Hagers Town in the Gig. Negroe Will called paid him $12.25 for cuting wood & Mauling Rails Murf has gone with Mrs. Frys goods in the wagon to Sharpsg, took bags to bring off fall from Mummas mill with 8 Bbls flour for Bread. Josiah Smith and Jennett sat out for home at 1/2 after two Oclock Mrs. Perry called dined with us sent a note by her to M. J. Brown Corban passed on with his stud horse to Sharpsg Miss Henrys Juett & Hunter called. Corban called returning did not leave his horse in Sharpsg. Elizabeth spent the afternoon and dined with us. Corban reports Murfey drunk in Sharpsburg sent Will after him came home brought 8 Bbls flour and 113 2 w off fall. 1 Bbl of the flour store and flour lost considerable. Negroe George called. Mrs. Frys son in law called promised to move him on Tuesday is to pay $3.50 Ned Jupe & Enoch in the Boat a good Business


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April 1838

        1st Sunday. Weather. calm and moderate The river has come down. The canal has been out of use the last two weeks in consequence of Breaches My Throat continues sore. I took last night going to bed 3 Brandreths pills which opperated fine this morning. sickened me some little had the cramp violently through the night took 3 more this morning which opperates this afternoon, became cloudy arose in the west. Thundered all along from west to the N. east, came on to rain about 12 Oclock & continued two hours moderately. C. K and Helena went over to Church it is reported that the Breach in the canal which has been repairing, gave way again last night. Franklin and Elgen returned last night from Hagers Town and have sat out again this afternoon for that place, a large flock of stock sheep crossed the ferry to Virginia, negroe Jim Clowson called is full of news. Ned Jupe & Enoch in the Boat done a good Business. crossed 320 sheep 1

        2nd Monday. Weather clear and pleasant Will and Murf gone to the clearing. Doct. Quigley called directly after Breckfast. gave him a check on the Hagers Town Bank for $348.50 being in full for Mrs. Swearingens one half of the receipts of the ferry for the last year 2 Recd. a letter by mail from John Coburn Washington on the subject of quarying stone. a man called whos name is Solomon Boyer lives in Sharpsg wants shingles to make says he lives with Mrs. Smith the weather has changed cooler this afternoon. Mr. Bemis two little daughters came over and spent the night. The wind being too high for them to cross the river. I took 4 pills in the morning which opperated partially considerable Bile my Throat is still sore and I am not well. Ned Jupe and Enoch in the



1. Maryland and Virginia were important sheep growing states. In addition to this herd of 320 Blackford's Ferry on another occasion carried over a herd of 500 sheep. Blackford himself raised sheep and at his death left about 100, including both Saxon and Merino breeds.

2. Mrs. Swearingen collected through Doctor John Quigley her agent one half of the take of the Ferry after all expenses were paid for her one half interest in the Ferry. Hence the net earnings of the Ferry for 1837 was $696.00. Blackford bought Mrs. Swearingen's interest in 1838.

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Boat have done a tolerable good Business understand Elizabeth is not well has a fever

        3rd Tuesday. Weather cool with wind A frost last night negroe Will Grove called to return some of the money I paid him. Martin called said for his axe is going down to finish Millers shingles. Will has gone to help Nicholas saw up a large popler in the new ground Murf has crossed over with the team and brought over Mrs. Frys son in laws goods and family.3 came on this side the river and went on to Sharpsg 1/2 after 9 oclock. the man pd. me $3.50 I sent by Israel for 2 Boxes pills 50 cents. he is to return with Murf for a load wood for his mother. Henry Licklider called to speak about the sawing he has done for me, is to let me know the number of logs which remain at the mill and make a Bill of what pailings etc. which he sawed. Murf & Israel retd. 1/2 after 12 Oclock fed his horses preparitory to takeing in a load wood to Mrs. Fry. Isaac Widows called. I paid him $3 he reports 26 cord wood that he has cut. Murf has taken Mrs. Fry a load wood. returned after sun set. Ned Jupe and Enoch in the Boat. done but a poor Business.

        4th Wednesday. Weather. calm but cool. white frost last night. my health is still bad. took this morning 6 of Brandreths pills which is 20 I have taken within the last four days. Will and Murf hauling off the Gum from the new ground. Enoch hauled 3 loads chips and wood with ox cart. Helena has spent part of this day in S. Town Franklin went over he reports Welches family to have gone off after nearly destroying the house.4 Mrs. Perry is about to reenter the breach in the canal mended, filling the level this afternoon Nicholas called and got a Bushel corn says he has been splitting the popler tree that Will assisted him to saw. I understand that Colo. Miller sat out for Balto Ned & Jupe in the Boat. have done a tolerable Business. my throat grows worse in the evening. the pills have opperated well, much Bile

        5th Thursday. Weather. Clear morning cool Will Murf and Enoch out in new ground. Miss Elenora Miller & Ann Hays came. Mrs. Eaton & her little grandson Robt. Quigley came. my throat is still sore, I have taken 6 more of Brandreths pills. Mrs. Henry, Hunter and Mrs. Webb called spent a short time and returned James Sheperd sent a note by his son requesting $30 which I sent him. Miss Sarah Morgan, Miss Kerney & Miss Baylor called and spent the evening Miss Morgan presented a



3. This was Philip Fleming or Flemon who had been working as a laborer on Ferry Hill Plantation. He was moving into the Stone Cottage which Mrs. Fry had earlier rented from Blackford.

4. Patrick Welch, who rented one of Blackford's houses in Shepherdstown was an unsatisfactory tenant. Blackford earlier had had difficulty in collecting the rent from Welch.

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subscription paper to rise money for Mr. Hargrave, 5 I did not subscribe. Hoffman called he speyed 10 sow piggs and cut several pd. him 62 1/2 Franklin assisted him directed him to call at J. K.s Mrs. Eaton and Little Bob remained all night Ned & Jupe in the Boat. tolerable Bus. Recd a letter from Henry dated the 4th Jnon Henry

        6th Friday. Weather smoky and moderate. I am quite indisposed in bed moast of the day eat but little and have taken no pills. Mrs. Eaton's step son William Eaton came in the stage. She met him at the river brought him up remained untill after dinner when they crossed the river to S. Town Will Murf & Enoch out in the new ground. a number of Boats passing up and down the canal Franklin asked for my mare to ride. Doct. Parran had some difficulty with horse & Gig near the Barn his wife with him returned after sun set. I wrote Henry in answer to his of the 4th stating I would send for him the 12 or 13 Inst. Ned & Julian in the Boat. done but a moderate Business considerable stir about the Canal. Boats getting off & on

        7th Saturday. Weather very dark and smoky. damp cool atmosphere weather unpleasant Will Murf and Enoch in the clearing. Sent Isaiah to S. Town. Bot. Coffee & Tea pd. 87 1/2 brought my paper of the 4th & 5th my health is much imparied my throat continues to be sore and inflamed have remained in the office all day. the cat Injured the Canary bird Recd a note from Doct. Parrans lady requesting my carriage to bring his sister Mrs. Magill from Hagers Town tomorrow Ned and Jupe in the Boat a tolerable business

        8th Sunday. Weather damp dark cloudy and has rained considerable during the past night and has continued by intervals through the day. The family remained at home and within Doores all the day. Ned has made no return as little or nothing done

        9th Monday. Weather. morning. tolerably clear with some wind. Doct. Parrans black man called. took the carriage & harness sat out for Hagers Town for Mrs. Magill. Franklin called says he is bound for Boonsborough. The little Roan mare had a mare colt in the stable last night of a Bay colour Black main & Tail. hind feet white. The near one about the fetlock a small star and strip. an old negroe called to return a dollar note pd. to him for Broom makeing. he brought up my papers. Catherine & Mary Miller came after dinner. George Cookur called gave him some old Bacon for Michail to make serum for his horse. asked him to speak to young Gonter rough carpenter to come and work for me. Elizabeth



5. Hargrave was a Presbyterian minister in Shepherdstown to whose church Blackford had earlier contributed.

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and baby came and spent the evening with the girls C. K. in Bed Sick all day. Wind has risen since morning. the Miss Millers rode home in the evening. Doct. Parrans sister arrived in the Carriage, crossed over so states Ned. Detrick and Robison at Ferry Horse drunk have been fishing at the mill dam. Ned and Jupe in the Boat. a tolerable Business. wind high.

        10th Tuesday. Weather morning. Windy & cool. Franklin wants the cart to haul Bacon from D. Pipers. Nicholas working in the garden. Frank. brought my Torch light. the little german Boy called handed Hanns acct. for 2 days of himself and Boy splitting locust posts. stated $4 when he did this work which was 2d September last. he then said expressly that his charge was $2 for the 2 days. The River has risen some little Will Murf & Enoch working in new ground. they report they are hauling off the saw logs. Ned & Jupe in the Boat. done but a small business. -

        11th Wednesday. Weather. Variable morning cool with some wind. Doct. Parrans man brought over my carriage this morning. Will and Murf in new ground with the wagon Enoch hauling some manure on the Garden with the cart. Nicholas in the garden at work. I rode out to the new ground. Morrison is spliting Rails. went down to J. Ks Martin makeing shingles dined there with a Englishman & his wife named Anthony. The wind has increased since morning. Franklin called to say he wanted go for Henry

        12th Thursday. Weather. Clear. morning cold frost last night. Henry Knode here all night. Franklin sat out for Henry gave him $85 and a check for $75 which is for Mr. Johns wrote to J I Merrick and a letter to Henry. Nicholas in the Garden. Henry Knode sat off for home after Breckfast. William has taken two ducks and a Drake down to J. Ks Martin called pd. him 50 cents. gone to S. Town to purchase Tobacco. J. Knode has been successful Catching fish sent up 20 by Wm and Isaiah a Boat Brought fresh Herrings. Ned bought a doz pd. 12 1/2. Will Murf and Enoch hauling the cord wood off the clearing. they report Morrison cutting Ned and Jupe in the Boat small business

        13th Friday. Weather. cool. a large white frost and the ground froze somewhat Hazey - Harrises Boat6 passed up this morning laden with Chestnut Rails. Will Murf & Enoch hauling off cord wood from new ground with wagon & ox cart. I rode out, measured John & George wood. make it 45 Cord scant. Windows 23 1/2 Cord and Nicholas 40 1/4



6. Thomas G. Harris operated a line of pocket boats on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.

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Cord. C. K and Helena gone on the poneys to Sharpsg. Pd. C. K. $3 Rent for her store which in the possesion and use of Mrs. Drusila Williams William & Isiah went with them to ride the poneys home a Boat has arrived and discharging on the Virga shore Franklin and Henry arrived about sunset from Mercersburgh came by the way of Williamsport Wm. came with them from Sharpsburgh. Ned & Jupe in the Boat have done a tolerable Business -

        14th Saturday. Weather. Clear. some little wind. Martin Shellman & Nicholas both called - booth are for a sprey gave Nicholas $2.75 and Martin $1 which will keep them drunk for some time. setted Henrys school Expense find the session has cost $100. Franklin says he deld. my letter to Mr. Merrick. his Expences to Mercersburgh and back $3.62 1/2. he traded off his sorrel Horse for a brown to a droover. gave $35 in boot. Henry rode to Sharpsg Corbans Daughter Abigail came this afternoon Jackson her brother brought her to the River Henry returned from Sharpsg. C. K. & Helena remains there a Three day meeting in Hoffmires congregation Hargrave and Douglass assisting him. 7 The canal appears to be in the full use at present to Williamsport The weather continues cold windy rough unpleasant. Ned and Jupe in the Boat have done but a midling Business this week. dull dull times. bad Currency. nothing but shin plasters

        15th Sunday. Weather the morning cloudy cold wind and snow at 10 Oclock - Henry Rode my mare and led the Bald poney to Sharpsburgh for his sister to ride home. It has continued to snow from 10 Oclock untill 4 in the evening with but little Intermission snow 3 or 4 inches deep - Corbans son Jackson came a little after it commenced to snow. him and his sister Abigail remained shet up with us in the house all day Henry returned from Sharpsbg after 9 Oclock we had retired to bed he states that he came by J Ks with Catherine J Ks wife where he spent the evening. C K & Helena remains in Sharpsg. Ned made no return as there was nothing done

        16th Monday. Weather cloudy. The whole face of the country covered with snow and the Trees loaded with snow has all the appearance of Winter except the Blossoms of the Peach tree is peeping through the snow that hangs to the limbs. J. K called says he has ingaged 4 tons plaster8 from Jacob Reynolds, he is to attend to getting it brought over - Franklin gone to Sharpsbg. the snow is disappearing very slowly.



7. Hoffmier was a German Reformed minister, Hargrave a Presbyterian, and Douglass a Presbyterian. Evidently this was an inter-denominational revival meeting.

8. This was lime plaster to be used as a fertilizer on hay and grain crops.

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there fell a similar snow on the 23d of Aprile last, reather more it being 5 inches deep. Corbans son & Daughter Abigail here Franklins Boat has gone up to Harrises landing to take in wood. 9 Henry Jackson & William moving about the hands Will Murf & Enoch doing very little have pretended to clean out the stables. Murf drunk as usual. Beat little John down at the ferry House Ned and Jupe in the Boat. C. K and Helena in Sharpsburgh but little doing anyhow and anyway. Bad weather

        17th Tuesday. Weather Cloudy windy cold & unpleasant Henry led a horse to Sharpsg for his sister to Ride home he sat out to go to Costs took my boots & shoes to have repaired. Abigail went down to Franklins Henry & Helena returned home in the evening - Will Murf and Enoch hauling off wood from the clearing. progressing very slow. Abigail came up in the evening. Shortts Boat off. J. K. called says he has ingaged and it is to be ready tomorrow 4 ton plaster from Jacob Reynolds at $9.75 per Ton. had my old Bags mended. the snow has nearly all disappeared. Ned and Julious in the Boat. a poor very poor Business -

        18th Wednesday. Weather cloudy. smokey. heavy is more moderate. Franklins Boat sat out this morning. Nicholas called for one Bushel Corn directed him to come tomorrow and help with the wood Stage crossed 1/2 after 10 oclock 3 passengers. The hands hauling off wood. commenced Raining in the afternoon which drove the hands in they then went to Threshing Rye Franklin returned he went with the Boat as far as Harpers ferry. It cleared off about sun set a beautiful Rain Bow. J K did not go for the plaster in consequence of the Rain. I bled the Bald poney Shellman swanking about not doing any thing I spent the day in the House unpleasant weather to be out. Corbans daughter Abigail here - Ned and Julious in the Boat light Business Enoch Brought a Bag corn meal from the mill. I received my Baltimore Patroit.

        19th Thursday. Weather Cloudy Cold windy unpleasant Nicholas came is working him and Will in the clearing. Murf untill breckfast he then went over to Reynolds mill for Plaster Henry & Helena Rode to Sharpsburgh. Franklin came up and bled his brown horse. J. Knode brought a Ton plaster from Reynolds which is for the use of the lower farm; he is to pay for the one half. Henry & Helena returned from Sharpsg. Helena took up goods on credit to amt. of $23.53 - The River has risen quite rapidly and to a considerable height. Murf brought over



9. Franklin Blackford, Captain Ashberry, and James Elgen had recently formed a company to operate a line of packet boats on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and were using Thomas G. Harris' boat landing.

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from George Reynolds mill 3 ton plaster at two trips. a Bill sent but no price affixed. the understanding with J K was at the price W. Shortt sold which is $9.75 per Ton Ned & Jupe in the Boat. Poor Business

        20th Friday. Weather very Cold. Ice made last night on the Tubs of Rain water 3/8 of an Inch the ground froze. - Nicholas cuting wood in the clearing. Will & Murf hauling off wood. Henry & his mother sat out for Boonsboro, she in the gig & Henry on horse back. Staleys Boat satout for G. Town, a sprinkle of snow after 12 oclock and several during the afternoon Corban sent his horse over yeasterday. Franklin had him shown in Sharpsg. this day. he brought my paper, very cold unpleasant. Corbans son Jackson arrived after sun set Murf brought Franklin one load wood Will Brought the ox cart load wood home at night. I remained in the office all day - Ned and Julious in the Boat have done but a small Business. Cold weather.

        21st Saturday. Weather clear and some little moderated. tho the last night froze the ground and made smart Ice. Nicholas came cutting wood in the clearing, Will and Murf hauling off wood G. Unseld called. left me his account which I promised to Examine and make out his acct. from my Books. he spent two hours in conversation in my office. Reynolds large Boat The Henry Boteler passed through the Lock going down. Mrs. B. and Henry returned from Boonsbo five oclock. report that all are well. that Mrs. Huit, Gerard Stonebrakers daughter died last night. Nicholas worked half this day William Morrison splitting Rails. Mrs. B. bought goods to amt. of $39.37 1/2 pd on acct. $15. - Ned & Jupe in the Boat

        22nd Sunday. Weather clear calm and more moderate - Jackson and his sister Abigail set out for home after Breckfast. wrote to Corban requesting him to speak to Hutichinson the carpenter to come and work for me. J. K. and David Miller called. David took dinner with us - the wind sprang up after 12 Oclock and blew for some time J. K his wife Elizabeth her little sister Miss Hedrick & D. Miller all dined with us. Helena J. Ks wife & Elizabeth was over at Mr. Douglas preaching. Harrises Boat Henry Clay arrived this afternoon. Negroe Will absent without parmetion. Murf as usual down at the ferry and prety drunk. came up at dark to water the Horses. Franklin off to Harpers ferry to meet the Boat which J. Elgen is conducting. Helena remained all night with Elizabeth. Ned & Jupe in the Boat but little done. the day has been warm

        23rd Monday. Weather. Moderated somewhat hazey pleasantly warm. Nicholas came to work in the clearing Will & Murf hauling off wood


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with Wagon & Cart. Mrs. Nafe came sat in to sewing. Mary, Elen and Ann Miller came Ann Hays with them Crossed over to S. Town. Helena with them. Martin ground his drawing knife he is shaveing shingles - boarding at J Ks. I have been engaged all this morning cleaning my gun the Girls returned from S Town. Helena Brought me from Mr. Webb $15 which I am to send him Virginia Shin plasters in exchange - I rode out to new ground Isaiah sat the peoples victuals down and the hoggs destroyed it I whiped him for his conduct. M Kirk came wants timber he gave me a list of what he wants. It commenced raining while I was out. Henry has been to Sharpg to have some cloaths cut out. continued raining untill night which prevented the Miss Millers & Hays from returning home they remained all night. James Elgen returned this evening Ned & Jupe in the Boat. small business

        24th Tuesday. Weather morning raining. Nicholas called and I settled with him. he fel in debt $3.82. I credited him with $3 as a present he supposing I had omitted to credit which I discover I did not omit. I pd. him $2 to purchase meat. he is in my debt including this date $2.82. Briens man Peter brought a note wants timber for hammer helve. says he can get one on the Shepherd farm, desired him to say to Mr. Brien I could let him have Gum timber. 10 Mary & Ann Miller & An Hays went home after dinner Henry went with them. Doct. O. Wharton called to say Barns has returned and begs father Indulgance untill 15 July. I told him I must see Merrick before I would promise any thing Morrison called says he has finished cuting & mauling and will now work by the day. Mrs. Nafe sewing. Elenora Miller here Will Murf and Enoch have been pidling about the Barn threshing some Rye Ned and Jupe in the Boat little done

        25th Wednesday. Weather cloudy and has rained during the last night. Franklin called to say he wished to open the quary of cement stone down near the spring on the Sherpherd Farm Hann sent his son with an account of $4 which I would not pay; Will fixing and covering the Ice and Ice house Henry gone to Sharpsburgh. Franklin states that Edmond I. Lee has $23.39 for me which he recovered from D. Entler - Will Murf & Enoch threshing Rye Will hauled two ox cart loads wood, Henry returned from Sharpsg sent him to S. Town with $15 to Mr. Webb in small notes for that amount he sent me in two notes by Helena he likewise had a letter which I wrote to Mr. Berry and an order to Mr. Lee which order he left with Webb to present it being night and Mr. Lee not at his office. Henry lodged at the ferry house Mr. Elgen was with him to S. Town Ned & Jupe in the Boat bought 1 dox



10. The timber was to be used at John M. Brinn's shops at the Antietam Iron Works.

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Herring & 2 Shad paid 37 1/2 cents. have done a very poor business. Mr. Briens people got the timber for the Hammer helve. Peter called I have him a Bill $2.25

        26th Thursday. Weather continues cloudy and cool. the river has risen during the last night. Henry came up from F. House where he lodged last night Franklin applyed to me for roan mare to work to the Boat which is off to take in Stone for Jacob Miller. J. K. called says some of his sheep is missing suspects that dogs has been after them. he says Morrison is in the clearing at work and was there yeasterday. Will Murf & Enoch hauling off wood with wagon & ox cart. Mrs. Nafe sewing. Ellen Miller here since Monday. Elizabeth came up wants Butter or a horse to send for some. She has Miss Schnebley and Miss Mayer. river continues to rise little John rode poney to Sharpsg Miss Mayer & Schnebley crossed over the river. The River began to fall in the afternoon. This is the day of Election in Virginia for members to the legislature. George Reynolds Bushrod Washington Whig candidates. Wm. Lucas & Henry Bedinger Loco focos Vanites 11 Ned & Jupe at the Boat. which did not cross. poor poor

        27th Friday. Weather has changed sun came out partially some windy clouds. more moderate. The hands sowed some plaster for the first this season on the clover in the middle field. Henry gone to Shep. Town Layfitt Miller came for a Pea Hen. Henry returned brought D. Entlers debt recovered by E. J. Lee amt. $22.39 he reports my Patriot paper not came by this days mail and that report says the Whigs have succeeded in Jefferson Cty Virga and in Baltimore. Morrison cuting. Will & Murf hauling off Cord wood. Helena & Ellen Miller rode my mare down to J. Ks. I rode out to the clearing before dinner Henry off on Franklins horse with B. Hedrick went to Sharpsg John Miller returned home from Mercersburgh school. Morrison came to supper and lodged here. Henry lodged in Sharpsg. Ned took shad for D. Staleys ferriages Ned and Julious & Enoch in the Boat small receipts

        28th Saturday. Weather. Changeable. Will Murf Enoch & Morrison sowed plaster. on the wheat on the hill side of lower field. They then after breckfast went to the clearing. C. K. & Henry came from Sharpsg. Elenora returned on the Horse - one of the young spotted sows has 7 piggs. the old sow died I recd. my Baltimore Patriot by this days mail which confirms the report of the Whig success in electing John P. Kenaday by a majority of 862 over Wm. H. Merriott, the Vanburen



11. John Blackford, a Whig in politics, had extreme dislike for Martin Van Buren; hence the name "Loco Focus Vanites" which he applied to the Democratic candidates.

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candidate12 Franklins Boat met with a disaster which is detaining her a cloud arose in the west about 4 Oclock in the afternoon with rain much thunder and lightning. the moast of it passed to the South. we had a fine shower when I cleared before sunset. Henry reports Baker Tapscots death Morrison quit and went home at 4 Oclock has worked this week 3 1/2 days. Mrs. Nafe went home this evening. she has been sewing all this week. This evening looks very cheering after a fine Shower of Rain Ned Jupe & Enoch & Corbans man

        29th Sunday. Weather the early part of the morning calm and very pleasant, when the wind sprang up at 9 Oclock, one other young spotted sow has 6 piggs which is 13. the two was discovered where the small negroe have cut and barked a small pear Tree and 2 Apple trees. J Ks wife Elizabeth and George Knode all called. spent the afternoon and suppd with us. G. K. spent the night. there has nothing occurred worth note. Ned & Jupe in the Boat. light Business.

        30th Monday. Weather. Clear and cool. Morrison and Nicholas came this morning went to sawing after Breckfast. Will hauling off wood with ox cart Murf went to plowing the lot back of the House. J. K came and plowed the Garden. Wm. Flanagen called wants to Borrow money a thousand Dollars.13 to make a payment in June next. William rode to Sharpsg had a Round about cut Brot. the Torch light. Nicholas wife & child came up gave them dinner. George Knode left here at 2 Oclock. Henry sat out for step fathers & Corbans. I rode out to where Morrison & Nicholas was sawing wood Will hauling off wood. rode to Martin directed him to come up in the morning and help with potatoes. J. K. finished the Garden some time before sun set. Franklin taken sick sent for the Doctor some eruption of the skin chicken pox or something of the kind. Helena went to S. Town in the afternoon. Baker Tapscott was buryed yeasterday. The fruit trees are in Bloom and the whole face of the country looks cheering. C. K. here. I received my Baltimore Patriot in due time this day for the first time for several days Ned and Jupe and Enoch in the Boat done but a poor Business. the river prety full & muddy.



12. John Pendleton Kennedy (1795-1870), the Whig candidate for Congress, beat General William H. Marriott, the Democratic nominee, in a special election called to fill the unexpired term of Isaac McKim (1775-1838) who died April 1, 1838, by a vote of 7,019 to 6,157. See Niles' Register, LIV (April 28, 1838), 129. Kennedy was defeated in his race for a full term but was elected and served from 1841 to 1845.

13. Blackford ultimately lent Flanagen $1,000. He chose to lend money for interest rather than invest all his surplus in land, slaves, and business enterprises. He did so despite the fact that he lost not only the interest but also the principal sum of one large loan.

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May 1838

        1st Tuesday. Weather Variable morning cool with a large white frost. at 10 Oclock It clouds over. Martin Shellman came to help away with the potatoes. Morrison came from home this morning Nicholas did not come. he was offended because his wife did not get lard yeasterday. Will hauling off with ox cart Murf Plowing - planted corn and punkins in the garden. . John little William & Catherine Miller came and the two Miss Jameses from Virgia. Jno Miller, shoe makers son, called with a shoe mending acct. balance due him $9.52 which I paid him in full and took his receipt. Lewis Fletcher called with a Claim on M. Shellman which I pd him $4.87 1/2 1 he has promised to send me a carpenter from Boonsb. Jno Miller & Little Wm. went home after dinner Catherine remained here. the Miss Jameses sat out for S. Town and their home after supper. Henry returned from G. fathers & Corbans. Martin & Enoch brought the Potatoes all from their place of deposite in the Garden to the Shed spinning room supposed to be 50 Bushels a portion of them spoiled haveing not been sufficiently covered. Ned Jupe & Enoch part of the day in the Boat; Franklin hauled down some wood in the cart -

        2nd Wednesday. Weather morning Raining M. Shellman went off to shaveing shingles Morrison & Enoch went out to sawing after Breckfast Will went out with oxen to hauling off wood. Murf plowing in the lot. next the lime Kiln I rode out and down to J Ks he is laying off his corn ground. Catherine Miller Here. Henry went to S. Costs and bought a pair of Boots. says they cost $5.50 Jno. Miller came home with him. My Patriot paper did not come by this days mail Ned sick and Julious attended the Boat but little done - Clouds up and rained in the night -

        3rd Thursday. Weather changeable sat out after Breckfast with Henry in the gig for Hagers Town. called in Boong dined at Doct. Smiths.



1. John Blackford followed the practice of paying outstanding debts of his hired workers and withholding from their wages for work done until the debt was cancelled.

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fed Horse at Brookharts arrived at Hagers Town in the evening. Weather changed quite cool. Morrison in the clearing and Martin untill dinner when he went to help J. K. plant corn. Will hauling off wood Murf finished plowing the lot and harrowed it. Enoch in the Boat with Jupe Ned complaining that he is not able to work little or nothing done. I stoped at G. R. Bells tavern

        4th Friday. Weather Raining commenced in the night and continued all day. Henry with a school fellow named Stonebraker sat out after Breckfast in a hack for Mercersburgh. I remained all day in consequence of the rain. little or nothing done at home as I am informed -

        5th Saturday. Weather. Continued to Rain all night I attended to some little business; Mr. Merrick is absent from home at Balto; therefore am disapointed in seeing him. saw and conversed with Mr. Price respecting Barns. and his prospects; took out Tavern licence for Franklin,2 settled some accounts which I had standing and sat out after ten Oclock still raining came on Boonsborough, where I fed my Horse and dined at Brookharts. spent a short time at Doct. Smiths who is afflicted with rhumateasm came on home where I arrived before sunset There has been little or nothing done by the hands Will butchered a calf for Franklin Murf has been pretending to mend the wagon Harness the River Riseing very rapidly it is expected from the great fall of rain that it will be very high Ned grunting takeing gin little or nothing done

        6th Sunday. Weather windy cool with flying wind Clouds. Murf reports that the Bay Jack Horse was stolen from the stable last night. a Blind Bridle taken. He went in pursuit as far as Sharpsburgh where he heard some imperfect accounts that a horse was heard to pass through at a late hour. The River has continued to rise and will from appearances be very high. C. K. & Helena gone down to J.K.s Franklin has been indeavoring to create a sympathetic feeling in his mother by stateing his dificulties, etc etc3 - The Horse Jack came home about one oclock without a Bridle appears to have been rode being muddy Shellman called prety drunk. no crossing the River

        7th Monday. Weather changeable. continues cool with moving Clouds. The River falling. Franklin gone to Harpers Ferry. Murf laying off the lot preparitory to planting it in corn, Will and Enoch in the clearing



2. Franklin Blackford was adding a tavern to his business enterprises which already included farming and a line of packet boats on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.

3. Franklin Blackford was having marital difficulties with his wife which were to grow worse with time.

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Burning some Brush and hauling chips home. began to plant the lot with white flint Hominy Corn and punkin seed. Jupe Daph Caroline and Isiah. Franklin returned gave him his certificate of Licence and his change. Enoch reports Morrison and his two sons came at 9 oclock this morning and are cutting in the new ground. the little Roan mare Fancy was put to a small sorrel stud Horse on Friday the 4th. the Horse was left with Franklin by a man from Pensya said to be a flying childers. 4 Morrison and his son Edward went home after supper. the small one called Alfred remained all night. Ned drove Franklins Gig with a man to Boonsboro and returned after dark; there has been no crossing this day did not finish planting the lot. the weather continues cool Shellman cutting wood for Franklin

        8th Tuesday. Weather continues cool and cloudy. without rain - Morrison came and went to work him and his little son; Will, Rakeing up chips and Enoch hauling them. Murf Daph Caroline and Isaiah went out to pulling up the old corn stalks after finishing planting the lot and the hogg pen with punkings Mrs. Bowen called. Wm. Flanagan called. wants money Cutwalt called. wants work in the smith shop 5 - Franklin called with an order from M. Shellman for $26.33 and the Black mens accounts which amounts to more than I owe them. Franklin hauling wood with J Ks wagon and two of his horses. He says he let the little flying childers to my brown mare Hannah. no return of this days business.

        9th Wednesday. Weather. Morning cool. Morrison and his little son Alfred slept here last night and went out to work in the clearing. Will and Enoch hauling off with the ox cart Murf Daph and Isaiah puling up corn stalks. Enoch hauling them off Morrison & little son quit at 4 Oclock having been taken sick. I rode to Thomases sale where I spent 3 hours eat my dinner bought nothing. returned home called in Sharpsburgh. Bot. 3w nails & a knife pd for them 36 1/2¢ Murf commenced plowing after Breckfast in the pond field. Helena says Ned was at 12 Oclock quite much intoxicated. He came up after darke was in a tolerable sober state him and Jupe in the Boat Selbeys land sold to Doct. Bedinger at 45 Dollars Frank heard of Bushrods Washingtons hous being hurt last night. caught from sparks falling on the Roof the



4. The Blackfords raised most of their livestock including horses, cattle, sheep, and hogs. They kept their own breeding stock and only occasionally used stallions or bulls belonging to their neighbors. The Flying Childers was a popular breed of farm horses descended from a Stallion foaled in 1750 and considered the first great thoroughbreds.

5. Blackford had a blacksmith shop on Ferry Hill plantation in which Cutwalt sought work; but Blackford had considerable work, especially horse shoeing and carriage repairing, done at shops in Shepherdstown and Boonsboro.

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Chimney caught on fire which produced the sparks that communicated to the Roof

        10th Thursday. Weather continues cool there was frost last night in some low places Adam Licklider called. I paid him his account Balance $6 - Mrs. B. and William Rode down to J. Ks. I bled the roan mare her eys appears to be effected. I rode to the clearing Will cuting Murf plowing. Caroline Isaiah & Enoch hauling off old corn stalks. I rode down to J Ks where I supped and rode home with Mrs. B. and Wm. Mary and Ellen Miller & their brother John spent the evening & supped. Helena accompanied them to S. Town & back. Ned Jupe & Secafoos, who Ned hired in the Boat Murf took the plows over to Hills shop in the evening to have them repaired. a poor business in the Boat. the river falls off very slow has been cool all day

        11th Friday. Weather clear and cool. Morrison and Martin Shellman came this morning to work in the clearing. Murf went over for the plow brought the corn meal, did not get out to plow untill 10 Oclock. Enoch Daph Caroline & Isaiah takeing off the corn stalks. Will & Matrin sawing Morrison cuting and spliting. Mr. Parker a Methodist preacher called, left his horse and went over to Sherpherds Town returned and supped with us. he then returned to Sharpsg. I Rode out to the clearing paid Morrison $15 in small shin plasters which he stated was to pay his house rent I then rode down to J. Ks to say to him that I wanted him to assist me with a plow & Horses tomorrow. Ned Jupe Secafoose & Corbans man Barney in the Boat. Ned is on the Gin list

        12th Saturday. Weather clear and changed some what warmer. It is pleasant. Morrison and Martin working in the clearing. Henry Mullen came after Breckfast with J.Ks plow & 3 horse and joined in to plowing in the pond field. he went home to dinner and to feed the horses; J Ks wife and Helena sat out this morning for Pleasant Valley. I rode out to the clearing and to J. Ks I stepped Round the field and calculate there to be 23 acrers. Including the new ground. Mary Miller called went to S. Town C. K went over with her. Recd. a note from Doct. Smith respecting a carpenter and Mr. Merricks return sent word for old Adley6 to come on Monday. fixed up the fence and put up a stile at the quarter - Ned and Jupe in the Boat Franklin complaining of not being well. sent for the Doct. was bled. Jno Miller accompanied Helena & J. Ks wife to Pleasant Valley



6. Jim Adley, a common laborer, was so old that he could do little work. Nevertheless Blackford gave Adley employment paying him a small sum of money in addition to board and room for the work which he called "pidling work."

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        13th Sunday. Weather clear and pleasant C. K. went over to Shepherds Town to meeting. I bled the Roan neat mare below the Eyes. The girl brought Franklins child up says he is better. Helena and J. Ks wife returned from the Pleasant Valley before sun set. we have had a quiet day no company

        14th Monday. Weather clear and pleasant Morrison came and returned the money I pd. him, Martin joined him in the clearing. J. Knode assisting to haul off the saw logs has his grey mare in the team Henry Mullen plowing Murf plowing. Will & Martin helping with the logs. Daf rakeing up chips Enoch hauling off with ox cart Morrison choping. J. K. hauled one large white oak log to the mill in the evening and brought back a load plank which was part covered with clay. Morrison Martin and Henry Mullen lodged here. Margaret Nafe likewise lodged here Ned and Jupe in the Boat a tolerable Business done. wrote a note to J. Reynolds

        15th Tuesday. Weather. Clear and pleasant. Doct. Parrans man came over with a pair Horses for my carriage and Harness, which loaned to Mrs. Morgan to go to Charles Town. K. Knode came with his grey mare & put her in the team and set to hauling Rails and Morrison assisted him Henry Mullen & Murf plowing each with 3 horses Murf has Franklins Brown horses Doct. Smiths mare had a mare colt last night, she folded in the stable It is a light Bay colour the two hind feet white above the footlock a star and small stripes in the face. Old Jim Adley came at 12 Oclock. he says to work for me. I am to give him what I may think he is or what he may do is worth Enoch hauling off with the ox cart he brought the two plows from Hills Shop. Will & Martin makeing fence Daph & Isaiah rakeing & Burning trash on the new ground. Catherine Miller came her & Helena went to S/Town. Margaret Nafe spent the day here sent William to Sharpsbg and two new shoes on my Brown mare Jacob Reynolds sent a Bbl cement with the Bill cost $2 - recd a note from Doct. Smith informing me of Mr. Merricks return home. Old Jim made an ax handle Ned & Jupe in Boat.

        16th Wednesday. Weather morning somewhat cloudy - Old Jim commenced sawing pailings. Morrison, Martin J. Knode H. Mullin all assisting in new ground Will and Martin Building fence. Murf & Henry finished plowing then went to Harrowing. J. K. hauled 4 small walnut logs to saw mill and brought over fencing plank. - I sat out at 9 Oclock on horseback for Hagers Town Mrs. B. accompanied me to Sharpsg. I arrived in H. Town at 11 Oclock had an understanding with Mr. Merrick respecting Major Barns, took dinner had my watch


Page 49

examined the repeating part pd. H. Franer $2.12 1/2 sat out at 4 Oclock and arrived at home a little after sunset. Mrs. B. was but a little before me. considerable excitement and military sent off to quell the Irish near Hancock.7 Ned & Jupe in the Boat a middling Business for the times

        17th Thursday. Weather morning cloudy & a small sprinkle of Rain. C. K. & Helena prepared early to set out for Boonsboro detained by the rain. They sat out a little before 7 when it ceased raining. The twin cow had a heifer Calf - the 15th Tuesday. Morrison came from home where he went last night him & Martin underpining the new fence. Old Jim sawing and heading pailings. J. K. & Will laying off to plant H. Mullin & Murf finished harrowing before dinner. Daph Rakeing and burning chips & Trash. Enoch shelled some seed corn and put it to soak. Then went with the cart to clearing he hauled some water to wash Franklin sick in bed, his mother went down to see him. I wrote to Joseph I Merrick by his request giving him instructions to proceed to collect my money from Major Barns. a note to Jno. Miller carriage maker. C. K. Helena and Jennett & child with them. came at sunset Julious attended the Boat himself Ned helped but little

        18th Friday. Weather, morning partially clear has threatened rain all yeasterday. came on a sprinkle of Rain 1/4 before 8 Oclock, which ceased before 10. commenced planting corn in the pond field with the following hands. dropers Caroline William Dick and Isaiah. Covering Morrison Martin Daph & Enoch. J. K & Will crossing with scrapers Murf & Henry Mullen plowing in the new ground. I rode down to J. K. for some Punkin seed. sent Hannah to Detrichs where she obtained some punkin seed of the orange coulered punkin. C. K Jannett & Helena with the child walked down to J. Ks. old Jim ingaged mending a piece of plank fence and the Ice house Doore. J. Knode has helped 5 days, self & one horse and Henry Mullen 6 days with plow and 3 horses. the hands finished planting the old part of the pond field and J. K & Henry Mullen went home. J. Elgen came up with the Boat. he rode my man to Emmerts & back after night. Ned Jupe & Corbans man Barney in the Boat a tolerable Business. had one Bbl Herring from Wm. Shortt



7. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company experienced much difficulty with its laborers. These difficulties involved conflicts between the rival Corkconians and Langford Irish groups, between the Irish and the Germans, and between the workers and contractors over pay. In 1838 the company dismissed and blacklisted some trouble makers, the militia burned about fifty shanties near Hancock, the police arrested and the courts tried, convicted, and imprisoned twenty-odd labor leaders. See Walter S. Sanderlin, The Great National Project. A History of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1946), pp. 118-122.

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        19th Saturday. Weather. clear and changed warmer Morrison Martin Shellman Will & Enoch scatered plaster on the grass field back of the Barn Murf to plowing in the new ground Daph rakeing & burning chips and trash. Enoch hauled water cleaned the Bulls stable then went out to cut the roots before Murfs plow Morrison quit at dinner and went home I paid him the 14 Dollars he returned on Monday Will Martin & Enoch hauling off the old fence. C. K. & Helena rode to Sharpsg. in the Gig with Jennetts child and her and Elizabeth Rode on horseback, I rode likewise to Sharpsg. proved an acct. against Jacob Yantz before Grim,8 Bot. 10 w Nails & Tobacco. pd. 86 returned left the women at Col. Millers - Corban called and dined with us - old Jim went home after dinner - sent Mrs. S. Costs cement pd the young man for the carriage of it 25 cents Elizabeth left her child Mr. Cost brought my shoes which he has half soaled. Ned Jupe and Barney part of the day in the Boat. tolerable Business

        20th Sunday. weather. clear and pleasant. J. Ks wife & child and her sister Mary came. Doct. Smith came and the two little Miss Berries - all dined with us Doct. Smith sat out for home at 3 Oclock Mr. Elgen sent a note Inviting the people on the hill to pass up the canal a short distance in his boat Osaola9 Helena William Elizabeth and the two Miss Berries went in the Boat. which assended the canal 2 or 3 miles & returned. J. Knode came in the evening supped and went home with his wife & child. the little Miss Berries went home after supper. C K has been over to S. T. to meeting. Julious attended the Boat prety much himself Ned had strained his shoulder. a midling Business

        21st Monday. Weather cloudy warm and has the appearance to Rain. Jim Adley came 10 Oclock went to pidling at sawing heads to pailings. Murf plowing in the new ground Will & Enoch hauling off the old fence Daph cuting pea sticks and seting them in. I rode out to where Martin is shaveing shingles. turned the mares and colts into the Batson field. Elgen sat out this morning early with the Boat for George Town. gave to Jennett & Helena $6.72 1/2 they went to S. Town where they purchased some goods. Ned recd the ferriages and Julious attended the Boat a tolerable Business

        22nd Tuesday. morning clear and warm. Murf plowing in the new ground Will & Enoch removing the old fence with ox cart. Mrs. B. Jennett & William sat out after an early dinner for Boonsborough. Jennett & the child in the gig with her mother and Wm. on old poney.



8. Daniel Grim was a justice of the peace in Sharpsburg.

9. The Osaola (Osceola) was a passenger boat owned by Franklin Blackford, Ashberry, and Elgen Company. James Elgen was captain of the boat.

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I rode a piece with them - the wind has risen and is now, at half after one Oclock blowing from S. E almost a gale Mr. Flanagan called to know about money. says he can give John Snider as security. Jennett has spent four days with us. gave Mrs. B. $5 when setting off commenced to Rain a little before 5 Oclock with Thunder at a distance. Franklin sent old negroe John for horse to ride to Pipers which I sent him to get the Bauld horse. Julious attend the Boat. Ned has his arm in a sling and grunting.

        23rd Wednesday. Weather. morning cloudy. commenced to Rain 1/2 after 7 Oclock hands came in from the new ground at Breckfast and remained on account of the rain which continued by spells all day. they cleaned up some Rye which lay on the floore report there to be 24 Bushels. Old Jim sawing tops to pailings directed the stables to be cleaned. sent Enoch to hunt the Bull wrote a letter to Henry and recd one from him wrote to David P. Boulden of Balto respecting Come Porter.10 Enoch went in search of the Bull could not find him. there has fallen a fine Rain the hands removed some manure had 5 Busl Rye chopped of the Rye in Staubs Mill. Jupe & Ned in the Boat

        24th Thursday. Weather partially clear. wind with clouds flying Considerable Rain fell during the past night. I wrote a postscript to my letter to Henry and sent it with one addressed to David P. Boulden Hillen Str O Town Baltimore. Franklin has the Bay horse Jack in the gig him & his wife gone to Sharpsg. directed to have the Horse shod. Catherine Miller and Jno. Grimes called Mrs. B. & Wm. returned from Boonsh. Doct. Smiths Boy John, came with them, and rode the Doct. mare back as he wishes to put her to a horse, Murf went to plowing and Will & Enoch to hauling off old rails after dinner. Layfritt Miller drove the Red Bull home from Sharpsg. a breach in the canal below George Edwards; water out for the last two days. Franklin had 2 new shoes on the Bay horse Ned & Jupe in the Boat

        25th Friday. Weather morning. Raining has rained some little during the past night. Will Murf & Enoch in the Barn Threshing Rye. Franklin came up took breckfast. old Adley sawing heads to pailings. Enoch is reported sick and is not threshing. Isaiah sick has continued to Rain nearly all day. the River has risen and continues to rise. I have made a statement of Jno. McP. Brien & Co. account. Franklin



10. Commodore David Porter (1780-1843), a native of Massachusetts, had a distinguished naval career. He saw service in the undeclared war with France 1798-1799, the Tripolitan campaign, and the War of 1812. But in 1826 he ran into difficulty with the Navy when he invaded and committed depredations in Puerto Rico. He was court martialed, convicted, and suspended. He resigned in a huff and remained a controversial figure until his death in 1843.

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has spent moast of the day here I have spent the day in the office, Ned & Jupe in the Boat

        26th Saturday. Weather clear and cool. the ground very wet. Murf plowing the new ground. the Roan mare Peat took Corbans horse the first time. David Hann called paid him $4 his a/c for 2 days work spliting locust posts. Franklin has the cart and horse to send for Bacon to Millers. Will pidling with ox cart hauling some manure old Adley sawing pailings. I rode down to J. Ks Martin shaveing shingles. pd. C. K $1.20 for 2 pr. cotton socks. the muley cow had a Bull calf yeasterday morning a large fine calf. River falling. Ned Enoch and Julious in the Boat a tolerable Business Corbans man Barney assisted occasionally. Will hauled out 5 small cart loads manure

        27th Sunday. Weather changable. Franklin called and I paid him $36.25 Ten of which he states was left by him in change of a note Him & Elgen sat out in his Gig for Harpers ferry. to leave there in the morning for George Town Col. Miller and wife and little Daughter came while we were at dinner. twelve Oclock. they dined and at 1/2 after 2 Oclock came on a storm of wind. Rain and hail which continued for 15 minutes very severe. Col. M. & wife remained untill after 6 Oclock. supped and sat out for home. A Eaty caught a Trout in the Canal which is a rare fish in those waters. Ned Jupe & Enoch in the Boat

        28th Monday. Weather. morning cool and windy, Murf went to plowing in new ground. Will & Enoch to sawing a Tree that blew up and on the fence came a small shower of rain at 10 Oclock. young Wm. Grimes called says he is going to Mercersburgh this week and will take a Book to Henry. Adley sawing pailings. Helena rode to Sharpsg William Grimes went with her. a party going to some high place on the red hill. I rode out to new ground saw the fox at the pit Will & Enoch replanting the corn in the lot with yealow soon corn. I walked out to the pit saw and shot at a fox which is the second time I have seen him this day. Helena returned in the evening William Grimes came with her did not alight. they have been with a party to the Red Hill in the rear of Casper Snavelys. the River falls very graduly. There is no water in the canal. they are mending the Breach. Ned Julious and a German in the Boat. moderate Business. high wind all day unpleasant weather

        29th Tuesday. Weather. morning cool. some clouds weather not setled. J. K. came up lent him two sickles to cut Rye out of his wheat. Mr. Eaton came. Murf finished plowing the new ground and commenced harrowing and Will to runing it off with the scraper plow Enoch cleaning


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up and Burning the Trash Murf finished harrowing. Isaiah took a Bag corn to mill and directed 5 Bushel Rye to be chopped for Horse feed of my Rye that is in the mill. Will finished laying off the new ground one way. The water let into the canal. Ned the German & Jupe in the Boat

        30th Wednesday. Weather the morning Clear and Cool a heavy dew fell. the hands went out after breckfast to plant corn and potatoes in the new ground. I walked out to where they were planing Helena & C. K. went to S. Town. gave H. $3.37 which they refused to take she managed to loose 75 cents. she Bot. of Turner and Mark $3.62 1/2 worth pd. $1.25 balance $2.37 1/2 due them. - Mrs. Eaton here. Miss Patsey Roe Miss Ellen Juett & Miss Baylor called and spent the afternoon. Will layin off Murf and Daph covering Enoch Caroline & Isaiah droping corn and potatoes. I rode out in the evening to the fox den when I had three shots at the young foxes the last shot took effect. killed a half grown male red one with Black legs. the ladies returned after supper, Mr. Links wife who was killed at Harpers ferry by the cars, buryed in Shepherds Town... the first Birds Martins came to the Box. the hands finished planting corn & potatoes in new ground. planted 24 B. potatoes Ned the little German & Jupe in the Boat. midling Business.

        31st Thursday. Weather. Clear morning and pleasant. the canal in opperation I rode down met Doct. Quigley at the lock. Mrs. B. & Mrs. Eaton gone to Sharpsg in the Gig. I walked out to the fox den, had two shots at a young one, neither of which took effect; wrote to Henry enclosed $18.25 and placed the letter a Book directed to him Gummers Treaties on Surveying11 intended to be sent by William Grimes. Franklin returned from Washington a man called who professes to tune Pianoes - I rode to Sharpsburgh with Franklin in the afternoon Exchanged my Bald horse with him for his Brown horse Bought small articles at Col Millers pd. $1.25. supped and returned home at sun set. Jim Adley sawing pailings. Ned Jupe and the German in the Boat have done a tolerable Business. Will Murf & Enoch mending up the fence -



11. John Gummere (1784-1843), a native of Pennsylvania, was a distinguished educator at Haverford College and author of numerous scientific books. His A Treatise on Surveying, Containing the Theory and Practice: to which is Prefixed a Perspicuous System of Plane Geometry. The Whole Clearly Demonstrated and Illustrated by a Large Number of Appropriate Examples. Particularly Adapted to the Schools, Fourth Edition (Philadelphia: Kimber and Sharpless, 1825) was the text Henry Blackford was using at Mercersburg Academy.

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June 1838

        1st Friday. Weather warm. sat out at 7 Oclock for Hagers Town where I arrived a quarter before 11 Oclock dined at Bells Tavern saw Mr. Price and had him to note on the plot respecting the balance which is due. Bot. a pair Boots from H. Franer. price $5.75. left the pair I had on to be half soaled. there came on a heavy shower of Rain which prevented me from comeing home. met with several acquantance went into Kalhoofers store where we drank prety freely of Champain wine. Mr. Merrick says Mr. William Price has promised to pay the Interest on Barns debt on or before the 20th Inst. calculated up to the first of September when the prinsapal is to be paid the hands have washed the Sheep which employed them all day. Ned Jupe & Voluntine the German in the Boat But Poor Business, but a light sprinkle of rain here

        2nd Saturday. Weather warm. Slept in Hagers Town rose with head ache and bad feelings from haveing taken too much Champain last night. pd. my bill $1.50 sat out 1/4 before 8 Oclock. came by Wolfs where there is a dunkard large meeting. spent two hours there eat some Bread and Butter with them. then came on home. the hands harrowed the corn in the lot and in the Garden. old Jim quit and went home I gave him 75 cents. he has been here pidling at the pailings 12 days. Martin Shellman called paid him $3.50 days he wonts shoes and a waistcoat has gone over S. Town. Mrs. Eaton here, Franklin rode to Samuel Mummas. took his receipts for wheat and received $531.85 for 354.35 w wheat sold at $1.50 Bushel. Voluntine the German had a cord wood which he hired hauled for which I shall charg $1.50 Ned & Jupe in the Boat. done a tolerable Business

        3rd Sunday. Weather, morning clar & pleasant; heavy dew Mrs. B. had a very unpleasant night had a cholic and sick stomach. I had reather an unpleasant night took 2 doaces Sedlitz powders before Breckfast they have weaned the muley cows calf which was one week old. Calved the


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25th May. friday morning. Franklin & Elgen gone to the Tunker 1 meeting rode my mare C. K. & Helena gone to Sharpsg. rode the old poneys I have unpleasant feelings all day. Elizabeth came and spent part of the day - Thos. Johnson from G. fathers here. Col. Miller wife & daughter came The two Mr. Grimes all supped with us. the intention is to set out in the morning for Washington. Ned & Murf in the Boat done a prety good Business. on acct. of Tunker meeting

        4th Monday. morning. Rose at 2 Oclock prepatory to seting off in the Boat for Washington with Col. Miller his wife & daughter. Elenora and my daughter Helena. It is now while I write 3 Oclock in the morning. Will has roused us earlier than needful. he brought my gun and powder flask from the Barn where Murf had deposited them. after watching the fox den. We went on board after Broad day light. proceeded to Harpers ferry where we detained untill the cars from Winchester2 arrived. left 1/4 before 9 Oclock when It commenced to rain at 10 Oclock and continued all day. 6 passengers joined us at the ferry. we contd. on to the Crimlin House where we remained on board the Boat all night. shortly after stoping the black boy who drove the horses that was attached to the Boat fell into the lock in which the Boat lay and was drowned

        5th Tuesday. the weather changed became clear and a fine warm sunshine day. the boat proceeded on in which we breckfasted arrived in George Town 1/4 before 9 Oclock. lodged with Mrs. Lang 3 took an ominbus after dinner and all went to the capital. went to the canal companies office4 when all had left it therefore had to come off without doing any business. Franklin was with me to the office which is kept in the City Hall. returned to G. Town

        6th Wednesday. Weather. very Rainy all day. the Boat sat out early in the morning. were detained by a Breach in the Canal. I again went to the office of the Canal Comp. where I presented Mr. Ingle their



1. Blackford used Tunker and Dunkard interchangeably. The Blackfords were communicants of the Episcopal Church but the members of the family were such ardent church goers that they attended services at Dunkard, Baptist, Methodist, Lutheran, and Presbyterian churches as well as the Episcopal Church. This journal discloses also that they contributed to all these churches except the Dunkard and entertained nine ministers, some of them many times over, at Ferry Hill during 1838.

2. The Winchester and Potomac Railroad brought passengers to Harpers Ferry where they were able to catch the main line trains of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad which ran from Baltimore to Wheeling, Virginia.

3. Helena Blackford later remembered Mrs. Lang's kindness and sent her a gift of peafowl feathers. See entry June 17.

4. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal in which Blackford owned stock.

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secretary5 with my claim amounting to $102.87 1/2 which he refused to pay before the paper was lain before the board of directors. I left them with him for that purpose which he promised to attend to and let me know through Mr. Rogers6 the result and the payment of the money. returned to G. Town went on Board the Brig Caladonian with Helena and Elenora. Mr. Smoot was very polite on the occation

        7th Thursday. Weather fine and clear have waited on Mr. Carusi 7 in comy with Colo. Miller last evening at Miss. English female school. 8 he called down at our lodgings this morning. last evening was spent very agreeable. the ladies sang and played on the piano. Miss Gibson sang a number of songs. Franklin & Elgen returned with their Boat. could not proceed. in consequence of the Breach I promised to write Mr. Carusi respecting a Piano. after Breckfast took an omnibus not untill I had called on Mrs. French at her house. We then proceeded to the presidents house. Miss Elgen in company where we viewed the fine rooms and spent a short time with the president 9 to whome I introduced myself Colo. Miller and Miss Elgen and girls. then viewed the grounds in rear of the house. then went shoping in the City. returned to G. Town dined and then came back to the City took the cars 10 for Baltimore where we arrived before sun set. it takes about 2 hours to come went to the Eutaw House11 and took lodgings. this has been an eventful day. -

        8th Friday. Weather. Clear and fine called at the office of Mr. Gibbs. he has gone to Europe. the clerke informed me the next and last installment which will be about 11 Dolars pr. shear 12 is retained untill a suit is determined which has been brought in chancery which he supposed will not be determined in less than 12 or 18 months called at the Bank of Balto where I recd $10 on dividened on my Balto Insuc stock. 13 no Dividend



5. John P. Ingle was a clerk, not the Secretary, of the Board of Directors of the Canal Company. Blackford reached Washington too late to present his claim for ferriage to the Board which had met on June 4.

6. G. W. Rogers was an officer of the Canal at one of its dams above Ferry Hill Plantation.

7. Nathaniel Carusi's Salon in Washington was famous for its music, readings, and theatricals. Carusi also sold pianos and other musical instruments.

8. Miss English's Female School in Washington was a fashionable girls' finishing school.

9. In view of Blackford's violent hostility to Martin Van Buren and the Democratic Party one might wonder at his call on the President in the White House.

10. This was the Baltimore and Ohio branch line from Washington to Baltimore.

11. The Eutaw House was considered the best hotel in the city of Baltimore. It was here that President Andrew Jackson spent the night after his first ride in a tram in 1833.

12. Blackford invested in a number of stocks but this one and the "weather stock" mentioned below cannot be identified.

13. Blackford owned stock in the Baltimore Insurance Company.

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on the weather stock. spent the evening at Mr. Joseph Taylors. This day has been very warm. the convention cloased & have nominated Mr. Steel for Governor of the State. 14

        9th Saturday. Weather clear and warm called at Coals who stated the Piano was sold. called on Mr. Jonas McPherson who has removed from his old stand. saw Samuel Harris Wm. Lorman Elia Henderson John Lee called and pd. $5 at the Patriot office as per receipt. Cole offered me choice of the Pianoes at $280 Walked about the city bought an unbrella and a pair gold specticles for which I paid $11.00 went to the monument after calling a few minutes at Mr. Robt. Taylors where we spent the evening in Co. with Mr. Albert and several gentlemen and ladies all connections of Mr. Taylor. remained them until 11 Oclock when we retired to rest at the Eutaw

        10th Sunday. Weather warm Rose early. setled our Tavern Bill took our seats in the car15 came on to the Mills where we Breckfasted and arrived in Frederick at one Oclock where we took seats in the Coach. 16 Mr. Daniel Schnebly17 joined us which was 6 inside very crowded and disagreeable ride to Boonsg. where we arrived 5 Oclock. Colo. Miller with his family came on home in his carriage which was in waiting for them. Helena and myself lodged with Doct. Smith very warm weather -

        11th Monday. Weather continues warm after breckfast took a seat in the stage and came on home where we found them all well. old Jim Adley came has not been here during my absence Will & Murf plowing the Corn. sent bags to have Rye chopted for horse feed. they have sheared the sheep and whitewashed in my absence had 5 B. Rye choped and 2 ground for Bread which Enoch brought home this evening from Staubs Mill

        12th Tuesday. Weather. the morning is fine and pleasant. after a fine shower of Rain which fell yeasterday evening. a very growing season at this time. Negro Will Butchered a calf a very fine veal the twin cows calf. William went to school to Mr. Deary 18 which is his first



14. The State Whig Convention met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate for the first popular election of governor in that state, and nominated John L. Steele.

15. Blackford's party took the main line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad for Frederick, Maryland.

16. This was the stagecoach on the Boonsboro Turnpike which took four hours to drive the sixteen miles to Boonsboro.

17. Daniel Schnebly was a friend and neighbor who witnessed John Blackford's will dated November 1, 1839.

18. William Moore, Blackford's youngest son, entered Francis Deary's school in Boonsboro.

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essay. sent Isaiah with the calf skin to Jno. A. Marmaduke. 19 Murf and Will plowing corn in the lot back of the garden. Shaw called wants two popler logs or plank to cover cooper shop. Mr. Lucas called to ingage Three thousand shingles for Mr. Reynolds I rode down to say to J. Knode to deliver them to him when he sent I was caught in a shower of Rain, destroyed a large Black snake - Murf plowed the corn in the Garden. Old Adley pidling at the pailings. he mended the steps in the cave. Ned Julious and a white man who has been hired by Ned for the last week in the Boat has been a shower of Rain this morning -

        13th Wednesday. Weather morning clear with a light Breeze from the West. the sun very warm. Murf & Will hauled a popler log to saw mill for pailings and brought up from the river some walnut scantling for the pailings railing. they then went out to plowing the corn, in pond field. Enoch following with the hoe. I rode over to Millers the carriage maker. Instructed him to repair the carriage - C. K. came with Mary & Ellen Miller before dinner Franklin returned with my mare which he rode to Harpers ferry. says he had a mare died. the Boat returned from Harpers ferry with the party. Mary and Ellen returned home Mrs. B. had a chill and is not well. Wm. at school which is his second day Ned Jupe & Elias Keepers in the Boat. Keepers has worked 6 days in the Ferry Boat. Very warm day.

        14th Thursday. Weather morning clear & warm Elias Keepers came up says he has worked in the Boat 6 days. that he is going to settle with Reynolds that he will return in a few days and help me in hay makeing. Shellman is not at work, complaining the whiskey fever has not left him. old Adley cut his wrist with the chisel but continues to work. I rode down to the Iron works, rendered to Jno McP. Brien their a/c balance on the acct. and note $292.63 3/4 with Interest calculated up to May 25th for which Jno. M. B. & Co. gave me their note payable on demand 20 I then rode up to Sharpsg. where I bought goods, after dineing with Col. Miller from him for pantaloons & vest amt. $7.26 I returned home Will and Murf plowing corn Enoch hoeing after them a cloud and a small shower of Rain in the evening opened a Bbl flour. Duloney is to make my pantaloons and vest by Wednesday Martin Shellman hanging about all day not capable of doing any work has eat in the kitchen with the negroes Wm. at school -

        15th Friday. Weather clear warm with wind from S. E. I walked out to the clay pits. shot a young fox which is the second I have shot on my



19. John A. Marmaduke ran a tannery and leather shop in Shepherdstown.

20. This note of $292.63 3/4 represents sand, lumber, and wood for fuel which Blackford had sold to John McPherson Brien and Company from January 1 to May 15, 1838.

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return to the house found Mr. Flanagan who I proposed to accomedate with a loan drew a note for him and John Snider Senr to sign for $1000 the sume he required. he is to return next week. Will and Murf plowing corn in pond field Enoch hoeing after them old Adley commenced makeing the tenants to the Rails for the pailings. a cloud and thunder to the west in the evening. The white sow had 11 piggs yeasterday evening a very small sprinkle of Rain directed the hands to plaster the corn tomorrow morning. Martin Shellman is still hanging about as he has been all this week complaining and not doing any work he eats in the Kitchen every day. Ned and Julious in the Boat Ned says Keepers worked 5 days in Boat

        16th Saturday. weather a large fog in the morning became clear and warm hands puting plaster on the corn I rode out in the woods. shot a young fox which is the third I have destroyed. I called at J. Ks. he is plowing his corn the 2d time. Martin Shellman has resumed makeing shingles. Murf went to Sharpsburgh in the evening took the front wheels of the small Wagon to have the axletree ironed. Brought 8 Bushels lime from Mose and 200 Brick from S. Creamer. Enoch went to to Forge brought 2 Kegs nails. cost $13. I wrote an order for 3 Kegs wrote me there was not any large fenceing nails, but would have them next week old Adley pidling and fixing the Rails for the pailings Daph Caroline & Isaiah in the garden. Ned & Jupe in Boat

        17th Sunday. Weather morning clear calm & warm Elgen came up with the packet boat Ann Washington 21 Will rode a horse down last night and came up in the Boat this morning. C. K. and Helena went over to Methodist meeting J Ks wife came home with them and dined with us. John Miller called as did James Elgen Franklin Joseph Knode & Elizabeth were all here at same time took some strawberries. the River has become quite discoulered in the course of the day from the Rains which fell above it is supposed John Miller called after going down to Franklins to bid god night. J. Ks wife took supper before she went home. It has been a warm day throughout sent by the packet Boat which sets out in the morning nine Bunches pea fowl feathers. 22 one of which intended as a present from Helena to Mrs. Lang. and labeled accordingly. Martin Shellman is said to be very drunk. Ned and Jupe in the Boat. have done a tolerable Business. C. K. went to bed after meeting with head ache



21. The Ann Washington was a packet boat owned by Blackford, Ashberry, and Elgen.

22. Blackford raised pea fowl in considerable numbers for food and their feathers which he sold for fans and dusters.

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        18th Monday. Weather morning clear and pleasant Mrs. Nafe came before breckfast to sew. hands unloaded the lime and brick then went out to finish plastering the corn. finished and set to plowing the corn in the lot the second time - William Flanagan called delivered me his note with John Snider Senr security for $1000 for which I assigned him Jno. Mc.P. Briens & Co. note for $292.63 3/4 and my check on the Hagers Town Bank23 for $707.36 which added makes the amount of their note $1000. J. K. wife rode up and spent a short time & returned M. Shellman came drunk wants an order for a scithe left his old watch which is all out of order. Adley pidling at the Rails for his pailings. Old Billy Teas24 came this evening looks bad and Ragged. gave him his supper Ned and Jupe in the Boat. prety good business I wrote to Nathl Carnai. sent the letter to Post Office

        19th Tuesday. Weather. Changed quite cool in the night the wind sprang up the morning cloudy. Enoch hauled sand and water preparitory to repairing the oven. I walked out to the Fox den could see none shot at squirrels Helena rode to Sharpsg. Bot. 3 w sugar pd. 30¢ her aunt Miller came home. William Teas slept in the Barn came to me this morning gave him 37 1/2 and he went off. Will and Murf plowing the corn. a letter from Wm. Schley requesting information respecting the Boonsboro Turnpike Stock.25 Mrs. Berry her two daughters and Mrs. Brown came over, Mrs. Miller dined with us and returned in the evening. Martin Shellman made a Bed of morter I gave him $1.35 to purchase a scithe went to S. Town he is not sober. Mrs. Berry & Mrs. Brown supped and then returned home. Mrs. Nafe sewing. Enoch brought from the mill 5 Bushels Rye chopt Mr. Miller sent word that the carriage was repaired. brought from mill 2 1/2 Bushel Corn meal. Shellman remained in S. Town all night Ned & Julious in the Ferry Boat. a tolerable Business.

        20th Wednesday. Weather. Clear some wind sun warm after 10 Oclock rode out a small distance with Mrs. B. after breakfast. I then rode down to J. Ks he commenced cutting clover him & Henry. I then continued on to S. Costs requested him to make me a pair light summer shoes. which he promised should be done next week. I called and dined at Col. Millers. he is in Bed sick. I bought 4 w Shott. came home Michael Fouk & Sons repaired the oven. charged for about 2 hours work. $2. Extravagant Charge. I paid it. Miss Eliza Elgen called and



23. The Millers and Planters Bank of Hagerstown had its charter revoked for illegal and fraudulent practices by the state legislature in 1843.

24. William Teas was a ne'er-do-well, a beggar of the Shepherdstown-Sharpsburg area.

25. Bradford owned stock in the Boonsboro Turnpike Company that ran from his Ferry on the Potomac River to Frederick, Maryland, a distance of some thirty miles.

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her brothers daughter spent a few minutes & returned. She came with a party in the Packet from Harpers Ferry. The packet has been prevented from proceeding to George Town on account of a Breach in the Canal. Capt. Schryock called to know if I wanted pipes made to the Cistren.26 Doct. Parran called to see Mrs. B. is to send her some medicine Mrs. Nafe went home this evening after spending 3 days sewing Ned & Jupe in the Boat done a tolerable Business. Enoch brought the carriage from Millers he has been repairing it

        21st Thursday. morning. clear calm pleasant weather. I rode down to J. Ks. with Mrs. B. I walked into the field. 7 hands mowing clover. returned home. Ann Miller came. young Mr. Bell his sister & Miss Harrey came in a Baruch. Mrs. McFarlen and Miss [blank] came all dined with us. young Mr. Bell returned home after dinner. the hands finished the corn in the old ground the 2d plowing. commenced the new ground the first plowing after dinner. one plow & Will & Enoch hoaing Mrs. McFarland went home after supper. I rode out with the Gun saw nothing to shoot. Adley is nailing up pailings. has put 3 pannels. the Packet came up from Harpers Ferry. not any passengers. Ned and Jupe in the Ferry Boat have done but a poor business Mrs. B. sent for her medicine to Doct. Parran a Box pills & a large Phial liquid

        22nd Friday. Weather Clear. warm and his becomeing dry Rode out with Mrs. B. after Breckfast. The Groves heifer had a Bull Calf last night. of a Red colour not a white hare to be seen on any part of it. I punished Isaiah prety severely for his miss conduct. Murf plowing the corn in the new ground. Will and Enoch hoeing - Helena Miss Bell & Miss Harry sat out in the Packet Boat at 12 Oclock for Harpers Ferry in company with Elizabeth. William Shortt called and spent some time attempted to explane his account about flour. Will and Murf & Enoch brought a load clover hay from lower farm which they took all the afternoon to do Murf went over after dark to purchace hay forks gave him $1 a cloud in the west in the afternoon threatened rain passed around Ned and Julious in the Boat. a small Business I wrote William Schley respecting Turnpike Stock

        23rd Saturday. Weather clear and warm. rode down to J. Ks with Mrs. B. he is complaining Murf Will and Enoch hauled from lower farm 4 loads clover hay. Murf bought of B. T. Towner 1 grain fork pd. 75 cents. Doct. Parran called to see Mrs. B. sent word by Beltser to Sam Adley to come and mow for me on Monday next. Helena and the ladies returned from Harpers ferry at 12 Oclock. lost a Horse on the way down



26. Blackford was in process of completely rebuilding the cistern for his water supply at Ferry Hill.

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ran off and fell off the towpath and was killed. a cloud in the S.W. in the afternoon. a considerable wind which was followed by a small sprinkle of rain. Sent William on my mare to Sharpsg. to have her shod an deliver an acct. for Mr. Brien to Mm. Grimes. Wm. returned with Franklin from Sharps. did not have my mare shod. Adley nailing on pailings. very slow have brought from J. Ks. 5 loads clover Hay. sent Caroline down to J. K.s with a doace calomel for him to take after sun set. Ned and Julious in the Boat. they have done but a poor Business This day. the weather warm

        24th Sunday. Weather. warm and partially cloudy. Threatens to Rain. I rode down to J. Ks. after breckfast. he had not taken the calomel I sent him until this morning. I found him laying on the Bed. Helena and Miss Bell & Harry walked over to meeting to hear Mr. Hargrave. Elizabeth came up and spent a short time have spent the day quietly at home. Martin Shellman and Elias Keepers came this evening and eat supper Will has been to Sharpsg. to see after hands could get none all ingaged that he saw. Ned and Julious at the River tho Murf attended the Boat nearly all the day. not much done Murf corned all day

        25th Monday. Weather. morning clear and pleasant after a small shower of Rain last night. about 8 Oclock - Nicholas came this morning and joined Martin and Elias Keepers who had to hammer and grind their scithes. Murf went out to plow in the new ground and Will and Enoch unloaded the wagon of Clover Hay then went out to hoeing the corn & potatoes untill the hay dries off. - Mrs. Nafe came this morning early to sewing. Helena & the young ladies went over to S. Town. William to school. I rode down to J. Ks he is much benefited by the medicine I gave him, his wifes foot and ancle sore, Will & Murf quit plowing at 10 Oclock and went down for the hay. Jupe and Enoch hoeing in the new ground. Catherine Miller arrived and her little sister Ann rode the horse she rode home. Helena purchased goods from Lane & Webb to amt. of $3.05 of which she paid 2.25 leaving a balance of 80 cents to pay. I rode down the 2d time to lower farm. Will and Murf have been since 10 Oclock bringing 2 loads hay from lower farm have Brought 7 loads hay from J. Ks. I supped there with John Lovick Betsy and Mary Cookers. sent a Bag Corn to Mill Will butchered a lamb. I recd a letter from N. Carusi and wrote an answer directing a Piano sent. Ned attended the Boat himself. I did not receive the Patriot.

        26th Tuesday. Weather morning calm. no dew fell last night an indication of Rain. The same three hands as yesterday have gone out to


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mowing. Will and Murf to plowing. Jupe and Enoch unloading hay from the wagon. then went out to hoeing until dinner I rode to Shaprg Bought 10 yds twilled cotton for Negroes pantaloons and some small matters amounting in all to $2.40 Bot of Colo. Miller wrote to Henry and sent the letter to the P. Office. Adley nailing up pailings. Mrs. Nafe sewing. C. K. & C. Miller walked to Town & back was at the miliners. Mrs. Brookhart Mrs. Keneday Miss Crisep called were in Mrs. B.s carriage drove down to the river where they left the carriage and walked over to David Sniveleys where they spent part of the day. their coachman came up here for his dinner and drove off home without calling again I brought my vest & pantaloons from Deloneys the taylor Mrs. McFarlen and Eliz Jane Kerney came over and supped with us. Mr. Grimes called. Mrs. McFarlen & Miss Kerney returned in the evening. Ned in the Boat complains very much and says he cannot stand it Will & Murf brought 2 loads clover hay to the Barn

        27th Wednesday. Weather, no dew this morning; the same hands as yeasterday. they were late commencing this morning, I rode down to J. Ks. him & Mullin cuting Timothy in the lot before the house, I borrowed his wagon. Murf went for it after hauling one load hay. They finished plowing the new ground this morning Murf & Will hauling Hay. Jupe and Enoch & Isaiah puting it in the mow. Mrs. Nafe quit and went home paid her off with 2 w wool and Cash $2.25. the hands have hauled into the Barn 5 loads this day and 2 yeasterday of clover hay from the middle field. 7 in all which is about 1/3 of the field. the evening threatens to Rain Ned attended the Boat himself which he thinks is a harculin job. is continually complaining of his unpleasant feelings. Nicholas goes home at night

        28th Thursday. Weather morning cloudy has fallen a fine shower of Rain during the night past. some thunder and lightning. directed the hands to thin the Corn. Martin & Elias assisting finished the lot before Breckfast, then went out all hands to the pond field Except Murf is plowing the corn in the garden. Sprinkled a little Rain at 9 Oclock soo quit. J. K. came up to sharpen his plow Irons. The wind sprang up at 11 Oclock I wrote to Mr. John Rigny Frederick City. Murf hoeing the hog pen patch. Adley nailing on pailings. Miss Bell Miss Harry and Helena crossed over to spend the afternoon with Mrs. Dougless27 in Shepherds Town returned after sun set. I wrote a letter to Richard H. Lee. Martin & Elias all day thining Corn Ned attended the Boat but little done. Jacob Reynolds was married last night to Catherine Cookers



27. Mrs. Douglass was the wife of the Reverend Robert Douglass, a Presbyterian minister. Douglass purchased Ferry Hill Plantation in 1848 from Franklin Blackford who had inherited it at his father's death in 1839.

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        29th Friday. morning. Clear and pleasant. Nicholas came this morning and joined Martin & Elias. mowing again Rode with Mrs. B. down to J. Ks after Breckfast. Miss Ellen Chaney arrived in the stage before 9 Oclock. Murf took J. Ks plow home then went to work with the Hay. all hands brought two small loads into the Barn Catherine Miller went home this afternoon I wrote to Mr. Jos I Merrick. sent by Jno. Kealhofer. Mrs. Juett Mrs. Magruder & Miss Amelia Harry came this evening supped with us and returned. Murf brought a small load Timothy hay from J. Ks which is 3 taken into the Barn this day. Nicholas goes home at night a cloud went to the south which gave Rain Jn. Kealhofer did not come from S. Town but remained there all night. Ned in the Boat has done a very small Business. no traveling

        30th Saturday. morning Clear and very warm a cloud arose in the west 1/2 after 11 Oclock. sent Wm. to Smiths for Ducks eggs to set a duck at J. Ks. Murf and Adley all the morning. fixing the ladders on the wagon. Nicholas Martin & Elias Keepers mowing Miss Bell Harry Chaney & Helena all four have gone over to S. Town. Shaw called. says he is not well that he will help me next week a day or two came on a heavy shower of Rain and wind at one Oclock. the hands brought in 2 loads clover Hay which is 11 loads clover hay from the middle field and 8 loads from J. Ks up to and including this day. 19 in all in the mow. The ladies returned from S. Town but a moment before it commenced Raining it continued to rain nearly two hours. has washed the corn up. the hands went out to set it up & reinstate it with earth. the mowers did nothing after dinner. Doct. Smith & Jennett came after sunset. Ned in the Boat.


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July 1838

        1st Sunday. morning clear became cloudy Doct Smiths Boy rode his mare here she was taken with the lock Jaw Bled her and poured liquor & Laudnum into her the 3 young ladies & Helena crossed over to meeting. They returned to dinner. Elizabeth dined with us. The Doctors mare died about 2 Oclock he sat out for home about 4 Oclock and his Boy with him. Jno Miller dined with us. he says his intention is to set out tomorrow for Canonsburgh. Corbans son Jackson called spent but a few minutes and returned J. Ks wife came after dinner. has continued cloudy and threatning to rain all day. did sprinkle at times I rode down to J. Ks him and Henry Mullen gone to the mountain. Murf and Julious both drunk Ned in the Boat. But little done. Jennett & Child remain with us. Doct. gone home this evening

        2nd Monday. Weather morning some fogg Nicholas Martin & Elias all appeared and went out to mow. Murf joined them for a short time - J. K. came up speaks of hauling over popler logs for Shaw. Will Butchered. a Sheep this morning - Voluntine & Margaret 1 came at 8 Oclock this morning he went into the field to makeing Hay. She remained in the house. J K hauled 3 popler logs over to the saw mill for Shaw. leastways he is to have the planks; Shaw helped load the logs I rode down to the lower farm the hands Nicholas Martin & Elias finished cuting the field before Breckfast then went to helping with the Hay - Urias Knode called. he took Davey Hannay's Bay horse home with him; I promised to lend him some money to pay for cuting his harvest. Margaret went out in the Hay field after dinner hauled one small load damaged Timothy hay from J. Ks and 4 loads clover Hay. Bought a sack salt from Wm. Shortt to sprinkle the clover Hay. Ned in the Boat.



1. Nicholas Voluntine a German immigrant who married a native of Sharpsburg. Both were employed as common laborers at Ferry Hill. Margaret often worked at harvesting and even in the woods alongside her husband. They sometimes remained over night at Ferry Hill.

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        3rd Tuesday. morning foggy and much dew all hands fixing to mow. J.Ks wife came up at 5 Oclock to go with Mrs. B. in the carriage to Boonsg Elizabeth J Ks wife Jennett & Child Mrs. B. and little Ann all in the carriage & Franklin driveing sat out at 6 Oclock precisely. gave Mrs. B. 10 dollars in small notes. Philip Wintermore Brother & Son2 came commenced cuting the Rye on the hillside, in front of House. Nicholas Martin Elias Murf mowed all day. George Duke and Voluntine after dinner went to puting hay in the mow. Margaret went out after dinner to helping with the hay. they have brot. into the Barn 4 loads clover Hay. Helena & the two ladies rode out and met the carriage returning from Boonsg. Mrs. B. Bot. goods on a credit from J. A. & G. Bentz & Co. to amt. of $19.71 C. K rode Franklins horse home the Wintermeres went home to sleep. Henry Mullen came up and rode J. Ks Black mare home had her hauling 4 loads Hay. Ned in the Boat Adley nailing up pailings

        4th Wednesday. The aniversary of the American Independance. all appears very quiet. the people appear too much ingaged with their harvest to Celebrate the day - Wintermire took his cradle and is off to Kretzers Nicholas Martin Elias & Murf gone out to mowing Will Voluntine George Duke Margaret Julious Enoch & Isaiah hauling and working with the hay. I rode down to the lower farm. J. K plowing his corn about to finish before dinner, he called after dinner & ground his scithe. Mrs. Fry called and eat her dinner then went over to S. Town. The people of S. Town the military particularly had a parade and some refreshments at the spring as is customary; Mrs. Eaton came this afternoon. Franklin spent some time supped with us. pierced some gold pieces of money for his child to play with Brought into the Barn 2 loads clover Hay which filled the mow; there is 30 loads put in this mowing 9 of which is from J. Ks and 21 from the middle field Martin & George Duke went over the river. Ned in the Boat

        5th Thursday. morning clear. Voluntine & Margaret went down to J. K. to follow a cradle. George Duke did not come this morning. Edwin Bell came half after 10 Oclock with a carriage for his sister & Miss Harry his cousin. I rode down to the other farm J. K. & 3 others cradeling Rye down at Bedford place, where Nicholas lives. E Bell and ladies sat out after dinner. two men called this evening say they came from above old Town. one carries a cradle and rides the other on foot. say they will not cut under $2.50 pr. day. Call themselves Misener and Davis rough blackgardish behaved fellows. particularly



2. The Wintermores or Wintermires, farmers of Washington County, Maryland, were employed by Blackford to harvest grain. Unlike many of the farmers hired by Blackford, the Wintermires owned cradles rather than scythes.

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Misener. they went on towards Sharpsbg Nicholas Martin & Elias Keepers finished cuting clover in the little field. before 10 Oclock then went to throwing up and makeing Hay and assisting to haul and Build a Rick which they hauled and put on 12 loads before dark. Voluntine & Margaret came up from J. Ks where they have been rakeing and Binding. Ned in the Boat.

        6th Friday. morning cloudy and threatens to rain did sprinkle some little before day. Nicholas Martin & Elias all three gone down to J. Ks. my hands with Voluntine & Margaret finished hauling and Ricking the clover in the little field before dinner have 15 loads in the Rick which is 54 feet long & 15 feet wide. Franklin came out and gave some little assistance. Mrs. Fry called eat dinner and let have 2 w wool. commenced cuting Rye at 2 Oclock Murf & Will cradeling, Voluntine & Margaret takeing up after Will and Jupe & Caroline after Murf Enoch & Adley shocking. Isaiah geathering sheaves. had two Rakes from Lines Will price 25 cents each. I rode down to J. Ks after dinner. he is cuting Rye in the new ground field. with 4 cradles. Turned the Milchs cattle in the clover field. Ned in the Boat

        7th Saturday. morning clear & pleasant. Murf & Will cradeling. Voluntine & Margaret Caroline & Julious takeing up Adley & Enoch shocking. Recd a letter from Mr. N. Carusi and the patriot, half a paper of the 5th there not any published on the 4th. The hands finished the Rye before sun set. and did no great things tho it was very warm. the only excuse for the little they have done this afternoon. Votuntine and Margaret supped and went home gave Adley and old white or drab fir Hat and 2 pair of pantaloons he has helped to shock this day. - Ned attending the Boat very little done there being little or no traveling. there has several Boats passed and repassed the Canal. The River has fallen off and is quite low at present

        8th Sunday. This being the Anversary of the birth of Henry V. L. Blackford. I therefore contemplate writeing to him. have written him a long letter. J. K. and his wife came up spent a short time the Packet came up had 3 passengers. James Elgen and his sister with Franklin and his wife came up and spent the afternoon and supped with us. wrote a note to N. Carusi directing him to send the Piano3 by J. Elgen by whome I sent the note open. in the chractor of an order. instructed Mr. Elgen to bring me a demjohn of Port wine and one of consack Brandy. of the Best that could be procured in George Town. Ned in the Boat. little done



3. Blackford had contracted for the piano while in Washington July 7.

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        9th Monday. morning clear warm. Murf & Will gone out with their cradles. Voluntine & Margaret Julious Caroline takeing up. Adley Enoch & Ike shocking. cut in the field in front of the Barn some with the sickle sent my letter to Henry to the P. Office recd my patriot - this day has been very warm Thermor 88 in the shade. J. K. cuting wheat in the Bottom field Franklin assisting him. Harrises Boat The Henry Clay passed up. the Doctors colt begins to eat chopt feed. heard of the death of Mrs. Langs daughter in George Town. Ned in the Ferry Boat is doing but a very little Business. Recd $1.75 this day

        10th Tuesday. Weather continues warm the last night very warm, uncomfortable to sleep. the same hands as yeasterday gone out to cuting and securing wheat. I Rode down to J. Ks after Breckfast. he is outing with 2 crades. Takers up Nicholas Martin Elias Keepers and Henry Mullen. I got a finger for Wills cradle. I fixed it on. Rode down to the spring saw a shoat in the wheat. Mrs. Miller the coach makers wife called and spent the day with us Martin come up at night not sober. duned me for money paid him $2 says it is to buy pantaloons. Threatens to go off if I do not give him the money. Ned in the Boat but little done.

        11th Wednesday. Weather continues warm. the same hands as yeasterdays cuting & geathering wheat in the field front of the Barn. I rode down after breckfast to J. Ks field. he is reaping. lent him 3 sickles. sent by Dick. Martin drunk and quit he came up to the ferry. I directed them not to give him any liquor. J. K. caught 2 of his hoggs in my wheat and put them over the fence. C. K. & Helena rode my mare to Sharpsg. sent 2 1/2 B. Corn to Mill and an order to have 5 B. Rye Chopt. for horse feed. about two Oclock there was a strong wind from the S. W. with a small sprinkle of Rain. C. K. & Helena returned after sun set saw Martin Shellman in Sharpsburgh prety drunk. a letter from Henry to his aunt C. K. and the Patriot. Ned in the Boat. But little doing. This day has continued warm notwithstanding the wind and sprinkle of Rain.

        12th Thursday. Weather continues warm & dry. Butchered a Ram lamb this morning finished the field in front of the Barn, and began in the lower field, half after ten oclock with the same hands as yeasterday. Mrs. Eaton came over this morning. sent a lamb skin to J. Marmaduke to be dressed with wool on; Staub sent a note stateing that was sent 2 Busels Chopt Rye and 59 w Bran No Ry came but 2 Bags Bran. One of the Bags looked like Rye offfall or Rye Bran. I rode down to J. K's he is cuting in the grave yard field. two sprinkles of Rain. the last came on at 5 Oclock. have writen a letter to John


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Restley and one to John Kealhofer - one respecting plank and the other respecting a carriage Ned in the Boat by himself. a small Business

        13th Friday. Weather morning cloudy and very much like Rain. Began to sprinkle at 6 Oclock hands went out at 5 Oclock, the same hands as yeasterday. - Martin Shellman came. I refused his services and would give him neither meat nor drink he went to J. Ks where he was treated in like manner. I rode down he is cuting with 3 cradles. Martin loitered about until evening he came into the field and asked if I would imploy him. The day cleared off and became a pleasant one for harvesting. The hands have cut more this than any since we commenced; Elizabeth came up after dinner and spent the afternoon. Mrs. Eaton left here after breckfast. I sent by her two letters to the P. office one to Capt. Jno. Resley and the other to John Kealhofer respecting his little carriage - Ned in the Boat has done a verry small Business. I recd the Patroit and the Phila from Henry

        14th Saturday. weather morning clear and pleasant. The same hands as yeasterday with the addition of Martin who has joined them this morning. tho he is in a bad condition after two days savere drinking. I rode down to J. Ks he is going on with the same hands as yeasterday. Doct. Parran called about 3 Oclock wished a settlement. I axibited to him the balance due him $53. 6 1/4 while looking at the account a girl called to say his wife was Ill and wished him to return immediately. I said to him that the balance should be paid him quite soon I rode out into the field remained with the hands untill after sun set. before they finished shocking B. Herbert came over. spent the night with Franklin made and gave to Ned a money purse or pocketbook Ned in the Boat. a poor business Voluntine and Margt went home to Sharpsg after supper -

        15th Sunday. Weather. Clear morning pleasant B. Herbert and Franklin came up and eat Breckfast with us the Packet arrived. half after 9 Oclock and brought a Piano and two Demijohns, filled with Wine & Brandy, hand all brought Mr. Elgen came up and assisted to put up the Piano brought a letter from Carusi - him Mr. Herbert & Franklin dined with us. I paid Mr. Elgen $23.00 for the wine & Brandy and Toll on Piano as he would not charge anything for freight. Mr. Herbert spent the day with us and remained all night there crossed over from Virgia a circus company going to Hagers Town. had some dispute with Ned respecting their ferriages. they came up to refer the matter of dispute. nothing farther occured Ned attending the Boat. a tolerable Business the fields has become very dry & grain very ripe


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        16th Monday. Weather, morning clear and warm. Bushrod Herbert left after Breckfast. Voluntine came. Margaret did not come is sick. Murf has behaved trifeling about a piece of old carpet. I rode down to J. Ks he is cuting with 4 cradles. finished his seed wheat before dinner. Recd my paper of the 13 & 14 and a letter from N. Carusi stateing that the Piano was forwarded by Capt. Elgen and that it could be exchanged at any time for a metalic plate. Margaret came in the evening Mrs. B. continues in Bad health. Helena not well they had both a chill this evening and went to Bed with a fever. Ned in the Boat. poor Business.

        17th Tuesday. Morning Clear and warm. Then came 9 hands from Sharpsburgh 3 cradlers. 5 takers up and one Reaper. Catherine Miller came before dinner we cut in the bottom next to the Canal very much down. I rode down to J. Ks he did not finish as he had calculated. Mr. Steel came to me, has a drove sheep 500 which he put in my field. I had a search for my sheep, could not find them, came up a Shower of Rain after dark. Millers Nelson & Wife had my old horse to ride home. some rain in the night. hands remained Ned in the Boat. poor B.

        18th Wesnesday. the aniversary of my Birth. much fog this morning. I am not well my bowels affected and stomach disturbed took a doace Sedlitz. Mr. Steel called and paid me $2 for pasturage and offered $4 for crossing his sheep which was done. Shaw Nicholas & Elias come at 8 Oclock. Shaw & Elias quit. Julias gave out. Will Butchered a sheep a lamb William Morrison at dinner. helped shock untill night I was not able to go to the field after 11 Oclock a poor afternoons work. the Sharpsburgh Negroes went off after supper I was in bed all the afternoon took one other doass Sedlitz Nicholas went home. Ned in the Boat a tolerable Business

        19th Thursday. Weather continues very warm hands gone out this morning Will & Murf cradling the same takers up as before Jnol Morrison Martin & Julious reaping. Wm. Morrison & Adley shocking I have taken a doace Calomel at 9 Oclock recd a letter from Henry by yeasterdays mail his letter dated 15th. turned Franklins colt from the little one. took a doace oyl. Very sick all the afternoon The hands did not finish. the two Morrisons went home after supper. Ned in the Boat.

        20th Friday. the weather continues warm. Therm 91 at 3 Oclock. Voluntine & Margaret continued untill dinner when they finished cuting and puting up all the wheat Will Martin & Murf mowed untill


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noon when they Brought for J. Ks 2 loads Hay Enoch went to Rakeing the stubble and finished the field in front of the Barn Adley righting up shock the Nell cow had a Calf. Thursday night the 19th a Bull Ned in the Boat. a very small Business doing -

        21st Saturday. morning warm as it has been all the past night Murf Brought up a load Hay from J. Ks which is 3 loads Timothy in all the last hauling. Martin & Will Building a Rick after stowing all they could in the Barn. my health is Better am able to be up was in Bed all yeasterday. George Duke called pd him $1.50 for 2 days mowing. Martin quit at dinner, then came a small sprinkle of Rain at one Oclock the hands put up 2 loads Hay sent Isaiah and Caroline to seting up the Rye shock after dinner in the lot the hands quit at 3 Oclock Adley has been this and yeasterday seting up shocks and Enoch Rakeing in the lower field. I took 2 of Brandreths pills going to bed which did not disturb me all night

        22nd Sunday. the Weather changed cooler during the last night. I rested tolerable well during the night. I have taken 3 of Brandreths pills this morning before Breckfast paid Adley $4 he sat out for home; Helena gone to Sharpsg. on my mare, the packet arrived with several passengers. negroe Sires Col. Millers man called and I paid him for 2 days cradeling $3 and 50 for S. Spong one days rakeing. J. Knode called and eat dinner with us. and spent the afternoon. Helena returned in the evening with Mary Miller Matilda Knode Ben Hedrick. David Miller & Doc Brown. Jno. Elgen and Franklin came up, they have been in the Gig to Sharpsg. Shellman & Keepers came up both drunk then went to Bed. the young men returned and the girls remained all night. Ned at the Boat.

        23rd Monday. Weather the morning cool with some fog. Nicholas Voluntine came, with Martin & Elias went out. Voluntine to puting up the rakeings and the others to mowing with Will Murf in all mowing 5 and Julious & Isaiah helping to Cock up the Rakeings. Enoch Rakeing Jepthey Wintermire called paid him $3 for one day of his father cradeling. self & Uncle raking & Binding. Mrs. B and Matilda Knode went down to J. Ks and his wife returned with them to dinner. Elias Keepers came in from the field to request me to pay John Griffith $5 which I did and took his receipt. Martin drunk and quit after eating his dinner. Matilda Knode & C. K. sat out at 2 Oclock for Sharpsg. I recd a letter from Jno. Risley and a pamphlet from B. W Herbert, Wm Bonds speach. Martin went into the field near sunset after sobering some. came with the other hands to supper he did not eat I abused him for his conduct. Julious was drunk likewise behaved


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bad. made use of profane language I have had bad feelings all day. eat but little took 4 Brandreths Pills going to bed. Shellman went off last night Ned in the Boat. a small Business. the weather cool

        24th Tuesday. Weather morning cloudy and has the appearance of Rain. Shellman came and took his scithe away Nicholas Elias & Voluntine with Will and Murf went to hauling and Ricking the Hay which they cut yeasterday in the Barn field Enoch Rakeing the stubble in the lower orchard finished before sun set, went to assisting with the Hay Daphney sick. Cholera morbes. Sent Isaiah to Mill with 2 1/2 Bushel corn - Mary Miller here. C. K gone to the Valley with George Knodes daughter Matilda - have on the Rick 9 loads one of which is from J. Ks I am still in bad health took 2 pills in the morning and 4 going to Bed. Julious & Isaiah helped with the Hay occationally. Ned in the Boat. tolerable.

        25th Wednesday. Weather changed some warmer and continues dry and continues to threaten Rain every day - Nicholas Voluntine Elias Will Murf Julious Enoch and Isaish all went to the hay field finished the Rick half after 11 Oclock. then commenced hauling the wheat from the field in front of the Barn took in 5 loads. Enoch brought from the mill 10 Bushels Chopt. Rye and 2 1/2 Bushels corn meal. after finishing cocking up the Rakers in the orchard. Helena & Mary Miller crossed over to Mr. Millers & Back. Mrs. Berry Mrs. Armorous & Gibon & Kerney came over spent the evening and supped then returned; Shellman called is still drunk says he is going to makeing shingles. I have kept cloas in the House not well and my ancle has Become sore again Nicholas Elias & Will Voluntine in the Barn & Murf & Julious loading and hauling from the field Bad planned and poorly managed Negroe dictation Ned in the Boat. But small Receipts -

        26th Thursday. Weather morning close & warm still threatens Rain. same hands as yeasterday. hauling and mowing away wheat. Will butchered a Sheep which is the 5th since we commenced mowing negroe Philis Hagen called pd. her for 2 days. Binding wheat $1.75 and sent by her to Rohrbacks Mariah 1.25 for 2 days Rakeing. in all $3.00. Murf Enoch Julious & Nicholas loading & hauling. Elias Will and Isaiah mowing away and Voluntine pitching off the Wagon in the Barn. have hauled 8 loads before dinner. Shellman called. says his ax and Drawing knife is taken begs me for an order which I gave him to Lane & Webb for a knife & ax. M. Kirk called to speak about the timber I promised him. sat some time proposed comeing over & fixing on the price and paying me for it. paid Voluntine $3 he went home at sun set Ned in the Boat. small Business -


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        27th Friday. morning warm as it has been all the last night. Thermometer at 90 yeasterday. the corn and all vegitation suffering for the want of Rain Voluntine returned. the same hands as yeasterday loading hauling & mowing wheat commenced this morning hauling out of orchard Garden wheat. I rode down to J. Ks his wife sick in Bed sent for the doctor he commenced hauling the field above the House is going to stack it in the field. Franklin called to say his Cow was sick. Nicholas was doctoring her all the afternoon. did not help after dinner. Miss James sent her girl with a note for a daily Rose. has been thundering to the South all the afternoon. much appearance for Rain. Thundered & lightened to the south & west. all passed off without one drop of Rain. They hauled into the Barn 11 loads wheat Ned in the Boat. tolerable

        28th Saturday. Weather continues dry & warm. The Thermr stood yeasterday at 94 - the past night was very warm. Wm. Morrison called I suppose for a settlement. I put him off. The same hands as yeasterday with the Exception of Nicholas who did not come this morning. The Thermometer is at 92 1/2 after 10 Oclock and rose before 12 to 94. A cloud came up from the West gave a small sprinkle Rain at 2 Oclock Murf gave out shortly after Breckfast and Julious after dinner. both taken with choleramorbus had to haul Murf up in the cart to the Barn where him and Jupe both are laying the hands hauled and put away 7 loads wheat but little done after dinner Mrs. Eaton came & spent the night. Voluntine remained all night Ned in the Boat. Business tolerable -

        29th Sunday. weather clear and warm Voluntine lodged here all night. paid him Margarets wages for Rakeing & makeing Hay. $6.25 gave to Julious and Murf each a doace salts. Nelson & Charles called pd. them their Harvest wages. & Nelsons wife & Caroline Rohrbacks girl amt. in all to $7.12 1/2 a cloud and thunder with a light sprinkle of Rain about 2 Oclock all passed off and left a clear sky. Elizabeth spent the afternoon with us. Mrs. Eaton here the Packet arrived at 12 Oclock. Thermometer at 93 Mrs. Eaton remains all night. Mrs. B. rode down the canal with Franklin Bought a Rocking chair from J. Elgen old Adley here came yeasterday. The weather continues warm and dry. the corn crop must fail. Ned in the Boat. a tolerable Business

        30th Monday. weather clear the family rose early Mrs. B. and Franklin off for Sharpg. in the Gig. Isaiah off with the grey horse to have shod the Packet detained for want of water in the Canal. Isaiah returned. Brought the old Bob Horse had 4 old shoes drove on


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the grey horse Adley began again at the pailings. Mrs. B. returned with Franklin after visiting the Balinda Spring 4 & Breckfasting at Colo. Millers. Nicholas Voluntine Elias Will Murf Enoch and Isaiah hauling and puting away wheat Mrs. Eaton went home after eating her Breckfast. I recd. the Patriot a letter from Henry to Franklin the hands report 8 loads wheat brought in Murf Enoch & Voluntine with the wagon & Nicholas Elias Will & Isaiah in the Barn. Julious did not do anything but eat and sleep Ned in the Boat

        31st Tuesday. morning clear calm. the same hands as yeasterday. sent Isaiah off to the shop with the grey mare. a little after 4 Oclock he had 4 old shoes drove and returned. I rode down to J. Ks he is hauling and Ricking wheat. Mrs. Fry & Margaret called. I discovered I had made a mistake in not paying her harvest wages which rectifyed. She settled for 2 w wool which she had took dinner and went off. Miss Helen Berry & Miss Hariot Taylor her cousin called eat dinner & spent a few hours. Adley pidling at the garden fence there came on a fine Shower of Rain about 7 Oclock in the evening. they report 10 loads wheat brought from lower field Nicholas went home in the Rain. the Rain ceased about 9 Oclock. Ned in the Boat but little doing. the day has been warm. the pastures dried out



4. This was not one of the celebrated resort springs of Virginia but was a popular one for the people in and around Sharpsburg, Maryland, and Shepherdstown, Virginia.

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August 1838

        1st Wednesday. morning some little fog. Vegetation looks revived by the last evenings Rain. Nicholas did not come this morning hands hauled some Rails Nicholas came at dinner time hauled one load wheat before dinner. have hauled in all this day 5 loads. B. T. Towners overseer called wants a Birth says Towner has rented his farm to Samuel Miller. the hands report 5 loads wheat brought from the Bottom field to the Barn. Jupe was part of the day hoeing the potatoes in the new ground. my heel very sore which has kept me confined to the house for the last 8 days. I have not been well for the last two weeks. had in the first a Bilious attack & then my heel became sore & painfull Ned in the Boat. Tolerable business.

        2nd Thursday. morning clear & calm. Nicholas Elias Voluntine and my own hands started prety early the morning being fine & pleasant. tho they moved a little stiff as they had no bitters the whiskey has given out. which they all love dearly. I rode down to J. Ks he was hauling in Rye and stacking. himself and Henry Mullen his wife complaining has sore ancle - Adley pidling at the garden fence in the rear of my office. the hands report 11 loads wheat brought into the Barn which they are stuffing every corner Ned in the Boat done a tolerable Business. my Heel very sore

        3rd Friday. morning clear cool & pleasant Mrs. B. complains of haveing had a bad nights rest Nicholas Voluntine & Elias are still ingaged with my hands. The Barn is full. They report 65 loads in the Barn. have commenced a Rick this morning. Doct. Smiths cow came sent word by the stage driver. sent William & Isaiah after dinner to Sharpsg to have old Bob and the Brown Horse Ned shod. they returned with them Ned shod all round with new shoes and Bob Before they report 8 loads of wheat brought which is the Balance of the wheat except the Rakeings Will reports 82 small loads wheat in the Barn & Rick Exclusive of the Rakeings. Ned in the Boat - Murf confesses to the distruction of 2 Pea Cocks some time in the month of May last -


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        4th Saturday. morning Clear and calm I rose early & roused the hands to Business. Henry arrived came from Sharpsburgh where he arrived last night in company. he says with Mr. Bumbarger and Wm. Grimes. 1 the same hands as yeasterday. hauling and Ricking the Rakeings. I rode down into the field had the hoggs drove down into the lower field which was cleaned of Rakeings before dinner Will Brought from Cookner 13-w Beef. Henry rode down to J. Ks then him & William rode to Sharps Mr. Bumbarger & Henry returned. Settled with Voluntine and Elias and made the entries in the day Book pd Voluntine $8 and Elias $2. Wm. & Helena came home on my mare. Henry & Mr. Bumbarger went over to S. Town returned supped and then went to Sharpsg. Wm. Grimes returned with Henry after night. Doct. Smiths Boy came at dark for the Cow which came here yeasterday morning. the hired hands quit after dinner. Sent Jupe & Will to make a reservoir at the Spring for the Cattle and Hoggs. Ned in the Boat a small Business all the week -

        5th Sunday. Weather partially cloudy and threatens Rain. is Warm. William Grimes lodged here the last night. spent the day him and George McKernan dined with us. the Packet arrived Bought 4 melons. for which I pd. J. Elgen $1. Grimes & Henry rode to Sharpsburgh in the evening. Henry returned at 10 Oclock at night after hearing Mr. Bumbarger deliver a sermon James Elgen was ingaged all day repairing his Boat which had a Breach in the Bottom George McKernan was with us untill bed time he went down to Franklins to sleep Intending to take a passage for Washington in the morning in the Boat Ned in the Boat

        6th Monday. I rose at 4 Oclock roused the hands. had an early Breckfast. Henry sat out for Mercersburgh. gave him $20 to pay for Books, etc. he is to meet with Mr. Bumbarger & Wm. Grimes at Sharpsburgh. the hands Murf Will Jupe Enoch and Isaiah commenced hauling in a Ricking the Rye that grew on the hill side S. Manypenny who is one of Briens workmen called wants to Rent a House Deloney the Taylor called. pd. his acct. $9.50 in full. Will hauled an ox cart load wood home. there came on a gust of Rain Thunder & lightning at 11 Oclock at night was but a light shower of Rain. the rain did not extend any distance. the air was very little cooled. continued warm through the night my ancle continues painfull Ned in the Boat

        7th Tuesday. Weather continues warm . the hands report the balance of the Rye too wet to haul therefore they went to plowing and hoeing



1. Mr. Bumbarger was a minister from Mercersburgh, Pennsylvania. William Grimes of Sharpsburg, Maryland, was a friend and fellow student of Henry Blackford at Mercerburgh Academy.

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the new ground corn & potatoes untill dinner time they joined and finished the Rye. hauling and ricking. Mrs. B and Helena rode to Sharpsburgh after Breckfast. William followed them on my mare Hannah had her shoes on her fore feet removed Samuel Rochenback called. spent the day and night with us. Miss Presila Miller called Morrison called. I have suffered very much with my ancle by applying the sugar of lead Sent to have 10 Bushels Rye choped. lent Abrahm Smith Bags. Mrs. B & Will returned from Sharpsg after sun set brought me some white lead ground in oyl for my ancle Adley pidling at the pailings in rear of the office. Ned in the Boat. midling business

        8th Wednesday. Weather continues warm & dry. Samuel Rochenbach sat out after Breckfast. the hands have all gone out to the new ground. plowing & hoeing - Jennett arrived and her child in the stage. half after nine Oclock this morning. William and her sat out for Sharpsburgh at 4 Oclock intending to bring Helena home with them. Helena did come with them at dusk. The hands did not finish the new ground plowing and hoeing J. K. called after night. says he is prepaired to thresh with Eakles machine in the morning and wants all my hands to assist.2 Reynolds offers him $1.20 for his wheat. Brought from Staubs Mill 5 Bushels Chopt. Rye. directed the hands to go down to J. Ks. in the morning Ned in the Boat. has done a midling Business. warm & dry weather

        9th Thursday. Weather continues warm and dry. my hands Will Murf Julious Enoch & Isaiah all went down to the lower farm to assist J. K to machine out wheat. Jennett here. Prisila Miller came over while we were at dinner. Elizabeth came up and spent the afternoon. The engineers are trying a Rout for a Rail Rodd on the other side of and along the meanders of the River. 3 I have been confined to the House by my sore ancle. have taken two doaces of Sedlitz powders. paid 50 cents for Brown sugar a cloud arose and a light shower of Rain after sun set. Ned in the Boat a small receipt

        10th Friday. morning Clear. Vegitation looks some revived by the shower last evening. My hands did not go down to assist J. K untill 9 Oclock in consequence of the grain being too wet. I Rode down and spent an hour looking at their opperations Jennett returned with her



2. Blackford owned a power driven fan for cleaning his wheat but hired a machine for threshing the grain. He kept Christian Eakle's machine at Ferry Hill for thirteen days during this threshing season. He hired the threshing machine again in the latter part of October and used it two days.

3. These engineers represented Virginia interests who were desirous of building a railroad to compete with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad which was drawing off the trade of western Virginia to Baltimore.

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child in the stage 1/4 after 12 Oclock. Instructed her to send me Turnip seed and sugar, gave Helena $1.25 to send by her sister for Callico. I have entered to the Credit for Both Nicholas and Martin their respective amounts for this harvest wages. Mrs. Hickman & Daughter Ellen & Mr. Devenport called and spent the evening. lent Franklin $12 to pay for melons which he bought out of a Boat my paper the Patriot did not come by this mail. the hands came home from J. Ks to sleep. the cattle and horses all in the yard. I arose and awoke Will who was in the Kitchen. Ned in the Boat. small receipts.

        11th Saturday. Weather. morning clear cloase calm and warm. I rode down and spent a short time at where the hands are machining out wheat it is so warm they cannot progress Briskley my hands are all helping. There came a shower of Rain at 4 Oclock. lent Franklin cart and horse to take melons to Sharpsg. he sent Right the lock keeper and little William one other small shower of rain between 5 & 6 Oclock I took a doace Epsem salts in the morning my ancle continues sore and painfull J. Ks wife has a very sore foot & Ancle. S. Bentz sent me by the mail carrer a paper Turnip seed no Bill of the Cost. Prisila Miller here. Adley pidling at the pailings Ned in the Boat Business as usual.

        12th Sunday. Weather morning. Calm & warm with some clouds. a number of Boys swiming at the ferry landing. pd. Adley 50 cents. Helena & Prisila Miller gone over to church. Elias Keepers called wanted money I gave him none J. K. called dined with us, he then went to S. Town. Prisa Miller returned with Helena. Franklin called up in the evening and returned the $12. I sent him J. K. returned in the evening to say he had sporken to Martin to help with the Machine in Will's place who I want to plow in the new ground preparitory to sow Turnip seed. much preaching in Shepherds Town. all the churches occupyed. Will & Murf absent all day. Ned in the Boat but little done. there has nothing occured. has turned some little cooler

        13th Monday. Weather has changed cooler the last night quite cool. I wrote a letter to Joseph I Merrick Esq sent it to the P. office. B. Hedrick called wants to purchase a horse. Helena & Prisila Miller went home with him to join a party that are going to fish in the AntiEaten Creek. I rode to where J. K. is geting out wheat. came round by the new ground where Will is plowing. I rode down again in the evening when they were about to finish. Helena Prisila and B. Hedrick returned with them. he supped and then returned home. Will did not finish plowing in this new ground. redd. a note from Jannett with sugar and coffee by stage. Ned in the Boat


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        14th Tuesday. Weather clear changed much cooler. Wm. gone to school. Butchered old Nels Calf weighed 65-w Murf went down with the wagon for the machine came up at 9 Oclock. then commenced fixing it Started to work at 2 Oclock Will went over with the calf skin. Brought two gallons whiskey from Lane & Webb. chd. 62 1/2 cents per. Galn. Will could not part with the shin plasters I gave him. Corban called and eat his dinner. sent word by him to James Moore to come and fix my cisterns. did not make a good start with the Machine. The Brown horse would not go. Voluntines wife & Margaret called. I paid his wife the Balance due him $4.37 1/2. I wrote to G. M. Conradt Frederick respecting carpeting. Adley still pidling at the garden pailings. Jacob Newcomer called. wanted to purchase wheat for G. Reynolds. the present price is from $1.22 to 1.25 pr. Bushel. Helena & P. Miller went to Sharpsg. to Mrs. Johnsons quilting Rode Hannah double Ned in the Boat. Small Receipts

        15th Wednesday. Weather morning cool and cloudy. wind from the east. clouds arelow and has very much the appearance of Rain. I rode out to the new ground after Breckfast and sowed one pound Turnip seed which Samuel Bentz sent me cost $1.25 and about a gill had from J. K. all of which I scatered over the whole extent of the new ground. I finished sowing the seed before 11 Oclock. Threatens to Rain. J. Knode Henry Mullen Elias Keepers Martin Shellman & little Dick. Will Murf Enoch Jupe & Isaiah & the man that attends the machine 11 in all began this morning prety early. Helena & Prisila Miller came from Sharpsburgh before Breckfast. has kept up the appearance for Rain all day. I wrote and sent by the stage driver an open note to S. Bentz respecting the price of wool. I have understood the people of S. Town had a fandango Barbacue or what other name you please out in Lucases woods. Ned in the Boat midling Business

        16th Thursday. Weather cloudy and frequent showers of Rain. Wind from S. E. The same hands as yeasterday at the Machine. The Bit Mare broke loos from the Machine and ran off with the single tree Wm. gone to school. shifted the machine after dinner threshed 15 minutes. when It came on a shower of Rain at 3 Oclock which made it too wet to proceed. all quit. J Ks hands went down home he fixed the wheat fan. Murf hauled Rails & Will wood Franklin has been hauling wood with J Ks wagon & Team. I recd a note from S. Bentz. They have threshed makeing 2 days work in the three - Reynolds large Boat arrived. Freighted with melons &ct. Ned in the Boat. he Bought 3 melons.


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        17th Friday. Weather morning cool. wendy all night. Caught & put in the pen 2 piggs. Elias Keepers & H. Mullin came up report that J. Ks wife sick. sent for the Doctor before day. She had the cholick. commenced with the machine at 6 Oclock on the Rakeings. J. Knode did not come Franklin drove in his place. Voluntines wife and Margaret called eat their breckfast. Right the lock keeper came while we are at Breckfast wants Franklin for something. Voluntines wife returned the money I gave her other notes for it. James Moore the mason came before dinner. Mrs. Morgans girl Fanney came for Apples. W. James called. Mr. Jno McP Briens agent wants to purchase wheat, has offered me $1.30 and take it away. I am to let him know if I incline to sell. Helena & Prisila rode down to J. Knods say is wife is some better Ned in the Boat poor Business. no chop Rye brought from the mill. no miller to be found -

        18th Saturday. Weather. Morning clear calm and pleasant started the machine prety early, James Moore Began to work at the Cistern this morning.4 There came on a shower of Rain at 7 Oclock which continued 1 1/2 hours then cleared. took a Bag Corn to mill brought 2 1/2 B. chopt Rye. Mr. Brown from the P. Valley called had a note from C. K. to Helena; he dined with us had his horse put up went over to S. Town returned and sat out for his home. The hands finished machining the wheat about 3 Oclock. they hands has made 3 1/2 days. Miss Patsey Roe Miss Washington, Baylor and Marshall spent the evening & supped with us. James Moore was all day diging and uncovering the cistren. Elias Keepers got drunk was here part of the night. him Martin and James Moore here Ned in the Boat poor poor Business.

        19th Sunday. Weather. morning calm and pleasant James Moore sat out early for Step father for his clean cloaths. Martin eat his Breckfast. gave him 50 cents. he says for his wash woman and says Elias was very drunk last night. Helena & Prisa Miller went over early attended meeting returned in the evening. Mrs. B. & Wm. rode down to J. Ks where they spent the day; J. K. spent some time with me. Henry Berry & Enoch Breeden called spent part of the afternoon supped and returned after sun set. James Elgen with the Packet arrived early in the day him and Franklin called up spent a short time. The girls went down to eat melons Elgen came up with them after dark remained a few minutes & returned. Mall came from Boonsbg reports that Jennetts child has the whooping cough Ned in the Boat; Business continues small



4. The rebuilding of the cistern and water works at Ferry Hill was a major operation. It was not compIeted until September 6.

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        20th Monday. Weather. morning clear & pleasant. James More arrived here at 8 Oclock. Mrs. B. & Mall in the Gig and Franklin on horse back sat out for Boonsg 1/2 after 8 Oclock Murf hauled Wright a load wood. J. K. called to say he had been with Reynolds respecting his wheat. Elen Miller came much stir on the Virginia shore. Billmires new Boat loading and discharging plank at the same time. had the straw changed on the Ice. Will Jupe & Enoch sprouting and hoeing in the new ground. Murf assisting at the cistern. Adley pidling at the garden fence Caroline discovered and brought in a bottle of whiskey which Murf & James Moore had hid in the carriage House. the two little Miss Berrys and their brother come over in the afternoon. J. K took the wheat fan and 18 old Bags. Franklin returned after the sun set. the Miss Berrys supped then went home This day has been quite warm continues dry, pastures Burned up no grass for the cattle; Ned in the Boat a tolerable Business. Horses went off at night -

        21st Tuesday. Weather morning clear and calm. James Moore and Murf diging and wheeling off clay from the Cistern. Well Jupe & Enoch hoeing in the new ground Isaiah Rode the Bay horse Jack to Sharpsg to have him Shod. recd the Patriot. the Richmond and Philadelph papers this morning which I should have Received yeasterday. had 3 new shoes on the Jack horse one I furnished. Will Jupe & Enoch report they finished hoeing & sprouting the new ground. I rode down to where J. K is cleaning up wheat. he hauled 2 loads down to the Forge mill. I spoke to Wright to make a gate. Mrs. B. returned in the evening. Jennett & child & Josiah Smith came with her. She Bought sundries from Bentz & Co. to amt. of $15.96 1/2 on credit Ned in the Boat complaining of Bad feelings

        22nd Wednesday. The past night has been very warm Jennetts child did not rest well. Will Jupe & Enoch changeing the position of the plank. James Moore and Murf diging round the cistern. Catherine & Mary Miller came after Breckfast. the stage brought sugar & coffee from Boonsboro. my Patriot did not come. paid Adley $1 a man who called himself Witiker an agent for Mr. Coburn wants to know more about the Cement Stone. the Patriot has changed the rout and comes by the way of Harpers ferry and arrives at 5 Oclock in the evening. Josiah Smith and the two Miss Millers sat out from here about sun set. sent scantling down to Right for a gate which he is to make. Will Jupe and Enoch have spent the whole day removeing some plank. Franklin returned from Corbans where him his wife and wifes mother spent the night. Very small quantity water in the Canal Ned in the Boat small business


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        23rd Thursday. Weather continues warm and dry Thermometer at 2 Oclock 89. James Moore and Murf diging at the Cistern. Will commenced to sew the Back lot with Rye Jupe and Enoch to hoeing in the banks between the corn. I rode down to J. Ks Nicholas Elias & Henry cleaning seed Wheat J. K gone to the forge mill with the 6th load wheat the hands say there is 327 Bushels cleaned and sent to the mill J K and Elias Keepers brought up the wheat fan with a keg of Nails a Bag Bran 110-w and Jno. P. Brien & Co. Receipt for 164 Bushel 47-w wheat in store J. K takes my wagon he wants to haul manure. Franklin and his wife came up in the evening. Mr. Witecker called again to say he had looked at the stone and would employ Nicholas to quary a few pearch in order to haveing them taken down to try the quality.5 Ned in the Boat. a tolerable business the Thermometer stood at 89 all the afternoon

        24th Friday. Weather continues warm and dry. the last night was uncomfortably warm. James Moore & Murf diging at the Cistern ground very hard Adley pidling at the garden fence. Isaiah went to Sharpsburgh and brought 3 blind Bridles which Kritzer mended and left one with Smith to have repaired. Will Jupe and Enoch sowing plowing and hoeing in Rye in the back lot. Franklin traded old Poney to an Irish pedler for two Table Cloths this Poney I purchased from Charles Downs Decr 25th 1815 for $25 Franklin brought & left with me Elias Keepers order for $8.87 1/2 which is all that is due him. Sent Isaiah to S. Town for fish oyl he bought 1/2 gallon from Jno. T. Cookers pd 50 cents. Abraham the old negroe sent an order. I pd. $2.25 for 1 1/2 days cradeling wheat Ellen & Prisila Miller & Helena walked down to J. Ks. Mrs. B. & Jennett rode down in the gig with little Otho. all returned after sun set. Elizabeth was down with them. Franklin gone to Sharpsburgh. Themometer at 89 all the afternoon. My paper has failed in coming by any mail. So says the postmaster. Ned in the Boat little water in canal.

        25th Saturday. has some appearance for Rain. James Moore & Murf diging at the Cistern untill 3 Oclock when James sat out for his uncles Will Jupe & Enoch finished sowing and plowing & hoeing in 4 Bushels Rye in the Back lot before dinner. I then directed them to cave up the wheat in the Barn. William rode Franklins horse to Sharpg. to have him shod. Eakle sent for his machine Abraham Smith came to assist in puting it on the wagon. Franklin and George McKernan came and supped with us. They spoke of going to camp meeting. I agreed that George McKerney should ride the brown horse. he sat untill bed time then he went down to Franklins to lodge. some distant



5. Blackford had at long last agreed to sell some cement stone.

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thunder to the north east after dark. no rain dry and warm Thermor 89. Ned in the Boat Virginia Swearingen called a few minutes in the evening came over with Ellen Krosen -

        26th Sunday. Weather morning. clear with some wind and somewhat cooler. Franklin & G. McKeney gone to the camp meeting in Pleasant Valley. Martin called I gave him a lecture on whiskey drinking. he said he would quit and drink no more. Jackson Corbans son came over there is not weater in the canal sufficient to swim a Boat. there is consequently an intire suspention of Intercourse. The packet came as far as Mitchels lock. Jackson returned home in the evening. The Packet came up to opposite the Shepherd farm could come no further for want of weater. J. Ks wife rode up in the evening spent a few minutes and returned home Elizabeth spent the evening with us Franklin did not return home from the Camp meeting Ned in the Boat a poor Business The weather changed some cooler wind all day -

        27th Monday. Weather changed cooler. had a fire in the room early this morning. Mrs. B. Jennett & child Helena & William sat out 1/2 after 7 Oclock for Corbans. Caroline to nurs and Will to drive the carriage. Murf Jupe and Enoch working at the cistern. Thos. Tilghman requested that I make out Jno. McP. Briens acct. Urias Knode called to speak about renting the farm, I waved the subject as he is fixed to put out a crop where he is at present. I recd. the Patriot & a note to Jennett from Doct. Smith. George McKernen came from Camp meeting Mrs. B. and family returned home in the evening G. McKernan remained all night. Ned in the Boat

        28th Tuesday. Weather high wind in the night. morning cloudy. Doct. Smith arrived before sun rise. sent Will to Sharpsburgh with the wagon 2 plows to have repaired a Bedsted and Chair to have pained a matock to have repaired. Murf and Jupe diging Clay for pudling the cistern. has sprinkled some little Rain before 11 Oclock Abraham Smith called said he wanted to see Franklin George McKernan left before dinner in the stage Will returned from Sharpsg brought the front wheels of the small wagon had the matock & Shear of the plow repaired and a shoe on the grey mare Doct Smith sat out for home in the afternoon. Mrs. Armstrong and the two little Berrys came over as the Doctor left here Isaiah took a bag Corn to the mill William went to school did not go yeasterday lent Franklin a horse to help down with the Packet Boat. Will yoaked the oxen & hauled 3 loads Clay. he has trifled this day away Mrs. Armstrong and the little girls supped and returned home Ned in the Boat. tolerable Business.


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        29th Wednesday. morning cool with some fog. I took 2 of Brandreths pills. Wm. Morrison called and I settled and paid him in full and over 36 cents pd. $3 for his son and $1 for old Bowen an order for 2 pr. Harnes which he furnashed some time since. . Butchered a pigg this morning. Mrs. Eaton came over before dinner. Will hauling clay for Pudling the cistern, Murf & Jupe diging. Enoch Wheeling Isaiah breaking stone. Hannah & Virginia Swearingen came over after dinner. Sarah Williams Shepherd that was and Eliza Miller came in the evening and remained all night. Mrs. Eaton remained all night. My paper did not come, recd a letter from Henry dated 26th Inst. Ned in the Boat. Poor Poor

        30th Thursday. Morning clear and pleasant. Set the hands to filling in round the Cistern James Moore came at dinner time, James M. Brown came over and presented his papers for settlement. he had collected $7.75 of which it took $5.86 to pay costs and commission, I paid him B. Tapscotts acct. $10.82 1/2 and Corporation Texas for S. Town two years 1837 & 1838 amt. $5.50. he left moar of the accounts I had given him to collect returning a few for which he gave me a receipt6 - Franklin set out with Jennett & child half after 4 Oclock. Mrs. Eaton went home I lent hir $1.50 to purchase Carpet yarn. Salley Williams & Eliza Miller went over soon after breckfast. The canal is still without weater. Franklin returned from Boonsg. late at night. as I understand as he did not stop here. Ned in the Boat. Poor Poor Business

        31st Friday. morning Clear cool and pleasant the hands ingaged pudling the Cistern James Moore assisting. Franklin returned last night Brought sugar &ct with the Bill amounting to $2.37 1/2 from Messe J. & S. Bentz & Co. he likewise brought Mrs. Eatons Carpet yarn which was paid for. I rode down to J. Ks saw Franklin indevouring to get the Packet up I mentioned my views to J. K. of leting him have more land to work and hireing him Murf he is going to Sharpsg instructed him to bring my paper &ct. Franklin asked for horses to pull the Boat up. Mr. Hargrave called and spent a short time with us in the afternoon wrote an order to H. Staubs to chop 10 Bushels my Rye. Isaiah took over 4 Bags. I received my Patriot in due time by this days mail - Ned in the Boat. a tolerable Business -



6. James M. Brown of Shepherdstown was employed by Blackford to assist him in collecting accounts.

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September 1838

        1st Saturday. sent Will to Sharpsburg with the ox cart and a Harrow to have repaired he remained untill 11 Oclock before he returned. Murf Jupe & Enoch working at the Cistern J. Moore fixing the pipes to conduct the water. Right came up and ingaged to make frames for the Cistern Enoch brought a Bag of Chopt Rye and Staubs statement of the Rye. Lent J. K. the grey mare & cart to Bring a Ram from Corbans, Right brought up one frame and assisted to put the pump in the Cistern and the hands finished covering & fixing the pipes. James Moore quit at 4 Oclock I paid him 50 cents. He sat out for step fathers. gave Farmans son 2 1/2-w wool for 62 1/2 cents due for colouring. gave him 3 fox and a wild cat skin. Corbans son Jackson came over this evening Murf had a pair shoes from B. T. Towner. Elizabeth came up and supped with us. some of the Sharpsg caveldry at Ferry House. Ned in the Boat a very poor weeks work at the Boat

        2nd Sunday. morning clear and cool wind during the last night. Murf brought a pair shoes from Towners last night. Exchanged them for a pair Isaiah brought for which I sent an order Helena rode the Hanah mare to Sharpsburgh Franklin & Elgen rode to Virginia Jackson spent the day here. Mrs. Croset buryed. Jackson returned home in the afternoon I rode down through the woods to the Bedford place and returned by the Canal which is without water. the Packet lays in the Canal a little above J. Ks saw Elgen & Franklin his wife John Miller and his sister but did not know Mr. Miller and his sister. Helena returned in the evening. under stand little negroe John had a fit. Sent for the doctor who bled him. this was late in the evening; Ned in the Boat small Business.

        3rd Monday. morning. Clear & Cool. made fire in the Breckfast Room. Murf commenced plowing in the middle field next the corn which is the first plowing done this season. Will & Enoch securing the Hay Rick by puting straw on the top and Building a fence around it. I rode down by where Murf is plowing to J. Ks and back again James


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Moore came at Breckfast time him & Jupe set to repairing and cleaning the Cistern. M. Kirk called wants to know about the timber he is to have rode with him to the timber sold him 7 loges 3 of them popler & 4 white oak at $15 which I charged to R. Parran on his order I took Kirks note for $4.25 a balance he has owed me for a long time. Mrs. Juett & daughter Mary came over spent the afternoon supped and returned as did J. Ks wife. J. Moore commenced puling down the fire place in the Breckfast Room.1 Rode by where old Martin is makeing shingles. he is sober & study, Boards at J. Ks Ned in the Boat a tolerable Business.

        4th Tuesday. morning. Cool clear and continues dry. James Moore and Julious at the fire place puling down preparitory to making an alteration - Sent Will to caveing up the wheat on the Barn floore. Enoch brought some refuse shingles from whear Martin is makeing. Mrs. Gibbon sent to know if I would sel her a franklin stove that is in the house in S. Town. Butchered one other Pigg which is the second we have killed. I rode to Sharpsg called at P. Beelers who has not done the ox Cart. I called to see Mrs. Seese who says her husband is working on the canal above Hancock. Calld and looked at Joseph Beelers carriage offered him $100 and my Gig for his carriage I am to send the Gig for him to see. Col. Druery called on me to know if I had any recollection of young Fairfax to whom I gave a letter to Genl. Otho Williams at the request of Major Hickman. 2 Franklin gone to Harpers ferry Elizabeth came up and spent the afternoon. Mrs. Nafe sewing. Murf plowing. old Adley pidling at the fence. Ned in the Boat. a midling Business -

        5th Wednesday. Morning Clear and pleasant but continues dry. Will brought the ox cart from Sharpsg P. Beeler had the hoops cut and put on and some other small repairs done. Enoch finished caveing up the wheat. then hauled water. Mrs. Miller & her little daughter came this morning a little after breckfast. wrote a note to Joseph Beeler and sent Enoch with the Gig. Will brought 150 Brick from S. Creamer sent for Mr. Right who came & took the measure of a cupboard by the fireplace. Enoch returned with a note from Joseph Beeler stateing he would not accept my offer asks $130 & my Gig for his Baruch. Peter Manoer called and Cornelious Davis took his deposition in Colbert &



1. The repair and enlargement of the cistern and water works called also for modifications in the plantation house.

2. This conference had to do with the services of these men at the battle of Bladensberg, derisively called the "Bladensberg Races" because the Maryland troops fled when the British opened fire. Fairfax served under Blackford who as a captain commanded a company of troops. Evidently the commanding officers were trying to clear their reputations.

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Elgens case. Hopkins called to leave me the price of plank at Williamsport $2.50 for Inch pine. J. Moore finished the fire place he has worked 12 days from the first. Mrs. Miller returned home after supper. Will hauled out a few loads manure in the afternoon Ned in the Boat. a tolerable Business

        6th Thursday. morning. Clear except some smoke. Still continues dry. Murf is complaining has been over to the Doct. who gave him he says a doace calomel. I gave him a doace salts this morning. James Moore went away this morning to Virginia 3 to do some work. Murf plowing. Will Jupe and Enoch hauling out manure with ox cart. I rode down to the Iron works dined with Mr. Brien & Doct. Buckhanan came through Sharpsg where I spent an hour. Bought a Bucket at Col. Millers pd. 62 1/2 cents. spoke to Mose for lime. came home where I found Mrs. Berry and her two daughters, who remained for supper then went home. Mrs. Nafe sewing. Ned in the Boat. poor Business -

        7th Friday. Weather. smokey and warm, the last night was warm. Murf plowing. Will Jupe & Emoch hauling out manure. I rode down to J. Ks called by M. Shellman and Instructed him to deliver M. Cookres what shingles he may want. J. K. is takeing fodder. I sent the two calves down to be put in the meadow with J. Ks. sent the gig Bridle over to Licklider to have repaired. wrote a note to have a new line had a Bag Bran from H. Staub. he called pd. him $5 for the Revd. Robert Dougles. my subscription, Wm. Leadman called. beged to be put over the river. free of charge. sent Enoch to J. Knode he brought in the Cart 13 Bundles Rye straw from there Franklin returned from George Town. him & Elizabeth came up and supped with us. have concluded to set out in the morning to Virginia for a little Travel in hopes to restore Mrs. B's health. which has been bed for some time. Ned in the Boat small Business

        8th Saturday. The weather continues warm and dry. sat out with Mrs. B. in the Gig which gave way in driveing into the Boat. took off the bagage & placed it in Franklins Gig in which we drove to Mr. John Rochenbough's after some dificulty in finding his house. where we remained untill Monday. the 10th left after takeing breckfast. when we proceeded on through Charles Town to the Shannondah 4 Spring distant from Charles Town 5 miles when we arrived before 12 Oclock. All the company has left. we found a Mr. Barnum who had been ingaged attending to the concern. he quit us Wednesday evening. the



3. Moore, a brick mason, had been engaged on the cistern job since August 18.

4. This was the Shannondale Spring, one of the less well developed and less well patronized Sulphur Springs of Virginia.

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12th we remained there untill Saturday. after Breckfast the 15th came on and took dinner at Corbans then came home in the evening. where we found George McKernan who left for Sharpsg same evening. C. K Returned on yeasterday -

        16th Sunday. Weather continues warm & dry I rose not in good health. on Entering my office discovered my secretary had been opened and a small drawer in which I kept my silver change was taken out with its contents. supposed to be upwards of 100 Dollars on counting my cash account find to be missing $170 on examination find the sash of the gable and window removed by which the house was entered. 5 I passed the day unpleasantly. Elizabeth & J Ks wife & sister spent part of the day

        17th Monday. the weather continues warm & dry spent the dayat home. Mrs. Juett & Mr. Eaton spent the afternoon with us. I wrote to Henry and to Mr. G. M. Conradt. Mrs. Juett took the two letters to place them in post office. I discovered the drawer which my money had been in upstairs hid under some wool. no other trace sent a memorandum and discription of three of the small notes taken to Shephersd Town by Franklin who says he left it in Turners hands. Murf plowing in the orchard. Will Jupe and Enoch hauling manure on the stubble in front of the Barn. my Brown mare Hanah is Injured in her off hind leg and is very lame. Ned in the Boat and has been during my absence -

        18th Tuesday. Wrote a note and sent William with it to Col. Miller giveing him a discription of some of the money stolen, he Enclosed in a note by return of Wm. the one dollar note which I had discribed he obtained it from Durf6 and requested my immediate atendance as some discovery could likely be made. I sat off while the Eclips was on the sun 1/2 after 3 Oclock saw Durf and had an Interview with Doct. Hays 7 and after suming up the whole of the circumstances. the suspicion rested on his yealow boy Charles who we had taken before Jno. S. Grove and Examined. Daniel Grove8 Daniel Moore Otho Durf young Rohrback & young Flood after which It was concluded to extort a confession but without effect as I was informed. I returned home with Franklin after night. the prisoner was taken to John Knodes where he was garded all night but continued to refuse to make any confession Ned in the Boat a poor poor Business



5. The burglary had been committed between August 8 and 15 while Blackford was at the Springs.

6. Durf was a slave belonging to Colonel John Miller of Sharpsburg.

7. Doctor Joseph Hays of Sharpsburg was the owner of Charles suspected of burglarizing Blackford's office.

8. John S. Grove was a Justice of the Peace in Sharpsburg.

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        19th Wednesday. Weather warm dry with some wind. Rode with Franklin to Sharpsburgh. after Breckfast as by appointment last night on our arrival we were informed the Boy made a confession and informed where a portion of the money could be obtained which was in Doct. Hays Horse Stable. where was found $76.83. Missing of the sum taken $93.94. the constable had sat out with him shortly before our arrival. Franklin followed on to overtake them and continue on to Hagers Town where I instructed him to see Mr. Merrick and inquire respecting my Business. Mrs. Miller and Elenora came out - Murf plowing Will Jupe and Enoch hauling stone off the field and placeing them where it is washed old Adley makeing a piece plank fence. Mrs. Miller & daughter supped and returned home. Franklin returned says they lodged the Boy Charles in gale and Ironed him could get no farther confession from him.9 Mr. Merrick says he is waiting for Barns return from Balto. that both him and Mr. Price have promised that the money should all be paid before this time. Enoch brought the 10 1/2 Bushel Rye Chopt from Staubs mill and a Bag Bran. Ned in the Boat

        20th Thursday. Weather changed partially cloudy and cool with wind from N. E Henry Knode came very early this morning. he came from Sharpsburgh where he had been all night. went over to see H. Berry after Breckfast. returned and sat out for home before 12 oclock. Franklin gone to Boonsboro to see Sam Adley and try for the money Charles gave him for a game cock gafes &ct. he said. $6 of my money - Murf plowing. Will Jupe & Enoch hauling stone to the gulleys in the field. old Adley pidling at fence. Helena and C. K sent $12 by her to say Jno. T. Cookers. post office account and a store account of $2 in all $11.55. for which he receipted on the respective accounts. he kept 40 cents too much. directed Ned to call on him to rectify the mistake. Franklin didnot return before night. George Edward called. went to look at the shingles wants 3000 to cover his warehouse Ned in the Boat a small Business -

        21st Friday. a small sprinkle of Rain in the morning Right came up pd. Mrs. B. $1 which he owed for Lard Franklin came did not get the money from Adley has promised to bring it drove Doct. Smith colt down says him & Smith have an agreement that he is to rais it. Adley andWill fixing up the cider Mill & press. Enoch and Jupe spreading manure and sprouting where Murf is plowing. J. K called. has 8 Bags to bring up seed Rye. he has been threshing and is cleaning up. the stage brought from S. Bentz 25-w sugar & spice amounting to $2.94.



9. "Yealow boy Charles," as Blackford called him, was tried in the Washington County Superior Court in Hagerstown on November 27 and found guilty.

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        the wind sprang up after 12 and the clouds dispersed. J. Knode Brought up and placed in the Barn 25 Bushels Rye in part for Rent. Will assisted to put it away. he Brought 17 Bundles Rye straw likewise. clouds up again and threatens to Rain? Ned in the Boat. small receipts.

        22nd Saturday. morning clear warm and calm. There has fallen in the course of the night a light shower of rain. Ned sent up 2 shad which he purchased. I. rode down to J. Ks. he is harrowing his stubble ground and sowing Rye in his corn. Martin Shellman makeing shingles. perfectly sober. I then rode down to Millers place and up through Mrs. Harsheys farm on to Sharpsg where Colo. Miller handed me $2 which Doct. Hays got from Durf for a Ring. Charles had bought from him and presented to Nelly Motts daughter. bought 6 gun flints at Millers who presented me with his account. which I have examined and made the proper entries the wind has risen this afternoon and is Blowing strong from South east. continued to Blow almost a gail during the night. Enoch returned after dark with the wagon & harrow from P. Bellers shop. had the Roan mare shod. Brought from Mummas Mill 1 Bbl flour for Franklin a copper Kettle from Colo. Millers a crock apple butter and the Torch light. Right taken Ill last night. Choleramorbes. Ned in the Boat. light Business

        23rd Sunday. morning. Very cloudy and Raining. has rained and the wind Blew all the past night now 1/2 after 7 Oclock and Raining. the wind shifted before 12 and blew from the west & soon dispersed the clouds and ceased to Rain. I wrote a letter to Henry and Enclosed him $50 in 3 notes on the Hagers Town Bank 2 of 20 dollars each and one of $10. J. Ks wife came up and spent the afternoon. has been cool. had fire all day Elizabeth came up after sun set took some peaches with her. Franklin made application by letter that I give him business. J. Ks wife took a Basket peaches with her Ned in the Boat. small ret.

        24th Monday. Morning cool, clear and calm. Murf plowing in the apple orchard breaking up stubble Will and Enoch commenced sowing and plowing in Rye in the corn pond field one single and one double shovel plow. James Moore came at 12 Oclock received a letter from Henry dated 22. Helena & C. K. went to S. Town gave Helena 26 cents. The two Miss Henrys called spent a short time. They report their mother Ill sent a letter by Wm. to the post office which covered $50 to Henry. Adley working at the cider press puting it in order. James went over to look at the celler wall of the house in S. Town then assisted Adley at the cider press. Daph, Caroline & Isaiah geathering apples in the lower orchard. commenced Journaliseing my Books; brought up half wagon load apples to the cider press after sun set.


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Staley drove to and put into his Boat a number of live Hoggs. Ned says Doct. Quigley agreed to spear me two or three pine plank. which Mr. Right is to measure so soon as he is able to work. Julious has been diging about in the apple Trees, the Baulks & spreading manure Ned in the Boat. has done a tolerable Business

        25th Tuesday. Weather clear & pleasant. Elenora Miller Rode out went over to Shep. Town I wrote to her father and Enclosed his account. James Moore Caroline and Isaiah commenced grinding apples and pressing cider.10 Adley resumed the fence. makeing Murfrey plowing. Breaking stubble. Will and Enoch sowing & plowing in Rye in the cornfield. J.Ks wife came up helped to pear apples. Mrs. Swearingen and her Daughter Mary Quigley came in the afternoon. weather has changed cloudy and cooler. Mrs. S & Daughter supped with us and returned home. I have been writing in my Books. James Moore has been all day ingaged makeing one Barrel Cider. a little sprinkle of Rain after dark. Murf has been plowing in the field in front of the Barn. Jupe spreading manure. Ned in the Boat. he asked me for money this evening. light Business.

        26th Wednesday. morning. Raining which has been falling since some time in the night. commenced Boiling Apple Butter. 11 J. Ks wife remained all night. Will hauled load wood from where Martin is makeing shingles with ox cart. stage came before 10 Oclock. Will hauled one cart load cord wood now 20 minutes after 11 Oclock no rain fell after 12 Oclock Murf went to plowing. Murf hauled a load wood with the wagon then went to plowing as did Will and Enoch. James Moore did but little. They finished Boiling the Apple Butter a little after 7 Oclock. Jupe diging up the Balks about the apple trees. J. Knode came up after night. his wife went home with him. Isaiah Brought from Sharpsburgh Crocks to put the Apple Butter in. J. K. says he has been treading out seed wheat. Kindled fire in the office I have been writing in my Books. This Rain has started vegitation Ned in the Boat. he Brought a molasses Hhd from Shortts which he says Shafer asked $2 for

        27th Thursday. Weather continues cloudy. without raining. Murf breaking up the stubble in front of the Barn. Will and Enoch sowing and plowing in Rye in the cornfield James Moore Daph Caroline & Isaiah geathering apples in lower orchard. Ned Brought 1/2 Bushel sweet potatoes pd. 75 cents. I finished Journalising my Books Sent Jupe for the Bedsted to J. Shepherds it is nothing done to it, he



10. Blackford made cider not only for use at Ferry Hill but also for sale.

11. Apple butter was manufactured for sale by Blackford.

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Brought Lane & Webbs acct. Doct. Parran called. and Franklin has been to see Nicholas. says he is very Ill cannot live long spent a short time then returned home. Adley finished the piece fence below. the Pigg pen. Ned in the Boat came up after dark quite stupid with liqor. small Business.

        28th Friday. Weather continues Cloudy now 11 Oclock has not rained, Henry came in the stage arrived 1/2 after 10 Oclock. Left Hagers Town this morning. Murf plowing as yeasterday. as is Will & Enoch sowing Rye in the corn. James Moore pressed out one Barrell weater cider and spread some manure Adley pidling about the Gate. old Nicholas Matua died this morning; I rode to Sharpsburgh where I met with Wm. Price Esq. who informed me that Barns is now in Balto. or some of the easren cities with Mr. Preston in parsuit of a loan of money. has heard nothing from him but expects from his long stay that he will succeed Mr. Price & Wisel was attending to the sale of the farm on which Mrs. Hedrick lives. Doct. Joseph Hays became the purchaser at $40.25 pr. acre subject to his mothers life in it The quit rents of Sharpsg. was likewise sold and purchased by Joseph Hays at $3000 - myself and D. Grim took the acknowledgment of David Russle & wife of a Deed to his brother John Russle. I dined at Col. Millers, returned home in the evening. a wagoner with a 6-Horse team passed on without paying his ferriage 87 1/2 Miss E. James came over with Helena & C. K. from Shepherds Town. sent an order for 5 B. Rye to H. Staubs the boy brought 2 1/2 over. Ned in the Boat has a very poor Business

        29th Saturday. Weather wet has been Raining since some time in the night. and is now 10 Oclock. comeing down very moderate. Jas. Moore sat out for S. fathers after Breckfast. Murf Will & Enoch has kept at their plowing. notwithstanding the rain being desirous to get their work on ahead it having got backward. Cleared off at 12 Oclock and the sun shone out Bright and warm very growing weather the grass and every herb has taken a start to grow Martin Shellman called says George Edwards has taken away 4000 shingles last Monday. I paid him $3. says he is going to Sharpsg. for a pair shoes and Tobacco. Miss Ellen James left for home after dinner. has spent the last night here. Ned in the Boat. tolerable Business

        30th Sunday. morning clear and pleasant. had my brown mare brought up she is very lame, appears to have the stifle Joint out had it rubed with spike oyl and a strap drawn tight about the oposite ham in order to force her to bear on the maimed leg. C. K. & Helena went over to meeting to S. Town. Henry Rode the young mare Sheperdes down to J. Ks and back Murf reports that some person had taken the Gate


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leading into the woods off & threw it in the Road and threw open the Gate that leads into the corn field. there was persons heard in the woods with dogs last night. Martin Shellman came in the evening. has been Drunk in Sharpsburgh all the last night. J. K and his wife called in the evening. Elizabeth spent the afternoon. I remained at home with Mrs. B. all day. Coonrad Billmires wife Buryed in Shepherds Town which is the Third wife he has lost. Jupe and Murf Boath corned Ned in the Boat complains of his shoulder says he has the sweany or the falling off of the flesh. done a tolerable good Business this day


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October 1838

        1st Monday. weather morning a fogy then clear calm and warm. J. Knode came up very early to fix the apple mill. took Breckfast with us sent Will with the ox cart to Sharpsg for the Bedsted which he failed to bring. Brought of David Smiths 15 Bushels white wheat. Henry rode there and had it measured. A Mr. Grice called, represents that he has a carriage which was made for one of the Kenneys he is from Adams County Pennsylvania. he returned with it from Shepherds Town and exchanged my Gig for his carriage and gave him $180. difference 1 James Moore returned at 10 Oclock he then turned in to helping to grind apples. Murf plowing & Enoch harrowing in the apple orchard. They made one Bbl cider. will made one trip with ox cart and Brought from Henry Mose Sharpag 12 Bushel lime Julious is all day spreading manure Ned in the Boat. George McKernan called in the evening him & Franklin have been at Harpers ferry

        2nd Tuesday. much fogy this morning. J. Moore fixing the apple mill. Murf Breaking up stubble Will Brought up J. K. harrow in the ox cart. then joined in with Enoch to harrowing with the oxen. Julious pounding stone and pidling about the gate. Adley sharpening boards to nail on the fence. I rode down to where Martin is makeing shingles my mare very lame deisred that Martin come up to the house this evening a small drove cattle swam the River. I am informed of Mr. Frances Deary's descase.2 to be Buryed this day at 2 Oclock. Henry and myself rode to Sharpsg in the evening suped at Colo. Millers who is out Electioneering. called at the Smith shop to direct about the latch for the gate. Franklin was there likewise. Will & Enoch finished harrowing the orchard went over and commenced harrowing that field. Ned in the Boat a small Business continues to be done. J. Moore has finished grinding the few apples that was in the wagon.



1. This carriage was sold in December 1839 (after Blackford's death) at an executor's public sale for $200.00.

2. Francis Deary had been William Blackford's first teacher.

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        3rd Wednesday. which is the day of Election throughout the state of Maryland and the first for the governor by the people directly. The Whig candidates, are for governor John N. Steel, for the state senator Andrew Kershner for the assembly Jonnathan Newcomer Lancelot Jacques George Sheiss Charles A. Fletcher for Commissioner David Smith, on the opposition or Vanburen part. for governor Jno. T. Grason the assembly John D. Grove Doct. Jno. O. Wharton John T. Mason and Doct. Byres. for commissioner Jacob H. Grove who has majority in the district of and the Vanburen candidates for the assembly and for governor. for the senate Robert Wason 3 Mrs. B. Helens & and William Rode with me in the Baruch to Sharpsg where we spent the day. which was quite warm in every sence of the word. I dined at John Knodes with Jno. Miller of Johns. a good deal of partiality and management at poles. came home a litle after sun set. found Mrs. Eaton here she remained all night. Murf finished breaking up the stubble in front of the Barn. Will & Enoch harrowing Sent an order for 5 Bushel choped Rye and a note to Mr. Jas. Shepherd for the bedsted to be done. my ancle painfull had a bad nights rest Ned in the Boat a middling Business -

        4th Thursday. Weather clear & warm Wm. returned J. Ks harrow and brought Bushels Blue Stem wheat; which he commenced to sow in the orchard Murf and Enoch with the cultivators after breckfast. Mrs. B. Mrs. Eaton and myself rode to Sharpag and back in the Baruch spent but a few minutes in the village. J. Moore Caroline & Isaiah picking apples to keep yeasterday & this day. Brought them home this evening and placed them in the celler, say about 50 bushels. Mrs. Eaton returned home after dinner. a circus in S. Town, Franklin & Wm. went to the great dissatisfaction of their mother. my feeling have been bad all day a bad nights rest the last; took 2 of Brandreths pills going to Bed after 2 doaces Sedlits powder through the day. Shepherd sent the Bedsted in part which he varnished. the balance tomorrow so says the Boys - Ned in the Boat has done a Good Business this day

        5th Friday. The weather clear & calm. Beautifull for seeding some of the farmers have finished. Enoch took the wagon to the orchard. J. Moore, Caroline Jupe and Isaiah gone out to geathering apples. Mrs.



3. This election was warmly contested in every part of the state. Blackford, an ardent Whig, was much disappointed in the outcome for the Democrats carried his home County of Washington in the governor's race and also elected a full slate of four members to the lower, and one to be the upper, house of the legislature. He charged that there was a "great deal of partiality in the management of the polls." Blackford himself did not give the correct name of either of the gubernatorial candidates. Niles' Register, LV (October 6, 20, 1838), 82, 113, gives them John L. Steele not John N. Steel and William T. Grayson not John T. Grason.

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B & myself rode out to the orchard and back met M. Shellman who is returning from the election. I gave him an order on B. Towner for $2 worth Goods and 37 1/2 cents in money Enoch brought 5 Bushel choped Rye and a Bag of Bran from H. Staubs mill. him Murf & Will seeding in the orchard sowing Blue Stem wheat. Josiah Smith and Jennett came with the child arrived 1/2 after 10 Oclock. Nicholases widow called with her child says that J. Miller had her removed to Sharpsg. Jacob Signer the sawyer called with his account for sawing. I paid him $10 and made the entries on my Book Josiah Smith & Henry went over to S. Town. Mr. Bushrod Herbert came over in the afternoon. Jennett & Josiah sat out at 5 Oclock for Boonsboro Mr. Herbert spent the night. Ned in the Boat. a light Business -

        6th Saturday. morning clear & calm. J. K called and took two horses to assist him to tread out some wheat for seed I had a bad nights rest as had Mrs. B. she is quite Ill this morning sent Henry over for the Doctor; Will Murf & Enoch sowing and puting in the white wheat I. had from D. Smith in the clover field. next to the corn. B. Herbert remained all night. J. Moore Jupe Caroline & Isiah picking apples J. Moore quit at dinner and went off Elenora Miller came in the afternoon to return. Doct. Parran called and prescribed a doace calomel. I took 2 pills this morning Adley pidling about the gate fixing the latch. B. Herbert went over home after dinner Henry went over with him to see after the Bedsted. the hands finished sowing the white wheat on the Hill field. Mrs. B. grew worse sent for the doctor after darke he came gave her a doace of oyl. She continued to get worse all night her articulation became affected early in the evening which failed her interely before midnight. The medecine did not operate. Franklin brought his sister Smith from Boonsg & Mrs. Miller arrived about midnight -

        7th Sunday. this has been a melancholy day for me and my family. my dear wife Expired in the afternoon about half after 4 Oclock. She appeared to be dieing from 12 Oclock at night. The Doctor Parran called over early, recommended an injection as the medecine had not operated, which was administred but without the desired effect; Doct. Smith came early in the day Col. Miller & his two daughters Catherine & Mary Mrs. Eaton & Hanah V. Swearing came J. K. & his wife and all our Children. Doctor Parran witnessed her last moments; I have experienced bad health for the last three days. took 20 grains calomel about sun set Doct. Smith rode home and Colo. Miller & his Daughters likewise Will drove the Baroch to Sharpsg and brought Mrs. Nafe and Miss Betsey Snavely who arrived after night


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        8th Monday. The morning clear Weather has changed cooler. Mrs. Miller Mrs. Eaton Mrs. Nafe & Betsey Snavely remained all night; I have taken a doace oyl at 7 Oclock, David Miller gone to Pleasant Valley to inform G. Knode of the funeral. Sent Enoch to S. fathers & Corbans to give the same Information. Catherine & Ellen Miller came before dinner. Mrs. Miller returned home James Elgen rode with her and then returned. James Shepherd came over & ingaged to make all the arrangements for the funeral &et. the oyl opperated prety well & I felt Better. Mrs. Nafe Betsey Snavely ingaged sewing all day J. K. rode up to Henry Knodes & Stonebrakers to give them information James Shepherd brought over the coffin in the evening. James Elgen here. the hands Will & Murf Butchered a shoat. J. K returned a little after night him and wife remained all night Ned did not make any return since Saturday the family sent to Webbs for sundry goods no Bill has been rendered

        9th Tuesday. weather cloudy and cool. at 10 Oclock the friends began to geather and at 11 sat out with the corps. a large procession of carriages which took up some time in crossing. Mr. Dougles & Mr. Hoffmire both attended the interment 4 and then returned to the Prisbaterian meeting house where Mr. Dougles delivered a discours on the occation from the 11th Chapr. 35th Verce of the Gospel of St. John We then returned home where many of the friends called and partook of some refreshment. Henry Knode and daughter Mrs. Rochenbugh Doct. Smith Mrs. Nafe & Miss Snavely remained all night. B. Herbert handed Franklin an obituary which he had writen of Mrs. B. Ned Jupe & Murf in the Boat -

        10th Wednesday. comenced raining in the early part of last night and rained prety much all the night and through the whole course of this day. Henry Knode & daughter sat out in the rain after breckfast Mrs. Nafe went in the carriage with them. Doct. Smith left here after Dinner. Sent to Lane & Webb callico 17 yds. & 2 pr. black cotton stockings amount $5.50 have no bill for the goods. got on the 8th Monday all of which was got by Miss Hana V. Swearinger who has shown much kindnes to my family in their distress - Mrs. Rochenbough spent the day as did Miss Betsy Snavely; It continued to Rain all day the hands did nothing Except clean the stables Will states that he brought from J. Knodes 25 Bushels Blue stem Wheat last week 15 of which he sowed on the orchard and the balance is on hand. Ned in the Boat. he has made no return of the ferriages since Saturday last. four days. Mrs. Rochenbaugh & Miss S. all night.



4. The interment was in Shepherdstown. While the Blackfords were members of the Episcopal Church the Reverend Dr. Robert Douglass was a Presbyterian and the Reverend Mr. Hoffmire was a Lutheran minister.

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        11th Thursday. Weather changed.has rained nearly all night with high wind has ceased to rain and is clear Except wind clouds and is much cooler Wind blowing briskley from the west. Mrs. Rochenbough left this morning after Breckfast. Jno McFarlin came over. sent the obiatuary written by Mr. Herbert to the poust office. directed to the Editor of South Religious Telegraph5 for publication Doct. Smith made a coppy of it by my request. Murf hauling wood. Will hauled one load with ox cart. sent Jupe down to the boat, Elizabeth asked for permission to geather apples. John Hoffman called and has ingaged to come tomorrow to alter the stock. sent an order to H. Staub for 5 Bushel Choped Rye have had from him at three different times 15 Bushels. J. K. called wants apples, lent him the wire sive, Will & Henry geathering up the piggs which is to be altered; Betsey assisting C. K. Jennett & Helena to sew the goods that was had from Lane & Webb yesterday. Ned & Jupe in the Boat Brought in the last 5 days receipts -

        12th Friday. morning cool and cloudy. Murf hauled over to the saw mill one large Popler log for M. Kirk which is one of the 7 I agreed to deliver him on account and charged to Doct. R. Parren $15. 3 of them Popler & 4 White Oak. John Hoffman came cut the Black Bull and two calves which are at lower farm speyed 10 sow Piggs and cut 6, and I altered 15 before he came which is 21. Boars & 10 sows altered in all 31. recd. a note from Doct. Smith with a Bill of casinett amt. $5.00 to the credit of S. Bentz & Co. Wm. went over to Camrons with the casinett which he left to have cut; Kirk called . went out to mark the remaining logs. one of the wagon wheels gave way. Murf hauled 3 loads wood and all the plank which they say I have at the saw mill. Will & Enoch piled the plank. Adley takeing to pieces the fence on hill side Franklin geathering apples in the far orchard Miss Snavely sewing has been Here since Sunday night the 7th - Ned & Jupe in the Boat a small Business done.

        13th Saturday. morning calm & pleasant Murf Harrowing in the field front of the Barn. Will commenced at 12 Oclock to sow Blue Stem wheat in front of the Barn andEnoch to covering it with the cultivator. Mrs Berry & Mrs. Armstrong called and spent a short time. The mail carryer took my paper back to Boonsg. where he left it. wrote a letter to Wm. Dougherty in answer to his of the 5th Inst. respecting his stick of timber Ned and Julious in the Boat Jupe drunk in the evening

        14th Sunday. Weather clear and pleasant. moast of the day. Colo. Miller and his wife rode out and dined with us. J. Ks wife likewise Elizabeth came up in the evening. Colo. M. says he is going to set



5. The correct title of this Presbyterian periodical was The Visitor and Telegraph. It was published in Richmond, Virginia.

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out for Balto. tomorrow. old Wil Gurrey came this evening. Franklin drove up his gig for his wife and child took them down home. Sprinkle of rain about sun set Ned & Jupe in the Boat a midling Business. Threatens to Rain is smokey.

        15th Monday. morning thick cloudy and Raining has rained in the past night. Henry led a horse to Sharpag for Mrs. Nafe to ride out; wrote a letter to Jos. Knode directed to line of the Canal near Hancock, sent Murf over with 26 old flour Barrels to have repaired. Franklin called and Martin who is drunk has been to S. Town where there is some military parade. Barbecue or intertainment to some uniform companies from Harpers ferry.6 Martinburgh &ct. Sent Will with one old Bbl & Tub. two letters to the post office one for Wm. Dougherty and one for Joseph Knode. Will did not see Shaw he attends the Barbecue. Shepherds is to come over tomorr. to put up Bedssted. Bot. 1w wrought nails pd 18 3/4 for the cistern shutters or doores to the ventilaters. Mrs. Nafe came about one Oclock. Henry came some time after. Will daubing the Hen House Julious puting away some old Brick. gave Shellman an order for $3 on Lane & Webb. Miss Snavely here sewing for the girls. Franklin & K. Knode geatering apples. brought some to the press. I am not in good health. There has been much shooting, Bustle and parade on the opposite side near Mrs. Swearingens house prinsapelly fireing a piece of Artilery. Ned in the Boat. tolerable

        16th Tuesday. morning clear calm pleasant weather. The hands resumed seeding the stubble field in front of the Barn. sowing thereon Blue Stem Wheat I rode out to the new ground to Examine if any turnip seed had vegitated but could discover none. The potatoes apper to be growing.in my absence from the house Mrs Brookhard and Miss Crisep called as did Mrs. Webb Miss Henry and Miss H. V. Swearingen all in their carriages spent but a short time. left a little before 12 Oclock Catherine Miller & William Grimes came he crossed over the river. Miss Betsey Snavely rode Catherines poney to Sharpsburgh - Henry S. Evey called wants to ingage Tomb Stones. William Grimes returned from S. Town with Henry who went over to see the Cooper Shaw Changed a five Dollar note for J. Ks wife. who called this afternoon. The hands finished sowing the field in front of the Barn report 14 1/2 Bushels Blue Stem wheat sown on it Julious daubing the Hen House Ned in the Boat -

        17th Wednesday. Large white frost this morning. Franklin sat out after Breckfast in the Baruch with Jennett child and William for Boonsboro. It is intended that Wm. remain and go to School. Jennett has a memomn.



6. The troops were from the United States Arsenal at Harpers Ferry.

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for sundry goods to be sent.Sent to the mill by Murf 20 Bushels Rye from the garner he brought back 15 flour Bbl which Shaw repaired. then sent him to Sharpsg. with two wagon wheels and to bring the Bed Sted from Johnsons. Henry rode to the forge says he was informed I could have as many Bags as I wished. Will & Enoch pressed one Bbl water cider for vinegar Catherine Miller & Mrs. Nafe here. Jupe finished daubing the hen house. Murf Brought the Bedsted & 18 chairs from Johnson who paid him $1 for hauling them to the river. he went over and brought 9 flour Bbls which is 24 in all for repairing of them Shaw charges $4. Franklin returned after dark. brought goods which Jennett selected amt. $41.20. and a piece of Bumbizeen 32 yds at $1.70 amt. $54.40 this came by stage the amt. to their credit is $96.60. Murf brought 5 Bushels choped Rye has replaced 15 Borrowed from H. Staub - Ned in the Boat. Small Business -

        18th Thursday. weather clear and pleasant. no frost this morning Will & Enoch hauled some slacked ashes with ox cart from near the back gate on the lot in front of the House. Henry rode to Sharpsg. to have his cloaths cut and to the Forge from where he brought 25 2Bushel bags. J. Knode Brought a load apples to the press says he finished seeding this day. has sown 58 Bushels wheat and 20 Bushels Rye Murf brought one load wood then put on the long ladders and him Jupe Will and Enoch went to hauling fodder from the corn field. Henry went gunning in the evening. Elizabeth at her fathers Boiling Apple Butter Adley doing something to the Gates & mending the fence out at the woods. Ned in the Boat. tolerable Business.

        19th Friday. Raining commenced in the night very dark cloudy and wind from the east, the hands finished putting up the fodder before breckfast. then directed them to commence cleaning up the wheat which lies on the Barn floor the weather changed about 12 Oclock. clouds broke and the sun shone out, the the wind is still from the east. Henry is attending to cleaning the wheat. Henry Staub and Michael Hensel with a subscription paper to rise money to Build a German reform church to which I subscribed $20. Henry reports that 89 Bushels wheat is taken through the wheat fan twice and measured up and sat in the granery - I failed in receiving my paper the Patriot. Mrs. Nafe makeing Shirts for Henry. Two wagons ladened with gun stocks for Harpers ferry crossed. Adley is pidling at the far gate placeing a sill at the Bottom. I wrote a note to Doct. Hammond requesting a coppy of his account. the weather is changeing some cooler tho the woods remains quite green. Kenedy & Swearingen sold the farm at $51.75 per acre to Moses Shepherd. Ned in the Boat.


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        20th Saturday. Weather changed cool with wind from the west. hands went into the Barn to cleaning up wheat. J. Adley called for money. I paid him $5 and lectured him about his son Sam. he said he was going home. J. Knode and Franklin grinding the Crab Apples which they have geathered Sent Isaiah to Sharpsg he brought Henry's vest and pants which McMinn cut and some small things from Millers. Doct. Smith called and dined with us. he has been to visit Daniel Piper. Mr. Evey called the Tombstone cutter. Voluntine Fearman and his wifes brother called. Voluntine claims $1.37 1/2 he says due him for work done in the Boat last May. I am to enquire of Ned what he paid him and the time he worked. Mrs. Nafe sewing. Catherine Miller here - Mrs. Nafe walked home this evening. Henry attended to and reports 2 loads 100 36w Bushel wheat deld. in the mill at the Forge and brought 1351w off fall. J. K. & Franklin filled one Bbl cider for me which was brought into the celler. Ned in the Boat. a small Business -

        21st Sunday. morning cool and cloudy. I rode down through the woods and round the fields. saw four Boys in the orchard. David Miller and his sister Mary came after dinner. spent a few minutes. When Catherine and Henry returned with David to Sharpsburg Mary remained. Henry remained all night in Sharpsburgh.. Franklin says he sold his horse to Rogers. Saw Jacob Cookers his own and his brother Michels wife going down to J. Knodes. saw George Cookers in the far orchard who informed me it was them Ned in the Boat. came up after dark is very much Intoxicated. can scarsly walk

        22nd Monday. The morning clear calm and pleasant some frost and a little cool. Henry did not return from Sharpsburg last night. Mrs. Nafe came before Breckfast. Elenora Miller and Henry came. Henry kept on to the forge mill as Murf had gone on with a load wheat which they report to be 71 Bushels. Will Jupe Enoch and Caroline cleaning up wheat. Eliza Miller came over dined with us. Wm. Tesse came gave him is dinner in the kitchen. J. Jnode and Franklin makeing cider. Elenora Miller sat out for home in the evening. Murf and Henry gone to the mill again with a load wheat 60 Bushels returned Brought the millers receipt for the 4 loads. at 60.4w per load is 242. Bu. 4w for which Henry brought the millers Andrew Blakeneys Receipt 7 and 1163w off fall with 169w Iron Tire to hoop 2 Wagon Wheels. Henry attended to have 5 Bbl apples packed away in chaff 8 by candle light I took going



7. Andrew Blakeney was working at Glassford's Mill located at the Antietam Iron Works. Evidently Blackford had shifted his patronage from Samuel Mumma's and Henry Staub's mills.

8. The apples were packed in wheat chaff to protect them during the cold weather and in shipping to market.

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to bed 3 of Brandreths pills on acct. of my heel and ancle. Ned in the Boat. done a tolerable Business

        23rd Tuesday. morning. foggy cool and damp. took a doace Seidlitz powders Joined with the pills taken last night opperate prety freely. made Caroline whitewash the gate. Henry & Murf have gone down to the Forge with the resadue of the wheat 21 Bushels and 9 Bushels Rye to have choped and - Bus. Corn to have ground for Bread. Sent Daph off half after 2 Oclock for Boonsboro. gave her a memorandom for Jennett to get 4 pair shoes. sent one pair back by Daph. She has gone to assist Jennett to make soap. gave Will and Jupe each of them a pair of strong shoes which was bought from S. Bentz a note from Jennett came by J. Ks wife who was at Boonsboro yeasterday hir & hir sister Betsy. Henry returned from the forge Brought a Bill of the Iron and 1762w off fall Jennett writes that William commenced going to school to Mr. Brown on Monday that he appears contented and happy9 - I took 3 Brandeths pills going to bed Ned in the Boat. came up pretty well soaked with liquor

        24th Wednesday. morning dark Thick cloudy and Raining. - Sent Murf down to Join in to work for J. Knode the agreement and understanding is that he is to find him with good sufficient cloathing and provisions and to pay me $70 for the year - Franklin applied for the wagon & Team to haul a load wood. Will Jupe & Isiah ingaged puting apples in Barrels. have filled up and packed in Chaff 24 Barrels. Enoch hauled with the Wagon and Team one load wood for Franklin and a Barrel Cider from the press in the wool packed in a sack which weighed gross 147w Tan 11w Nett wool 136w The Sun shone but about 4 Oclock then clouded over again recd my Monday & Tuesdays Patriot. Boiling Apple Butter at Franklins, Ned in the Boat poor Business

        25th Thursday. morning changeable. wind from SW. clear at 9Oclock. Cool. Jupe wint to secure & fasten the gate down the canal. Isaiah went with Mrs. Nafe on the Bauld horse home early this morning. She has sowed 3 days this week. and 5 1/2 days of last week - Will brought a log for a hogg trough which he has been working at all day and his father assisting him Enoch cleaning the Barn yard with two horses & the scoop. sent Henry to S. Town to see Jno. B. Woltz who says Webbers money is in the hands of Brown the constable and Staley and his son deny their account. Henry has gone to Sharpsg. for his coat. took and old stove doore to have a new one made 3 stove rods to have tap and a shoval to have mended. Henry did not return remained



9. The death of Francis Deary caused William to shift to Mr. Brown's School which was also located in Boonsboro.

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in Sharpsg during the night. Julious assisted Ned in the afternoon in the Boat. the wind being high. a tolerable days Business. old Gurry here.

        26th Friday. morning. Clear and cool some frost and some wind blowing from the West. Henry returned from Sharpsg. where he spent the night. Sent him back with $26.25 to pay David Smith for 15 Bushels seed wheat had of him the 1st Inst. and sown on the clover field at the hill next the corn field. Sent Julious to cut the Br oom corn in new ground Henry Returned has pd, D. Smith $26.25. did not get the stove Rods & Doore. he brought the Torch light Will makeing Hogg Trough which he finished Henry went over to Shepherds Town in the evening Recd. the Patriot. Ned in the Boat. tolerable Business

        27th Saturday. The weather very pleasant. I had a bad nights rest. took a doase Seidlitz powders Mary Miller gone home. sent a boy and horse for her. Will pidling about the hogg pen & fixing the stove Enoch took two Hhds. over to Shaw to have hooped and fixed up. I made a latch to keep the gate back. Julious pidling about stoping the piggs out of the field. G.W. Rogers called. Franklin with him paid me $133.16 for the canal Co. $102.87 1/2 for a balance due me for pits from which they took earth $30.29 a ferriage account which has been standing since 1836.10 there has been considerable Business done lately on the canal. Voluntine Fearman wishes to rent the house on the Bedford place is to let me know this week if he takes it. I recd. a letter from Col. Drury dated the 2d. Inst. on the subject of young Fairfax Henry brought his coat from the Taylors this evening Ned in the Boat. a midling Business. my heel very painful this evening.

        28th Sunday. the Weather. It has Rained nearly all this day which has been very quiet no strangers during the day. I have remained in the house all day. Ceased raining a little before sun set Ned & Julious in the Boat little done

        29th Monday. Weather. Windy and Changed more cool. Mrs. Nafe came after Breckfast. Set to sewing Sent Henry to Sharpsburgh. Will & Enoch to hall some stone over to the House in S. Town they hauled 3 load and one load wood deld. to the Barber in S. Town. J. Knode came in the evening to know if my hands could assist him with the machine to thresh wheat. Mrs. Swearington and her daughter Virginia sat out for Kentucky young Mr. Moore & Packet accompaned them.



10. This is the bill which Blackford had attempted to collect from the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company when he visited its office in Washington on June 6, 1838.

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This carriage returned and crossed after night. Ned and Julious in the Boat. a Tolerable business. Henry rode out to his Grandfathers in the evening

        30th Tuesday. Weather Changable. The hands Will Enoch Julious and Isaiah went down early to assist J. K get out wheat with the machine Urias Knode called took up his note $50 spent a short time and returned. Mrs. Nafe sewing I fixed the stove in the office and put fire in it. Recd. a letter from R. H. Lee dated 23d Inst. has clouded over thick and threatens a fall has changed much cooler. sprinkled Rain. Henry returned from G. fathers and Corbans where he spent the last night. says theyare all well - my heel is very painful. hands came up from J. Ks after dark. Ned in the Boat. done a tolerable Business. Old Adley came has done nothing -

        31st Wednesday. morning cool & cloudy hands all gone down to assist J. K. again with the Machine. I had an unpleasant night my heel painful and otherways disordered. have taken 3 doaces Sedlietz powders. Mrs. Jewett and Miss Baylor called spent a few minutes; I did not see them C. K. wrote a note to Jennett and sent Williams cloaths by the stage driver. Franklin called to get the wagon & Team to haul him a load fire wood. Henry states that James Moore is assisting Ned in the Boat since 10 Oclock. he reports that J. Ks wheat is much injured by wet and that they will not finish this day. - Mary Miller came in the afternoon. Ned in the Boat


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November 1838

        1st Thursday. Weather cool a hard frost last night. The ground froze smartly. The coldest night this season. The leaves falling from the trees fast. sat out after Breckfast in the Baruch with Helena and Mary Miller for Frederick Town. have 280cwts carpet yarn takeing to Mr. Conradt to have wove we stoped a few minutes in Sharpsburgh then in Boonsboro we dined at Doct. Smiths. left there 1/2 after one and arrived in Frederick before sun set. stoped at Dorseys Tavern the Court in Session1 and has been for the last 12 days. I understand they did not bring the Threshing machine up from lower farm untill 4 oclock when they made a beginning on that wheat in straw house. James Moore assisted. Will Butcherd a very fine mutton this morning before I sat out. he then went down and Joined them at the machine which will make 2 1/2 days that my hands 4 including Isaiah have assisted J. K. to thresh - I met with the two Judges, Buchanans 2 spent the evening with John, who gave me a history of his travels in Europe. met Mr. Romane and John T. Mason. Mr. Pitts and several others - Ned in the Boat a light Business -

        2nd Friday. in Frederick Town I rose prety early, waited on Mr. John Rigney the stage agent for Stogden & Stokes who paid me $140 on account for crossing the mail stage 3 after Breckfast. The girls accompaned me to Mr. Conradts who counted and received the yarn and promised to have it manufactured so soon as I instruct him of the patren and width. Went shoping with the girls. waited on Doct. Jenks 4 who says he is coming up next week. gave Mr. Brien a memom to have a kettle made at the Catockten furnace to contain 40 gals. sat out from



1. This was the Court of Appeals.

2. Judge John Buchanan (1772-1844) had been appointed to the Court in 1806 and became Chief Judge in 1824. Thomas (1768-1847), his brother, also served on the bench.

3. Stockton and Stokes, owners of the Great Western Stage Lines, had the mail contract from Frederick to Shepherdstown, Virginia. This payment was for ferrying their stages across the Potomac River.

4. Jenks was a dentist of Frederick who made periodic visits to Shepherdstown and stopped off at Ferry Hill.

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Frederick 12 Oclock arrived at Boong at 4 where we spent the night at Doct. Smiths - The Hands with J Ks were machining out wheat all this day. J K Martin Murphy negros John and little Dick 5 hands including Dick Franklin drove

        3rd Saturday. Weather fine calm and pleasant. did not leave Boonsborough untill 11 Oclock. Bought goods from S. Bentz & Co. amt. $43.40 and paid him $130 have his Receipt. came on to Sharpg. where we dined. William came with us. arrived at home before sun set. they quit and removed the machine at 12 Oclock and took it to Smiths before finishing what I wished done which is some less than 2 days here with the machine. James Moore has been here since Wednesday 10 Oclock. he helped that day in the Boat and since with the machine. My heel has been very painfull Ned in the Boat has had but a poor Business -

        4th Sunday. morning. Raining and continued until 12 Oclock. James Moore sat off early to Step fathers for his cloaths. I understand the girl Caroline was over in Shep. Town last night Henry made application to go in the Boat with Franklin to Washington, I forbid it - Mr. Carusi called and tuned the Piano on Thursday morning the 1st Inst. I left him here when we sat out for Frederick. The Packet Boat came up for and took Thos. G. Harrises family down Martin Shellman called. I gave him an order to Henry Shaw for his cloaths which his wife has washed. Murf brought a Blind Bridle which they have had in the Packet Boat. The day has been wet and gloomy The family kept close house. Ned in the Boat but little done

        5th Monday. a Thick fog this morning. sent Isaiah off early on my mare for Mrs. Nafe who came to breckfast Duloney the Taylor, promised to come tomorrow. sent Enoch to S. Town with Williams shoes to have half soled George Perry done them. The Stage came over so full of passengers could not take William. 5 Henry gone to Sharpsy to have the bow of the ox yoke mended Mary Miller and Helena gone to S. Town. Henry returned about sun set. put the yoak on the Blak steer and Stag and fastened their Tails together Turned them on the Hill side. Jupe Enoch & Will part of the day puting the straw in Straw House - James Moore came in the evening. cloud arose in the west. Thundered and lightened with rain after dark. Will racked off the crab cider6 after night. Ned in the Boat. done a small Business. I took 2 doaces of Sedlitz & 2 pills -



5. Since William had been attending Brown's School he had been staying with his sister Mrs. Otho J. Smith but came home for the week-end by stage.

6. Cider made from crab apples.

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        6th Tuesday. morning Windy & Cool. has been blowing all night. Rained in the early part of the night. Will reports that the bay Horse Jack has been taken out of the stable and Rode last night. William sat out for Boonsg at 8 Ocl and Isaiah with him on the Hanah mare. Sent an order for 6w Coffee and a lock for the stable. old Will Gurrey sat out pd. him 75 cents for 1 1/2 days work with machine. he has been hanging about here for the last two or three weeks. J. Moore & Enoch went over the river after Breckfast to clean & arrange the celler of the House in S. Town. J. K. called lent him the wheat fan. he falls in my debt for 4 hands one day working at the machine George Price called agreed to take 50 cord wood at $2.50 pr. Cord to be paid for as delivered. Isaiah returned Brought a screw lock coffee &ct. amt. of $1.69 to S. B. & Co. credit J. K brought a load wood when he came for the fan Ned and Jupe in the Boat. a tolerable Business.

        7th Wednesday. morning cool with some wind Dulaney came to cut a coat for Will and a Suit for myself. Henry went to Sharpsg to have the Jock Horse shod. Dulaney cut a Coat for Will Pants and Vest for myself. took with him the cloth and trimings for my coat. I paid him on acct. $10 - young Grimes & Elenora Miller came went over to Sheps. Town with Henry & Helena returned and dined G. Unseld called. not sober Ingaged to let him have 10 cord wood. recd. a note from Mr. Webb respecting wood. C. Right called and pd. me $2.50 for a load wood which I directed Will to deliver this evening. J. Moore and Julious walling the celler over in S. Town. Will & Enoch have been removeing the straw into Straw House Henry & Will went in parsuit of Daph after night to Sharpsg brought her home. 7 Will deld. Right a load Wood Ned in the Boat a tolerable Business.

        8th Thursday. morning cloudy and the wind strong from the East. clouds flying very low. has rained some in the night. Mrs. Nafe was paid last night 3.25 went off home early this morning. J. Moore and Enoch went over after Breckfast to work at the celler wall. Will went over with the Cart to haul sand and clay. Andrew Blakeney called. wants to rent the stone cottage says he cannot stay in the mill with Glassford. I advised him to stay that if he could not be should have the house. desired him to send me one Barrel flour by J. K. for Bread has continued to Rain tho the wind has changed and blowing from N. West now half after 12 Oclock Will has taken over 9 Bushel Rye to have Chopped for horse feed. Brought the 3 Hogsheds from Shaw which he repaired. J. Moore quit the wall says the rain came down too much. did nothing this day. Ned & Jupe in the Boat. small Business



7. This was the second time that Daphney had run away.

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        9th Friday. morning clear and cold has froze the ground some last night. rose early preparitory to seting out with Henry for Mercersburgh. Sat out after Breckfast. passed through Boonsborough where we left a Bed for William. went on to Hagers Town where we fed the Horse and I deposited $480 in Bank went on to Green Castle where we remained all night. the day cold and unpleasant. Henry met with young Boggs son of Doct. Boggs of that place and young Chambers 8 who spent the night with him I directed Will to dig potatoes him Enoch & Daph which he reports he did and raised one cart load. Mrs. Morgan & Mrs. Parren called and spent the afternoon Ned & Jupe in the Boat. nothing occurred worth note reather dull time -

        10th Saturday. Weather clear and pleasant part of the day. Sat out from Green Castle with Henry after Breckfast. drove 10 miles on the Turnpike to Mercersburgh where we arrived about 10 Oclock. Henry ingaged Boarding with Mr. Glesner at $2.25 pr. week washing included. I gave him $10 to pay his firewood &ct. and sat out. came to Green Castle where I called and fed then came on to Hagers Town stoped at O. H. W. Stulls about sun set. sent for Mr. Merrick who informed me that Major Barns would no more answer his letters on the subject of my money we called on Mr. Wm. Price who stated that a negotiation was about to be entered into with Mr. Tifney of Balto. for a loan, and that Mr. Barns sat out in the morning to Balto. to cloase the loan. Mr. Merrick is to write me so soon as any payment is made. I remained all night after calling on H. Franer and paying his account Will reports that him and J. Knode delivered in Shepherds Town 6 loads wood 4 to G. Price & 2 to Mr. Webb Ned and Julious in the Boat. -

        11th Sunday. weather cool and partially cloudy - left Hagers Town after Breckfast came on to Boonsboro where I dined and remained until 2 Oclock at Doct. Smiths. Jennett and Child came on home with me stoped a few mintues in Sharpsg all were well. James Moore I am informed worked friday and half Saturday at the wall at the House in Shepherds Town. they report him to have been drunk. Mrs. Miller spent Saturday here Mary her daughter went home with her after spending two weeks with us. I have not enjoyed good health since I sat out from home Ned in the Boat Business tolerable.

        12th Monday. Weather continues cool partially cloudy The hands Will Jupe & Enoch finished diging the potatoes in the new ground report to be in all 20 or 25 Bushels - Mr. Jenkes the dentist called about 9 Oclock and was ingaged until evening fileing fixing and pluging Helena



8. These were Henry's school mates of Mercersburgh Academy.

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and Jennetts teeth for which he charged and I paid him $9. Franklin had a horse to drive in his small Wagon to Mummas Mill. he took Mrs. Millers Kettle home and the Iron to hoop the two wagon wheels that are at P. Beelers to be repaired. James Moore came daubed a little about the stove in the office then went off after counting up the time which he has been at work for me which is 26 days. Corban called spent a short time says he wants J. Moore to Build a wall for him. Elizabeth dined with us and Doct. Jenkes - I continued to have bad feelings. took 4 Brandreths pills going to bed after Bathing my feet and legs. Ned in the Boat

        13th Tuesday. Weather partially cloudy and cool. - James Shepherd called to speak for wood. promised him some. J. Knode brought the wind mill and one Barrel flour from the Forge Mill. Will & the hands cleaning out and shifting the old corn in the Corn House. report that there is 200 Bushels old corn. They destroyed some rats. I took 2 Brandeths pills this morning. wrote to Mr. G M Conradt and sent a patren stripe from Mrs. Parrans carpet. Sent by Mr. Jenkes dentist. wrote to Joseph Knode of Jacob, Orleans Alegany County enclosed him a note on Jacob Seise amot. $68.50. Interest since Aprile 1st 1837. with Instructions for him to collect the same if practicable. . . Jennett and child here since Sunday evening. Franklin here after night in search of his Turkeys J K says he has del. some more wheat in the forge mill. Ned in the Boat. a light Business -

        14th Wednesday. morning fogy and changed more moderate. sent my two letters off one to Mr. Conradt put in the hands of Doct. Jenkes and the one to Joseph Knode to post office. Franklin called lent him my mare to ride to Charles Town to attend the court as a witness in a case between Elgen & Towner Julious burying the potatoes. 9 suppose there to be 30 Bushels. Will brought over the stove which C. K. has rented for several years to Mrs. Williams. in Bad condition. recd. a letter from S. Bentz. Jennett & Child sat out for home at one Oclock in the Baruch Enoch driveing. She has spent the last two days & three nights with us Will & Julious hauled 2 loads fire wood home. I wrote a letter by Jennett to S. Bentz before I received the one from him. Enoch returned a little after dark. brought 10w Sugar & 2 quire letter Paper. Ned in the Boat. small Business -

        15th Thursday. weather cloudy, have confined 30 Hoggs on Monday. 10 The hands commenced cleaning the wheat on the Barn floore, as it



9. Potatoes were buried in a hole, covered with sand, and topped off with a well rounded mound of earth to preserve them from freezing.

10. The hogs were penned in order that they might be well fed and fattened for killing for fresh pork, side meat, and hams.

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Rains and not suitable to geather corn; Samuel Shaw called I paid him $4 for his services in the Grave yard. Wrote a letter to Gerard Stonebraker respecting manufactoring my wool 136w of which I have; has rained by spells all this day and some part of the last night - Franklin returned on my mare by way of Harpers Ferry brought with him 9 head of Horses and 2 men. came on the towing path. he then crossed the river went to Corbans to have those Horses wintered. Will hauled a Cart load wood down to Franklins The hands passed the wheat through the fan onst, which is to be done the second time Ned in the Boat. very little done -

        16th Friday. morning Cloudy wind shifted and blew from the West which brought off the leaves in great quantaties Sent my letter to Post office which is for Gerard Stonebraker Enoch brought from the forge 25 Bags early this morning. Will commenced to haul the wheat to the Forge mill. Enoch Caroline & Isaish finished runing the wheat through the fan the 2d. time. Julious went to assist Ned in the Boat. Helena Rode to Sharpsg and back on the mare Hannah. Franklin has my Carriage lines. hauling fire wood Will has made 2 Trips to the Forge mill deld. 101 Bushels 19w wheat as per Glasfords Receipt. Ned & Jupe in the Boat done a tolerable Business.

        17th Saturday. Weather clear and pleasant. A Blakeney called wishes me to move him up into the Stone Cottage monday or tuesday next for which I asked him $5 pr. month. Rent. 11 Will went to the mill with the residue of the wheat 38 Bushel 30w as pr. Receipt. and brought 2662w off fall Julious & Enoch pressing some apple pomise. Bushrod W. Herbert called presented me with a limb of a ceder tree which was planted by General Washington and grew on his Tomb at Mount Vernon he dined and spent a great part of the day with me. old Adley called. wants money. gave him none he is not sober. Julious & Enoch pressed out one Barrel Cider from the pomise 12 there not anything occured worth noteing a Mr. Harris of S. Town called wants fire wood did not ingage him any Ned in the Boat has done a midling Business -

        18th Sunday. morning cloudy commenced snowing 1/4 before 10 Oclock and continued until evening and compleatly whitened the whole face of the country say about two Inches deep. C. K & Helena went over to the Episcopal Church13 heard Mr. Morrison deliver a sermon sent



11. Blakeney had been working at Glassford's Mill at the Antietam Iron Works but had become dissatisfied and hired his labor to Blackford. The Stone Cottage which Blackford rented him was the one near the Ferry landing formerly occupied by Mrs. Israel Fry.

12. Pomace, rather than pomise, is the pulpy residue left from apples crushed for cider.

13. This church was located in Sharpsburg.

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Enoch over with the carriage for them he found them atDoct. Parrans with J. Knods wife where they dined, She came home with them Murf came up with a Horse for her a little before sun set. I spent the day by myself. old Martin hanging about the kitchen and slept with Julious in the quarter. Ned in the Boat small receipts

        19th Monday. morning clear and white with the snow that fell yesterday. was cold and froze last night. Sent Isaiah to Sharpsg for Mrs. Nafe. he met her he went on brought me one Box Brandreths pills from Col. Millers Will gone with the wagon to move Blakeney Mrs. Nafe came on foot. Set to sewing on my pants and vest that Delaney cut out. Mr. Hopkins called to borrow money to commence his cabinet business. recd. a note from G. Unseld wants wood and David Snaveleys son called and Phillip Flemon all want wood Will and J. Knode arrived with Blaknys gods from the forge at 12 Oclock precisely. Sent Isaiah with a Bag Corn to the Mill J. K. gave me Glassfords Rect. of the 12th for 109 Bushels 39w wheat deld. in The Forge Mill for Rent. James Elgen called has been to Hagers Town. he wanted to know respecting A. Colberts Business I gave Judgment on the warrent for defendant. the plantiff Colbert to pay 62 cents costs. J. Knode delivered to G. Unseld one load wood which made out his days hauling. Will ded. to Andrew Blakeny one load wood. J. K ingaged to haul tomorrow wood to S. Town Ned in the Boat a tolderable Business

        20th Tuesday. morning calm & cool with some clouds. Julious put 2 Barrels water cider in the celler. Sent Enoch to Sharpsburgh for the wagon wheels which P. Beeler has repaired and to have the Brown horse shod. Will hauling wood to George Unseld. recd. a note from G. Price he wants more wood. gave Helena $6.87 1/2 to pay for makeing dress shoes &ct. her aunt and she gone over to S. Town Daniel Camron and Jacob Sheetz both called and both want wood. Clouds over about 12 Oclock and threatens more snow. Enoch returned from Sharpsg. Brought the wagon wheels and had the brown horse shod. Doct. Quigley called wants wood for the poor of the county or the out penteoners.14 Enoch emtied some bags Bean into Hhds. Julious helped Will to load wood. Ned in the Boat. C. K. bot. stuff for a cloak in S. Town

        21st Wednesday. morning clear calm & pleasant Mrs. Nafe finished my vest & pants pd. her 75 cents a balance of her former work, sent Isaiah with her after Breckfast say 9 Oclock. Will hauling wood to S. Town.



14. Doctor John Quigley was in charge of poor relief in Shepherdstown and sought wood for those pensioners who did not live in the almshouse or on the poor farm.

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Enoch assisting to load Jacob Sigler called to enqure if he could be furnashed with wood. Mrs. Williamses son Charles likewise called to solicite for wood. Elizabeth came to speak of her and Franklins situation.15 I Received an open letter from Gerard Stonebraker and one from Samuel Carusi16 & Brother dated Nover. 14th Washington I wrote a note to Col. Miller by Jos. Elgen. Mrs. Henry & Mrs. Armstrong Miss Hanah Van Swearingen came over spent the afternoon & suped. Han V. Spent the night. J. Knode Butchered some of his Hoggs sent and got the stilyards. the barber Gowings gave Will a 5 dollar note on the Williamsport Bank looks suspicious. he is to have one other load wood. has had one load Ned in the Boat. poor Business. he brot. 1/2 B. S. potatoes from William Shortt

        22nd Thursday. Weather moderate some little cloudy. Andrew Blakeney helping to geather corn which we commenced this morning with the following hands. A Blakeny. Will Jupe Enoch Daph & Caroline went with the wagon to husk it on the stalk C. K. rode the Brown mare to Sharpsg. to get some goods to line her Cloak; I rode down to J. Ks they were makeing sausages. M. Shellman cuting wood for Franklin who has gone to Hagers Town the two Miss Hedricks called spent a few minutes have been over the river. Mrs. Emberson called & paid me for 2 loads wood $5 which is to be delivered. Hannah Van Swearingen here spending the day. Mrs. Frys son called wants to load wood. The hands have Brought and put in the house one load corn and left the wagon in the field in part loaded - Ned in the Boat a small Business done.

        23rd Friday. morning cloudy. the hands sat out early this morning to geathering corn, Martin Shellman & A. Blakeny with my own hands. They brought in the first load before 10 Oclock. a man who calls himself John Reyholds called wants timber for a pivot Bridge 17 on the canal near the AntiEatem. Says he will Build a ferry Boat for me. Mary Miller came. her and Helena went over to S. T. Recd a letter from Col. Miller who is attending court on the Jury. Mary Took Tea on her return from S. Town and went home. old Adley & John attempted to haul wood in the cart. could not get the Horse to go. J. Knode hauling wood to S. Town. has delivered 3 loads. Ned reports Jno. B. Woltz sent by Ned $2.50 for a load wood to be deld. next week; the hands brought in two loads corn which is 3 now in the



15. Earlier Franklin had sought his mother's advice on his marital difficulties.

16. Samuel was the brother of Nathaniel Carusi from whom Blackford bought a piano.

17. A pivot bridge was so constructed that it could be swung from across a stream to permit the passage of vessels and then returned to its former position to be used by those who wished to cross the stream.

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Corn House. Hannah V. Swearingen went home this morning. Ned in the Boat. Small Receipts weather very moderate. no frost last night -

        24th Saturday. morning. Cloudy and cool. The Packet Boat passed up half after 8 Oclock this morning on for Williamsport - The same hands as yesterday started early to geathering corn and brought 2 loads which finished the field and makes 5 loads about 250 Bushels finished by one Oclock. Blakeny then quit eat his dinner and started to see Georg. Reynolds. I sent by him the cane presented by Bushrod W. Herbert to have steamed and straightened by John Miller the carriage maker Franklin returned from Hagers Town where he has been attending as a witness in the case of Elgen and Hessey, in which Elgen was defendant which went in his favour so says Franklin. Will & Enoch hauled home one load fire wood. Martin Jupe Daph & Caroline unloaded the wagon - Ned in the Boat but a small Receipt of ferriages

        25th Sunday. Commenced snowing 7 Oclock in the morning and continued until 3 in the afternoon a light dry snow has barely whitened the ground. went to Sharpsg. in the carriage with Helena Enoch drove heard part of a discourse by Mr. Dougles haveing arrived too late; it being 11 Oclock. It was communion day in Mr. Hoffmires German reformed Church. a considerable number partook prinsapally females. We dined at Col. Millers with the Rev. Robert Dougles. Mr. Mackey, George Mecenan Samuel Stonebraker. Mary Knode George Ks daughter came home with us in the carraige roads very rough. hard frozen C. K. remained at home not being able to wear her shoe owing to a bad corn on the toe Ned in the Boat very very little done the day stormy no travel

        26th Monday. weather clear & cold the last passed night has been the coldest this fall Sent down some nails to Wright to repair the Ferry Boat. Andrew Blakeny Martin Shellman puling and husking the corn in the lot back of the Garden. Will Jupe & Enoch are likewise ingaged. Sent Isaiah for Mrs. Nafe early he met her she arrived before breckfast. Sat to sewing for the negroes. Helena & Mary Knode gone over to S. Town. Wrote a note to Jennett Smith send thread to have Exchanged. Mr. Eavy the stone cutter called to know if I would order a stone. The hands finished geathering the corn in the lot say 20 or 25 Bushel Recd. a note from Jno. L Tabb Mrs. Eaton & Miss Hunter her neice called. J. Knode is hauling wood to S. Town Franklin took the sack wool containing 136w wool to David Beelers to be taken by him to G. Stonebrakers to be manufactored. Mrs. Tapscott with her 3 children and brother Samuel D. Baker called with a commission from


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the court of this county to appoint a guardian to answer a Bill in Chancery.18 Blakeny and Martin went out to cut wood to make out the day. Ned in the Boat -

        27th Tuesday. I rose early and sat out for Hagers Town before 7 Oclock. arrived there 1/2 after 10 Oclock the court in session. negro Charles brought into court myself Doct. Hays & Jno. Henes gave testimony. Mr. Linck the prosicutor who did not address the Jury and the case submitted The Jury pronounced him guilty did not leave the Jury Box.19 J. Knode moved Voluntine Fearman to the Bedford place. Will deld. 3 loads wood. in S. Town. Enoch helped load Jupe & Daph buryed the Beets. Mrs. Eaton & Miss Hunter was here all the last night went home this day. I went to visit Mr. Perry who recd. a severe fall on the street of Hagers Town out of his carriage. Ned in the Boat. Weather cold

        28th Wednesday. I lodged at Clines Tavern in the Room with Col. Jno. Miller Jno. D. Grove & Jacob Rohrback. saw and conversed with Mr. F. A. Sleigh who says nothing has been done in my ferry case but that he will consult with Mr. Price & determin what shall be done or if anything. Shaw and conversed with Mr. Merrick who states that Barns is still in Balto. negotiating a loan and that so soon as he returns he will write to me. The Shereiff Jno. Newcomer says the judgments & claims against Barns is upwards of $103,000. 20 I setled my Taxes for the pr sent year amt. $115.94 as appears by his receipt. Spoke to Tidbell to attend to the arbitrating Vanlears case. The day cloased and I retired to my room with Capt. Brookhart, at home I understand J. Knode deld. 3 loads wood in S. Town. he paid over to Ned $5 for wood sold. Will deld. 3 loads likewise a note from Doct. Smith with thread from S. Bentz Blakeny cuting wood for me & Martin for Fraklin Ned and Jupe in the Boat -

        29th Thursday. morning clear and cold. Went to the Barber was shaved. Spoke with Mr. Gerard Stonebraker respecting manufactoring my wool which D. Beeler is to take up paid my bill and sat out half after 10 Oclo called at Cross roads & Sharpsg and warmed . tho the day was calm and pleasant. arrived at home middle of the afternoon. J. Knode hauling and Will hauling wood each of them have delivered 3 load pr. day. I am informed Jupe and Caroline have behaved bad in my



18. Blackford as a justice of the peace was authorized to appoint a guardian for Baker Tapscott's minor children. He appointed E. J. Lee.

19. So ended the case of the State versus Doctor Joseph Hays' boy Charles. What the penalty was is unknown. Blackford had recovered $76.83 of the $170.77 which Charles had stolen.

20. Blackford never recovered the debts which Barns of Baltimore owed him.

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absence. Blakeny cuting wood. Will confused about the delivery of wood and the pay which he received. Mary Knode is still here Ned in the Boat. a moderate Business. I brought the Torch light with me

        30th Friday. Weather morning cold. some Ice made on the River. Jacob Hill called wants Timber and a load wood received a note from George Price and one from William Bowen both respecting wood. C. K. gone over to Shepherds Town. J. K. & Will hauling wood to S. T. Mr. Avery called to know if I wanted his machine again to thresh and to know how much I am owing him for what he threshed before which was 139 B. 49w. I remained in my office all day. Julious pidling about & fixing to Butcher on Monday. Ned in the Boat. J. K. gave him $2.50 which he recd. for wood this day. -


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December 1838

        1st Saturday. morning Cloudy. Rose early. C. K. Helena & Mary G. Knode sat out for Boonag. half after 6 Oclock in the Baruch Enoch driveing They took breckfast before seting out. John Miller the carriage maker called. wants 6 loads wood. Saml. Barnett and David Keplinger called both want wood. Wm. Bowen called with his boy. brought 1 doz. pains 8 x 10 glass and set to glazeing the windows that need. S. Barnett remarked that P Beeler has a fine popler which would do for Boat sides. price 15 or 16 dollars. Mr. Avey called pd. him $6.50 for 4 B.20w wheat for his machine Threshing 140 B. wheat. A. Blakeny called has been to Wethers mill has not been cuting for the last two days. Bowen put in 16 lights glass himself & Boy eat dinner with me. Will & J. Knode has been hauling wood to S. T. 1 Each I presume have deld. 3 loads. C. K. and the girls returned from Boonsg after dark. Bot. goods to amt. $10.09 which I credited S. Bentz & co. with.The day has been pleasant. Ned in the Boat small Business.

        2nd Sunday. morning. partially cloudy and smokey and moderate. Helena & Mary Knode went over to S. Town to meeting attended the Methodist I rode to Sharpsburgh where I dined and spent two or three hours with Colo. Miller & his family returned home by J. Ks. found all the family absent. found him at my house when I returned concluded to help me Butcher tomorrow him & Blakeny Col. Millers negroe men Sires here with my man Willy Ned in the Boat. very trifeling Business -

        3rd Monday. Weather Cloudy rose early. dispatched Isaiah for Mrs. Nafe and sent an order by him for a sausage stuffer which he brought from Jacob Millers Mrs. Nafe arrived at 8 Oclock. J. Knode & A. Blakeney were hear and eat their breckfast at 7 Oclock the Boy brought the stuffing machine and the Bill thereof stateing $4 the price; a German pedler called bought some trifels from him amounting to 38 cents. the hands finished Butchering 12 Hogges before 12 Oclock



1. "S. T." an abbreviation for Shepherdstown.

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which is considered all that are fit at present. Caroline behaved bad in the kitchen. The coloured man who attended Christian Acles machine called. I gave him on paper the number of Bushels wheat which was threshed with the machine 263 Bushels 4w have Butchered 12 Hoggs which weight 1544w average 128w per Hogg. Shellman cuting wood for Franklin. finished stufing Boath sausage and pudings before 7 Oclock. found the stuffing machine to Expedite the Business greatly. Mr. Jacob Hill sent young Hiser over to look at some white oak logs for wagon makers wood. Mrs. Nafe assisting with the off fall of the Hogges and makeing sausage - Mary Knode here. Ned in the Boat. poor poor had from Wm. Shortt 2 sacks G. A. salt a $2.75 cash

        4th Tuesday. Weather morning snowing and hailing until 10 Oclock. Will hauling wood Enoch helping to load. Joseph Knode hauling wood likewise to S. Town. Julious salting meat in the Smoak House. Philip Wintermere called and paid me for 3 loads wood $7.50. the wood to be delivered this week. Blakeney called on his way to see Horine to be imploy in a mill Elenora Miller came. Mrs. Nafe assisting in the kitchen to render the Lard. She quit at 3 Oclock Isaiah went with her home on the old horse. Helena and Elenora Miller went over the river. Mrs. McElroy a widow called. wants a load wood on Doct. Quigleys order. Will reports he has taken Mrs. Emberson one & John Woltz one load which was both paid for and John Miller one load which is charged to him. Ned in the Boat he reports that Staley pd. him in a hat & money $2.25.

        5th Wednesday. Weather. Cloudy damp & cold - M. S. Brown called. pd. me $5 for 2 loads wood. says the Orendorfs have sworn me out of the claim I gave him a collect and that Kretzers is a loss also Jacob Hill called wants to look at some white oak logs for wagon stuff. The girls Helena Ellen & Mary rode down to J. Ks. sent Enoch with the water Car2 to Hills Shop to have repaired which he promised to have done Saturday. Franklin had Bags to go for off fall to Mummas Mill. Julious cuting some wood & pidling about the house Mariah McFarlin came in the afternoon and spent the night Will reports he has delivered H. Staub. Mrs. McElory & M.S. Brown each a load wood. J. Knode hauling wood likewise to S. Town. Ned in the Boat but small Receipts. J. K. made no return of the wood he delivered.

        6th Thursday. morning cloudy partially recd a letter from Henry. dated 3d Inst. Elijah Rickhart Eli Conley called want wood. Conley paid for one load. Miss E. Hiser called wants wood likewise says she



2. The "water car" was the container for carrying water to the cistern and water works at Ferry Hill.

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will pay her rent in the spring. 3 Samuel Barnett came to fix the windows and put in new cord and pullies. I sat up C. K.s stove in the breckfast Room. I had Mr. Hill to make new side & front doores for it. Mr. Barnet returned to town and brought 2 set pullies for the windows pd. 37 1/2 cents pr. set 75¢ for the 2 set. Betsey Mahafey called wants wood. Will reports that he deld. E. Conley the Load wood which he pd. for and one load to Wintermire and a load to Miller the shoe maker and bought one home I wrote to Capt. John Repler respecting plank for a Boat Mrs. McFarlin & Elenora Miller here. Ned in the Boat -

        7th Friday. Weather Cloudy a white frost and cold sent my letter to Capt. J. Repler to the post office - Mrs. McFarlin Elen Miller & Mary Knode all here I rode to Sharpsg paid Miller & Mackey $50 as pr. their receipt in Bundle. bought 1/4w powder and an Almanak pd. 18 3/4 recd.my Torchlight saw Mr. Peter Beeler who says Brien is to have the popler tree returned home. Will delivered one load wood to Milton S. Brown one to Mr. Higgens both of which is paid for and one to Jno. M. Ernst which is charged one load he brought home which compleated his days hauling. J. Knode has hauled all day. His wife was here and spent the afternoon. A. Blakeny came up after dark and informed me of Julious. Bad conduct eave droping and attempt to break into house &ct.4 Ned in the Boat. very small Receipts.

        8th Saturday. morning cloudy and some little snow has fallen some time before day. the sun shone out at intervals quite pleasant. Martin Shellman called paid him $1.25 said he was going to Sharpsburgh for cloathes at the Taylors. Will and Enoch hauling from lower farm my part of the corn crop have brought 2 loads which is estimated at Bushels. Elenora Mary Knode & Helena all three sat out for Sharpsburgh on horseback half after 12 Oclock. came on a snow storm at 3 Oclock which lasted half an hour. Will has brought one load wood home after hauling the two loads corn from J. Knodes. Julious in the Boat with Ned the wind being high this afternoon Helena and Mary returned in the evening continues cold and windy. Helena brought Linsey & stocking yarn which D. Beeler brought from G. Stonebrakers -

        9th Sunday. morning clear and cold. Mrs. McFarlin and Mary Knode here. C. Knode Mrs. McFarlan and Mary Knode crossed over to meeting. Helena remained at home. I rode down to J. Ks where was Michael & George Cookers We all took dinner I returned home where



3. Miss Ellen Hiser rented a room in one of Blackford's houses in Sherpherdstown.

4. Andrew Blakeney was living in Blackford's Stone Cottage near the Ferry site on the Potomac River.

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I found the family had returned from meeting. The River and Canal is partially cloased with Ice. The Roads are in fine condition for Traveling. The price of Flour $7.75 to $8. Pork 7.50. 8 in Balto. $9. winter appears to have set in. the Breaches in the Canal has checked the navigation for the last two weeks Ned and Julious in the Boat. little done.

        10th Monday. Will deld. Thos. Edwards a load wood which he had paid for and Brought the Water Car from Jacob Hills shop. I wrote an order for 32.50 on George Price for 13 loads wood in favour of Joseph Knode. M. Kirk called says Hills man has cut and split his timber which he had marked. Says wagon spokes is worth $2.50 pr. hundred The last night cold. has made considerable Ice. the River is froze quite over. had to break a chanel for the Boat Helena & Mary crossed over to S. Town H. purchased a shawl from C. Harper Mrs. Nafe came early this morning is sewing on Wills coat which she finished. Will sold 2 loads wood to Mrs. Trail & Mrs. Bentz which they paid for $5 - J. Knode hauling no report made of the order I sent to him on Geor Price Enoch brought 5 Bushel chop Rye from Byres choping mill. Ned and Julious in the Boat. small receipts

        11th Tuesday. morning clear calm and pleasant. Thos. G. Harris passing his Boats through the Ice in the Canal. Mrs. Nafe went home early this morning. one Boat passed up and down the canal this morning. Alex r. Shafer & Eckle called. wish to rent my house in Shepherds Town wants a leas for 5 years. he is desirous to know the terms and him to repair the house. C. K Helena & Mrs McFarlen gone over the River. heard Doct. Quigleys child died last night or this morning with the scarlet fever which prevails at this time in Shepherds Town. Mrs. McFarlin remained over at Mr. Borders J. K. hauling wood presented the order and Price pd. him for 13 loads wood $32.50. Will recd. pay for 3 loads wood $7.50 for 2 loads from D. Entter and 1 from a Cold man.5 Ned and Julious in the Boat. Small Receipts the day has been moderate & pleasant all through.

        12th Wednesday. morning clear with wind strong from the west. I crossed over the river to examine some stoves from A. Williams No. 45 light Street Balto. I addressed a note to Mr. N. L Webb, requesting him to order one of the same pattern of stoves for me as early as posable Mary Knode rode old Bob Horse to Sharpsg Isaiah brot. the horse back. She remained at Col. Millers had a pair shoes put on the old Bob Horse by Kretzer J. Knode did not haul wood this day Will reports he has delivered 2 loads hickory to D. Kiplinger & one load



5. "Cold" an abbreviation for colored, hence colored man or Negro.

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oak to Jacob Sheetz. Ned & Jupe in the Boat. very small receipts at the Ferry -

        13th Thursday. morning clar and cold. Wm Bower called replaced one pain glass in the dormor Window which fell out. he says that a William Furgason nephew of Miss Hanah Hurst can give me some information respecting the land which Presley Marmaduke purchased in Kentucky while in partnership with me he says Fargason was impowered to sell the land for the heirs of P. Marmaduke The Revd. Robert Dougles & lady called and spent this afternoon supped & returned setled and paid negroe John Thomas retaining for Franklin $7.62. old Adley gone off home Mr. Webb has written for a stove for me J. Knode hauling wood. Will hauled one load to Wm. Bowen one to Jacob Sheetz, and one he recd. pay for from Miss Hizer $2.50. I finished a letter addressed to Henry. a man called to solicite subscription for the Maryland Bible Society. I did not subscribe Ned & Jupe in the Boat Ned very much disguised with drink

        14th Friday. morning some little cloudy & cold the river continues partially cloased with Ice wrote a letter to Mr. Luke Tierman of Balto. respecting the Union Insurance stock. sent it with one to Henry to the post office. recd. a Bundle of muslin by the stage from S. Bentz & Co. amt. $4.30. C. K. went over to visit Miss Patsey Richards who has had Paralytic on the 10th Inst. she is at her sister Morgans; a note by the stage from Jennett signifys that she intends spending the Christmas with us and that she wishes to come on Saturday previous provided she can be sent for. - Jacob Sheetz called pd. me for 4 loads wood which has been delivered to him. he says his son William will come over between Chiristmas & New Year J. K. hauling wood gave him an order on G. Price which he paid $17.50 for 7 loads wood. which is 20 loads he has had and paid for - Will delivered Alexa Shafer 3 loads and 1 brought home Enoch assisting to load Ned and Julious in the Boat. done a tolerable Business

        15th Saturday. a large white frost this morning wrote a note to Mr. Dougles to purchase Boyers french Dictionary if such is sold this day at Mr. Dearys sale of Books.6 Sent Isaiah to S. Town for Crocks with



6. "Mr. Douglass" was the Reverend Robert Douglass.
Abel Boyer, a French Huguenot (1667-1729), was a distinguished writer of history, biography, and dictionaries. The dictionary here referred to was probably the first American edition of his Dictionnaire anglais-français, abrégé de. . . par N. Salman Boyer 26 éd., rev. et augm. de cinq mille mots published in Boston by Bedlington, Bradford and Pessler in 1821 under the title Boyer's French Dictionary. Blackford wished a copy of the Dictionary for his son Henry who was a student at Mercersburgh Academy. The library from which he hoped Douglass might purchase the book was that of Francis Deary formerly a school master in Boonsboro.


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25 cents pd. Franklin $7.62 1/2 his claim against John Thomas negroe J. Knode called have credited him with 8 days hauling wood from the first to the 14th Inclusive. Mary Knode and Ann Miller came at 2 Oclock Miss A. Berry called spent a short time, I rode to Sharpsg. with Ann Miller where I brought a t cut saw file and 1 doz small screws pd. 37 1/2 ingaged to send for a quarter of beef from Col. Miller. Will hauled Jos. Shepherd 3 loads hickory wood recd. a note from Mr. Marion saying Mr. Webb requires 70 more loads wood. 7 Mr. A. Shafer enclosed $10 for wood. one load is now is now due him. one lamb last night. Ned and Julious in the Boat a midling Business

        16th Sunday. weather. partially cloudy. Thos. Stephens Stevens and his little son Robert called. sat an hour, promised to send him a load wood tomorrow, Helena & Mary K. gone over to Church. C.K. complaining did not rise to breckfast. she came down to Dinner is Better. Boys Scating on the River. Martin Shellman moveing about is not sober lodged in the Barn Ned and Julious in the Boat. midling Business

        17th Monday. morning Cloudy. Rose at 5 Oclock had breckfast at 7. Helena and Mary Knode gone over to Shepherds Town early gave H. $1.25 to purchase some small articles Enoch went to Sharpsburgh and brought a hind quarter of Beef in cart from Col. Millers. wt. Will & Jupe gone for a load wood. Martin Shellman & Enoch going to saw the chunks & logs preparitory to spliting. Will sold one load wood to Hetterbran and one to T. S. Stevens for which he brought me $5. - commenced snowing about the middle of the day. wrote a note to Doct. Smith and sent with it a small Book to William - The Revd. Mr. Morrison called early spent some time dined with us and returned at half after one while snowing - continues to snow now 5 Oclock and untill some time in the night. suppose it is 3 inches deep Will reports he hauled 3 loads wood to Shepd Town 2 pd. for and one to Henry Staub. M. Shellman reports that him and Enoch worked all day that when Enoch was helping to load wood he Martin was spliting wood. J. Knode Butchered had my stelyards and sausage apperatis cutter & stuffer. Ned & Julious in the Boat. tolerable Business. But one lamb as yet.

        18th Tuesday. morning cloudy and moderate thawing the sun shone out about 12 Oclock. Mr. Hopkins called to talk about the shop in



7. N. L. Webb, of Webb and Lane, merchants of Shepherdstown, purchased large quantities of wood for fuel to heat both the store and his dwelling house.

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Town. wants me to allow him for the repairs which he has done, tho he rented from David Snavely and is to pay him $24 for 7 months. that is from Sept. 1st untill Aprile 1st. next comeing so says Mr. Hopkins.8 I received a letter from Jos. Knode of Alegany County on the subject of Ceases debt I rode down to J. Ks he had gone to the forge and Sharpsg. Franklin Butchering hoggs - Will brought 2 loads wood home and delivered one to John Miller Coach maker; I wrote and sent it by Caroline to Mr. Shindler he send by her a tin firk for the purpose of Lard recd a letter from A. Shafer stateing the cost in part for repairing my House in S. Town. Ned in the Boat. the day has been pleasant. a tolerable Bu

        19th Wednesday. Ember day. morning. wind from the West with flying clouds with a sprinkle of snow. Sent Isaiah before day light for Mrs. Nafe who arrived at 7 Oclock. J. K. came both to assist to Butcher. Martin Shellman Will & Enoch had a fire and stones heated by day light, commenced killing at 8 Oclock. Wright brought up a small frame he made for a Tin fire screen. I agreed to let him have one hogg wrote a note to A. Shafer in answer to his received a letter from Luke Teirnan, Charles Write has taken one hogg wt. 250w a $8 is 20 Dollars. Isaiah took the frame to Shindlers and brought one other firkin. have Butchered 15 Hoggs weight 2138w which is an average of 142 1/2 deduct the one sold Wright leaves 1888w to salt for my own and families use - the spotted heifer had a calf yesterday. a heifer finished makeing sausage & puding. before 8 Oclock. find the meat cutter and stuffer of great advantage in facelitateing the business Ned in the Boat. Julious helping to Butcher Done a tolerable Business at the Boat

        20th Thusrday. morning cold has froze smartly last night. Mr. Shellman and Enoch went out to saw wood and Will to haul wood. Julious salting the meat which was butchered yesterday. Mrs. Nafe went off after an early Breckfast. Isaiah and old Bob with her James Elgen called settled an paid him in full with $12.81 1/2 took his receipt. Will reports that he has delivered Wintermire 2 loads wood which he paid for some time since. directed him to take one to George Perry shoe maker, which he reports delivered Isaiah brought from S. Town Rasins & Essence. pd 62 1/2 Elijah Rickhart called in the evening wants wood he reports Doct. Bedinger died last evening and is buryed this evening Ned in the Boat. small receipts



8. Blackford purchased a shop in Shepherdstown from David Snavely who had rented the shop to Hopkins. The latter wanted Blackford to make repairs on the shop. This Blackford refused to do until Hopkins' lease from Snavely should expire.

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        21st Friday. morning Cloudy and cold. Will hauling wood. Sent a lock & 2 pair tongs to E. Rickhart to have repaired. The stage passed over at 10 Oclock. Jacob Bowers called. I agreed to retain for J. H. Grove out of shellmans wages $9.51 1/2 The Revd. Hargrave & lady called. sat an hour. Will deld. to E. Rickhart one load of wood. he brought 2 painted Buckets from Lane & Webbs cost $1. as pr. their Bill. recd. a letter from Jno. Repley respecting plank. George Knode son of George called Dined came for his sister who has spent some time with us they sat out for Sharpsg. at 4 Oclock where they intend to spend the night Will reports he deld. C. Shindler one load wood and sold one load Hickory to Mr. Higgins for which he brought me $3. George Smith the painter called supped spent the night. Breckfasted and went off Martin came here & Breckfasted prety Drunk went off he is not fit for Business. Recd. a communication from Wm. Shafer convering an estemate of the repairs of my House in S. Town Ned in the Boat. a Tolerable Business

        22nd Saturday. weather variable George Smith painter lodged here the last night and had his breckfast as had Martin who is drunk. Started Enoch off at 10 Oclock with the carriage for Jennett by whom I wrote a note to her requesting to bring 10w Coffee Helena went over to S. Town where she waited on Ellen Rochenback who was at Mrs. Borders She came home with her. Franklin called up to borrow the young Bill Mare to ride to Sharpsg. S. Barnett called rode my mare to Sharpsburgh to see P. Beeler and his popler Tree for Boat sides. he returned and intends going to cut one. Jennett William little Otho & Miss Latitia Smith arrived before sun set Brought 10w Coffee and the Bill including sugar had some time since Ned in the Boat.

        23rd Sunday. morning windy and cold. Jennett Helena Ellen Rochanbaugh and Laticia Smith all crossed over to meeting. Shellman called in looks bad has been Drunk the girls returned. have heard Mr. Morrison the Episcopal parson. continues very cold. I am not so well took a doace Sedlitz powders before Breckfast. have been in my office moast of the day. William writeing and reading some. The Red pide heifer had a calf during the day which perished with cold before discovered She was in the back lot with the other cattle - M. Shellman has been about all day came in the evening and applied to lodg in the house which I positively refused. he slept in the kitchen or with Enoch Ned and Julious in the Boat have done a midling Business a quite day -

        24th Monday. weather cold with some clouds and wind - Thermometer this morning 7 Oclock at 18 degrees. Will hauled S. Barnett one load


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wood. Recd. my Patriot a letter for Helena James Moore called paid him $3 on acct. Will & Enoch has hauled 3 loads fire wood home & one in the evening to S. Town sold to Mr. Hopkins - I spent the day in my office. not so very well in health Ned and Julious in the Boat. a tolerable Business.

        25th Tuesday. Christmas morning calm but cold winter weather. Blakenys litle Son & Daughter came up presented them with cakes. Will asked for parmition to haul some hoop poles for Mr. Austen to Sharpsburgh as a parquisite Perquisite. he says one dollar was offered him; I sent by him toung straps for the sligh to be sewed into the Iron of end of the Toung or pole of the sligh. to be left with Kretzer. and directed him to bring home with him a load wood. Enoch left the straps and Iron with Franklin as Will had gone.. Will returned and brought a small load wood. I paid him $1.50 for M. Shellman. he Will says Mr. Austin pd. him one Dollar. Miss Ellen Rochenbough Latetia Smith Jennett Helena & William C. K. Dined with me on ham & Turkey Ned and Julious in the Boat. Murphey behaved bad to Ned so says the spectaters

        26th Wednesday. morning pleasant. Franklin called say Murf behaved bad yesterday to Ned Jacob Sigler called pd. him $2 on acct. Alexr Shafer called gave him my terms for the house on a slip of paper. D. Fulk called wants a load wood. C K and Jennett went over to Sheps Town. William with them returned to dinner. Will hauling wood to S. Town. Caroline &Isaiah &Enoch puting straw in the straw house. Helena Ellen Rochenback and Miss Latitia Smith gone to S. Town. Will delivered 3 loads wood 2 to the Fraonks which recd. the pay for and one to he says only 2 loads hauled this day. a sheep died. - Ned and Julious in the Boat. small Business

        27th Thursday. Weather calm and pleasant. a man from the Forge called says he is a fence maker. he looked like a drinker therefore I would not imploy him Will hauling wood. 3 loads one to John Miller C.M. and one sold T. Stevens. I rode down to J. Ks he had gone to Sharpsg. Corbans son Jackson called says they are all well. Franklin gone over to Virginia his wife at Sharpsg. one load wood to Henry Staub in the evening. Hannahs youngest child was burned by its cloaths catching its knee & leg considerably Injured. Enoch reports 7 lambs. M. Shellman called up in the evening says he is going to work in the morning. Franklin returned home. has been at S. fathers. Ned Jupe in the Boat. business tolerable


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        28th Friday. morning calm and cold. Will hauled Mr. Shafer a load wood which was paid for. David Beeler called. setled and paid him in full with $25.76 cash and he is to have 1000 shingles. he has promised to bring some linsey from G. Stonebrakers Miss Laticia Smith and Helena went over to Town and returned J. Ks wife came up and dined with us. Sent the girl with a mince Pie to Miss Patsey. J. K sent the mare up for his wife to ride home at 4 Oclock. one lamb died has changed colder Threatens to snow this evening and continued to snow until after 9 Oclock. Will Hauled one load wood to Jnoo. Miller C. M and one to John M. Ernst both charged, sent my old Sleigh to Jnoo. Miller to have done up & painted I corrected Isaiah for absenting himself him and William was down at the ferry House the River is cloased with Ice The Boat passing in a chanel. Lee & Webb puting up Ice in their Ice Houses Ned & Jupe in the Boat a Tolerable business

        29th Saturday. a snow 6 Inches deep has fallen last night. the Boat Channel is Blocked up with the snow. lent E. J. Lee my mare to ride to Sharpsburgh where he has a sale of Tapscotts House as Trustee. Franklin took his Sister Jennett & Child and Miss Latitia Smith in his sleigh. sat out at 11 Oclock G. Mc Kernan with them in the sleigh Will delivered C. Wright a load hickory wood which I charged him with $3 - brought one home and hauled one for Franklin. Jacob Sigler called wants a load wood - David Miller Mary Elenora & Ann came out in the sleigh spent a short time and returned. Will hauled Jacob Sigler 1 load wood charged; Franklin returned. reports all well at Boonsg. brought his wife and Child home from Sharpsg E. J. Lee returned in a sleigh he brought from Jno. Knode pd. $35 - Ned and Julious in the Boat a tolerable Business

        30th Sunday. morning clear & pleasant for the season C. K. Ellen Rochenbaugh Helena & William all gone over to meeting in the Baruch Enoch drove them. I remained at home wrote a letter to Joseph Knode Orleans Alegany County. a Mr. Hemsted brother in law to B. Towner attempted to lead his horse over on the Ice broke in about midway which occationed much labour and risk to get the horse out he was brought to this shore by cuting a chanel and towing him in it to shore. There has been no company here this day. The girls report that a great number of sleighs in Shep. Town Ned and Julious in the Boat small business

        31st Monday. morning Clear and pleasant J. K brought up 30 Bushels Rye which I had placed in the granery. a Mr. Bose called wants wood says him and Brantner will come and cut wood next week. Sent the


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letter to Joseph Knode to the Post office and 12 1/2 to pay the postage Bushrod W. Herbert called which prevented the girls from going to meeting he dined & spent the day with us. he made the girls C K & Helena Christmas presents a pair gloves & a Hankerchief Helena and Ellen Rochenbaugh crossed over with B. W. Herbert in the evening to spend the night at Mr. Borders and attend night meeting. old Mr. Folk called. I promised him a load wood which he didnot get. Blakeny called. he came Saturday has had his horse in my stable 3 nights had hay. Will delivered 3 loads wood 1 to Boss 1 to Higings & 1 to G. Unseld Enoch reports 9 lambs Ned & jupe in the boat but little done


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January 1839

        1st Tuesday. morning clear and cold the Thermometer was at 7 above zero. the Boat channel cloased up with strong Ice which took the hands Ned Will Jupe & Enoch untill 12 Oclock to open; George Perry called pd. me $5 for 2 loads wood to be delivered.. a Scotchman named Jas. McLamin called I subscribed and pd. him $5.50 for the Weekly Whig a paper printed in New York and the ladies companion. 1 which comes out in 12 numbers. Helena & Ellen Rochenbach came home at 2 Oclock A Colbert called to know respecing his case with Elgen appears displeased with my judgment in his case. Franklin came up with his sleigh in the evening. Took in Helena Ellen Rochenbaugh and William went to Sharpsng where they spent but a short time and returned Will hauled but one load wood this day delivered that to D. Folk Chd. Ned and Enoch in the Boat. Poor Poor the day has been pleasant Thawing in the sun shine.

        2nd Wednesday. morning cloudy and a small sprinkle of snow. Will hauling wood I wrote a letter to Henry in which I placed $15 which letter I placed in a Book, BonycCstles Algebria 2 and directed to Henry to be sent by Wm. Grimes. Joseph Beeler and Mrs. Gorman William Grimes and Elenora Miller called have been to Shepherds Town. they spent an hour and then left for Sharpsburgh. William returned says he left the letter with Col. Miller to hand to Wm Grimes who I spoke to, on the subject. has promised to attend to it. Will hauled 2 loads wood to S. Town sold one to Mr. Hickson and one he deld. G. Perry. he



1. The New York Whig, published as a daily as well as weekly, was established in 1837. The Ladies' Companion, published in New York City by W. W. Snowden, was patterned after the popular Godey's Lady's Book edited by Sarah Joseph Hale.

2. John Bonnycastle (1750-1821), famous English mathematician, professor at the Royal Military Academy and father of Charles Bonnycastle a professor at the University of Virginia from 1825 to 1840, was the author of An Introduction to Algebra, with Notes and Observations: Designed for the Use of Schools and Places of Public Education, to Which is Added an Appendix, on the Application of Algebra to Geometry that had gone through ten editions in England before its first printing in New York in 1818. Blackford purchased this book for his son Henry who was a student at the Mercersburgh Academy.

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paid for two one yet to be deld. has been thick cloudy all day. The Turkeys & Peafowls remained on the Roost all day some little fall after night Ned & Jupe in the Boat a Tolerable business

        3rd Thursday. morning cloudy and has rained some little during the past night. froze on the Trees. a man called to cut wood - I have Experienced a bad nights rest have a bad cold. sent for Wright to come up and Examine the Ice House which is giving way. have directed Will to cut some pieces to prop it up I commenced poasting my Books. The man went out to cut wood. tho it is raining and has been nearly the whole day. hands on the other shore geting out Ice. the man cut some little and quit - Will delivered two loads wood one to G. Perry and one to William Bowen. I received my paper the patriot and the Philedelphia paper Henry sent to Helena. this is very unpleasant weather. The Trees are hanging full of Ice. - Ned and Jupe in the Boat. small Business

        4th Friday. continues cloudy and raining. has rained and froze on the trees during the night. three men came to cut wood Bose Brantner and a lad Rose likewise. I rode out and pointed out the timber they are to cut and the terms Will delivered to Jacob Sheetz one load wood. Charged and one brought home and the polls to prop the Ice House which Mr. Wright & Enoch attended to. A Shafer called produced the lease which he had drawn. rend. Wm. Shortts acct. he is to draw one other lesse and call over again when we are to endevour to settle Shortts acct. Will deld. 2 loads wood one to J. Sheetz and one sold. Had Mr. Hill to Rough the horses shoes - I took 3 of Brandreths pills going to bed had an unpleasant night. Ned & Jupe in the Boat small rects.

        5th Saturday. Weather continues soft and thawing cloudy without any fall; I had reather an unpleasant night. took 3 more of Brandeths pills. I have kept close within Doores all this day. Will and Enoch hauling wood they brought home 3 loads and one delivered to Jacob Hill Blacksmith in Shepherds Town - Enoch reports there to be 13 lambs. Blakeneys little son sick. It is reported to be the scarlet fever Ned brought from Lane & Webbs a card shoe brushes Book 3 and boat Roap amt. $2.59 1/4 the Book and Rope are not suitable therefore shall return them they are charged $2.03. Ned and Julious in the Boat a very poor Business done this day.

        6th Sunday. morning Cloudy and moderate wind from the East I C. K. Helena Miss Ellen Rochenbough gone to Sharpsburgh and



3. This was a blank book to be used by Blackford in keeping the accounts of the Ferry.

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William with them in the Baruch. Enoch driving. They attended Mr. Hoffmires meeting. Ellen remained at Colo. Millers. C. K. Helena & William returned in the evening. I remained loanly at home took two doaces sedlitz powders which did not opperate well. drank brandy Tody which did not encourage it. Blakeneys little son very Ill with scarlet fever Ned & Jupe at the Boat Ned made no return at night nothing done

        7th Monday. Weather cloudy and cold froz last night. I rose this morning not well. Will and Enoch prepairing to Butcher 3 hoggs that was left from the other two butcherings. Blakenys little son David died this morning. let Mr. Wright have 50 cents, and my mare, and set out 1/4 before 10 Oclock for Horines to inform Blakeny of his childs death. wrote a note by him to Jennett C. K. and Hannah went down and laid out the child - Samuel Barnett called. wants a load wood. tomorrow. Mrs. Howard called with Jno. Quigleys order for a load wood recd my papers and a note from M. J. Brown requesting wood Elizabeth called. The 3 Hoggs butchered weigh 351w Butchered the red cows Calf likewise. Wright and Blakeny came after dark. Blakeny had his horse put in my Stable to Hay. Ned and Julious in the Boat Ned Exchanged the Blank Book & Boat Cable for others of which I made the necessary Entries.

        8th Tuesday. Weather clear and pleasant. Sat out after Breckfast in the Baruch with William for Boonsborough where we arrived before 12 Oclock. called at Sharpsburgh and paid Miller & Mackeys acct. $17.44. Brought some small articles in Boonsg. and paid for colouring Helena cloak $2 in all $3.90. Sat out for home after dinner which I eat at Doct. Smiths where William remained to go to school. I arrived at some after stoping in Sharpsg a few minutes about sun set Will reports his and Enochs haveing delivered 3 loads wood in Shep's Town. all of which I have noted down, I understand Blakeny buryed his little son, the two Bosses Brantner & some other young man carryed the corps to the Catholic Burying ground where he was Intered - Ned and Julious in the Boat. a Tolerable Business

        9th Wednesday. morning Clear but clouds over about 10 Oclock. Will and Enoch commenced cuting out Ice for the Ice House Wright called up directed him to select some scantling for Gates. Recd. a note from Mr. Brien respecting Gum timber; Martin Shellman called after spending the last ten days in Sharpsburgh he has injured his Knee. gave Helena $1. She has gone to S. Town recd. letter by Express from Jos I. Merrick coveing one from Wm. Sleigh Es. to him on the subject of Barns debt. I wrote in answer that I would wait on him by 10


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Oclock tomorrow. recd. my paper with three numbers of the Ladies Book. commenced to snow at 3 Oclock Daphney and Isaiah moveing some straw into the House Hailed and Rained after night which formed a sleat or Ice over the whole surface - Ned and Julious in the Boat - a small business and snow has very much disolven the last two days

        10th Thursday. weather continues soft and moderate I rose early and had breckfast by candlelight and sat out for Hagers Town on horse Back where I arrived a little after ten Oclock after stoping at Harmans shop to have some nails drove in my mares shoes. where I was informed of Mrs. Reels death. She died about 2 Oclock this morning after arriving in Hagers Town sent for Mr. Merrick who waited on me very promptly. I walked to his house with him where we talked the business over. and he commenced writeing of my Judgment & Bill of Sale from Barns. The assignment to John Hanson Thomas of Balto. 4 after ingageing to dine with Mr. M. I left him he waited on me at two Oclock with the papers all ready for Execution when we called at Mr. Kauslers where I signed and acknowledged them. Mr. M. after dinner Enclosed the papers and letters and placed them in the Post office. Will & Enoch geting out Ice Ned and Julious in the Boat Small Business -

        11th Friday. After takeing Breckfast, theonly meal eaten at Mrs. Clines I waited on Mr. Johnson the dentist 5 who pluged one of my front teeth. pd. him $1.50. I sat out from Hagers Town 10 Oclock came by Boonsborough where I spent a short time bought and paid for some small articles. S. Bentz wants to hire Daph. I am to write him whether he can have her. called at Colo. Millers. Mrs. Reel was buryed before I arrived and the Interment of John Wilson took place while I was there. Will reports he has put in the Ice House this day 5 loads Ice. There was a dence fog this morning at 10 Oclock which lasted but a short time when the sun came out warm and continued so all day Ned and Julious in the Boat small Business -

        12th Saturday. Weather continues remarcable mild. The snow has nearly all disappeared and the Ice on the river is disolving rapidly. Will and Enoch has brought up two loads Ice this morning and deposited them in the Ice House which is 7 they report in the House Will took in the cart to the mill he reports 6 Bus Rye to have chopped for Horse feed and 3 Bus Buck wheat for Bread which is the amount of their



4. Blackford thus transferred his claims on Barnes to John Hanson Thomas. What he received in exchange is not stated.

5. Blackford had earlier engaged a Doctor Jenks, a dentist of Frederick, to attend his family at Ferry Hill.

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days work. Wright borrowed my Gun him & Franklin went guning in the evening I Recd a letter from Henry dated the 7th Inst. Catherine 6 wrote Henry this day. Ned & Jupe in the Boat small Business

        13th Sunday. the ground a little stiffened by freezing last night, morning cloudy C. K & Helena sat out on horseback, half after 9 Oclock for Sharpsg the Roads very sloppy and deep the frost haveing gone out prety much. I remained at home loanly Ellen Rochenbaugh and Mary Miller accompained Helena and her aunt home. They attended Mr. Parkers 7 meeting. I commenced a letter to Samuel Bentz respecting the hire of Daph spent the evening with the girls. they returned about 9 Oclock. The evening clear and moderate and soft weather. the River is swelling slowly. Ned and Julious in the Boat. but a small business done. there is but little Travel at this time

        14th Monday. Weather cloudy and rained some this morning. froze very little last night lent Franklin some Bags and my Brown mare to Ride the Grimes mill. went with his little wagon for off fall. I finished my letter to S. Bentz which I sent by Daphney she rode in Franklins little wagon to Sharpsg she has taken some few cloaths to change and goes to stay one year at 50 Dollars and I am to find her cloaths. Elizabeth called to ask for half Bushel Corn. Alexa Shafer & Charles Wright called the former brought two agreements or Leaces, which he had written for the tenure of my House and lot in Shepherd Town, which we both signed and C. Wright Witnessed and each of us kept a copy. The lease is for five years8 The rain was comeing down 9 Oclock at night. The river riseing and changed muddy. Ned did not come up at night. Will & Enoch shelled a little corn and pidled about the Barn done very little during the day -

        15th Tuesday. a snow has fell some Inches deep during the night and continues to snow now 12 Oclock burned out the Chimneys. 9 Set Will to hanging up the first killing of meat which has been 6 weeks salted which was about the amount of his and Enochs days work. It continued to snow untill night which lef It 6 Inches deep, which is the largest snow this winter that has fallen River falling is still a little discoulered with much snow glideing down on the surface of the water.



6. Catherine Knode, sister of the deceased Mrs. John Blackford, lived at Ferry

7. Parker was a Methodist minister in Sharpsburg.

8. Because of ill health Blackford was beginning to curtail his activities. He had already hired out Murph and now Daphney. He had closed out his account with Barns of Baltimore, and had now leased his Shepherdstown property for a five year period.

9. It was a common practice in rural areas to burn the soot out of chimneys to remove the danger of fire.

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Ellen Rochenbaugh and Mary Miller here recd. a small Book from Mr. Hargrave as a present - Ned & Jupe in the Boat. Ned came up this evening with $1.30 pour business for two days no traveling - Daphney went to live with Mr. Samuel Bentz Monday January 14th 1839 at $50 pr. anm. I am to furnish her cloathing.


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BIBLIOGRAPHY

The preparation of John Blackford's Journal of Ferry Hill Plantation, January 4, 1838, to January 15, 1839, for publication was primarily an editorial project rather than a research undertaking: hence only a few primary and secondary sources bearing directly upon the subject were located. Some works that are essential for an understanding of the life and times of the area covered have also been included.

    I Manuscript records preserved in the Washington County
    Courthouse, Hagerstown, Maryland

  • Accounts, Executors and Administrators. Accounts of John Miller and Otho J. Smith (eight in number) Executors of the Estate of John Blackford, Volumes XII-XVI, XXVIII, XXX.
  • Deed, Thomas V. Swearingen to John Blackford, dated May 3, 1816. Recorded in B. B. (1816), p. 252.
  • Deed, Henry V. S. Blackford to Franklin Blackford, dated June 17, 1846. Recorded in Land Record, Vol. 46, pp. 886-888.
  • Deed, Franklin Blackford to Robert Douglass, dated October 19, 1848. Recorded in Land Record, Vol. 48, pp. 816-818.
  • Will, John Blackford, dated November 1, 1839. Recorded in Wills, Washington County Maryland, Book D, pp. 335-337.

    II Official Government Documents

  • Compendium of the Enumeration of the Inhabitants and Statistics of the United States, from the Returns of the Sixth Census, by Counties and Principal Towns, Exhibiting the Population, Wealth, and Resources of the Country. Washington: Thomas Allen, 1841.
  • Fifth Census; or, Enumeration of the Inhabitants of the United States, as Obtained by the Several Marshals of the States and Territories. 1830 . Washington: Duff Green,1832.

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    III Newspapers and Periodicals

  • Hagerstown (Maryland) Mail, 1835-1843.
  • Niles' Register (Baltimore, Maryland), XLVII-LVII.
  • Shepherdstown (Virginia) Register, 1849-1850.
  • Washington (D. C.) National Intelligencer, 1835-1840.

    IV State and Local Histories and Special Studies

  • Hungerford, Edward. The Story of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 1827-1927. 2 Vols. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1928.
  • Lossing, Benson J. The Pictorial Field-Book of the War 1812; or, Illustrations, by Pen and Pencil, of the History, Biography Scenery, Relics, and Traditions of the Last War for American Independence. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1868.
  • Mayer, Charles F. A History and Description of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Baltimore: John Murphy and Company, 1853.
  • Norris, E. J. History of the Lower Shenandoah Valley, Counties of Frederick, Berkeley, Jefferson and Clarke. Chicago: A. Warner and Company, 1890.
  • Rice, Philip Morrison. "Internal Improvements in Virginia, 1775-1860." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1948.
  • Sanderlin, Walter S. The Great National Project. A History of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1946.
  • Scharf, J. Thomas. A History of Maryland from the Earliest Period to the Present Day. 3 Vols. Baltimore: John B. Piet, 1879.
  • Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Western Maryland. Being a History of Frederick, Montgomery, Carroll, Washington, Alleghany, and Garrett Counties from the Earliest Period to the Present Day; Including Biographical Sketches of Their Representative Men 2 Vols. Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1882.
  • Williams, Thomas J. C. A History of Washington County, Maryland. From the Earliest Settlements to the Present Time. Including a History of Hagerstown. To This Is Added a Biographical Record of Representative Families Prepared from Data Obtained from Original Sources of Information. 2 Vols. N. P.: John M. Runk and L. R. Titsworth, 1906.

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    V Plantation Diaries and Journals

  • Numerous plantation journals have been published but practically all of them are of staple crop plantations located in the lower South. They are quite different than Blackford's journal of Ferry Hill Plantation but are excellent for comparisons and contrasts. Among the more important are:
  • Aime, Valcour. Plantation Diary of the Late Mr. Valcour Aime. New Orleans: n.p., 1878.
  • Davis, Edwin Adams. Plantation Life in the Florida Parishes of Louisiana 1836-1846, as Reflected in the Diary of Bennet H. Barrow. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.
  • House, Albert Virgil. Planter Management and Capitalism in Ante-Bellum Georgia. The Journal of Hugh Fraser Grant. New York: Columbia University Press, 1954.
  • Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell. Plantation and Frontier Documents: 1649-1863. Illustrative of Industrial History in the Colonial and Ante-Bellum South. 2 Vols. Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1909.
  • Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell and James David Glunt. Florida Plantation Records from the Papers of George Noble Jones. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society, 1927.
  • Riley, Franklin L. "Diary of Dr. M. W. Phillips," Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society, X, 305-481. Oxford: By the Society, 1909.

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