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First Annual Report of the Board
of Public Charities of North Carolina. February, 1870:

Electronic Edition.

North Carolina Board of Public Charities


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University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
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Source Description:
(title page) First Annual Report of the Board of Public Charities of North Carolina. February, 1870
(serial) Annual report of the Board of Public Charities of North Carolina
North Carolina Board of Public Charities
126 p.
RALEIGH:
PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE BOARD.
1870.

Call number C360 N87p 1870 (North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)


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FIRST ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
BOARD OF PUBLIC CHARITIES,
OF
NORTH CAROLINA.
FEBRUARY, 1870.

RALEIGH:
PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE BOARD.
1870.


Page 1

RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA,
February 10th, 1870.

The Honorable, the General Assembly
of North Carolina:

        The undersigned, members of the Board of Public Charities, have the honor to present this, their First Annual Report, for the consideration of the General Assembly. Several suggestions are made that may not be altogether unworthy of attention, and such information is appended as could be obtained by the Board, and which is

Respectfully submitted by

G. WM. WELKER, Pres.,

EUGENE GRISSOM,

G. W. BLACKNALL.


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FIRST ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
Board of Public Charities.

        The Act defining the duties of "the Board of Public Charities" of North Carolina, makes it the duty of the Board to present an Annual Report to the General Asssembly, and that it be printed. This first Annual Report must, in the necessities of the case, be but a meagre one, as but little opportunity and no means were had to prosecute the purposes for which the Board was created. While the Act invests the Board with sufficient powers to perform the duties that are required of it, no means are provided with which to accomplish their work. Only that has been done which could be performed without means, and results only are presented that were reached incidentally.

POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE BOARD.

        For the convenience of the General Assembly and the information of the reader, we present the Act as it may be found in the Public Laws of 1868 and 1869, Chap. 170:

AN ACT PROVIDING FOR A BOARD OF PUBLIC CHARITIES, AND
PRESCRIBING THE DUTIES THEREOF.

        SECTION 1. The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact, That the General Assembly shall, immediately on the ratification of this act, proceed by concurrent vote to select five electors who shall be styled the Board of Public Charities of the State of North Carolina. One of the persons so elected shall hold office for one year; one for two years, one for three years; one for four years and one for five years, the term to begin the first of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-nine. Appointments to fill vacancies in this Board, caused by resignation


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of removal from the State, death, or from any other cause, may be made for the residue of such term by the Governor.

        SEC. 2 The Board of Public Charities shall hold regular meetings on the first Tuesday in January, April, July, and October, and as often besides as they may deem needful. They shall make such rules and orders for the regulation of their own proceedings as they may deem proper; they shall investigate and supervise the whole system of the charitable and penal institutions of the State, and shall recommend such changes and additional provisions as they may deem needful for their economical and efficient administration, and no changes shall be made in the management of any of the institutions without the advice or consent of the Board. They shall receive no compensation for their services except their traveling expenses, which shall be allowed and paid.

        SEC. 3. The general condition of the State as effected by crimes, vagrancy and pauperism, shall also come under the view of the Board, and it shall be their duty to report to the General Assembly when, in their judgment, it may become needful for the erection of the several reformatory institutions whose organization is provided for in article eleven of the Constitution.

        SEC. 4. The Board shall give special attention to the causes of insanity, defect or loss of the several senses, idiocy, and the deformity and infirmity of physical organization. They shall, besides their own observation, avail themselves of correspondence and exchange of facts of the labors of others in these departments, and thus be able to afford the General Assembly data to guide them in future legislation for the amelioration of the condition of the people, as well as to contribute to enlighten public opinion and direct it to interests so vital to the prosperity of the State.

        SEC. 5. Personal visits may be required by the Board, of one or more of its members, or otherwise, to make careful investigation into the condition of the several County jails and alms-houses, and the treatment of their unfortunate inmates, and report on these points, so that the provisions of section six, article eleven, of the Constitution may be enforced.

        SEC. 6. Whenever the Board shall have reason to believe that any insane person, not incurable, is deprived of proper remedial treatment, and is confined in any alms-house or other place, whether such insane person is a public charge or otherwise, it shall be the duty of said Board to cause such insane person to be conveyed to the State Asylum, there to receive the best medical attention. So also, it shall be their care that all the unfortunates shall participate in the charities of the State.

        SEC. 7. The Board may require the Superintendent, &c., of


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the several charitable and penal institutions of the State to report to them of any matter relating to its inmates, their manner of instruction and treatment, with structure of their buildings, and to furnish them any desired statistics at their command.

        SEC. 8. The Board of Public Charities shall annually prepare and submit to the General Assembly a complete and full report of their doings during the preceding year, showing the actual condition of all the State institutions under their control, with such suggestions as they may deem necessary and pertinent, which they shall print.

        SEC. 9. This Board shall make a special report to the General Assembly of eighteen hundred and seventy, on the cause of crimes, pauperism, &c.

        SEC. 10. This act shall be in force from and after its ratification.

        Ratified the 10th day of April, A. D. 1869.

        At a meeting of the members of the Board appointed and named in this Act, held in the City of Raleigh, on the 20th day of May, 1869, the Rev. G. Wm. Welker was chosen President of the Board, and W. J. Palmer was elected Secretary. The term of the several members was fixed by lot, and that of G. W. Gahagan was for one year, that of G. W. Blacknall for two years, that of G. Wm. Welker for three years, that of Eugene Grissom for four years, and that of William Barrow for five years.

        At this meeting steps were taken to obtain information respecting the condition of the Jails and Poor Houses of the State. See Report of Secretary.

        July 6th, 1869. Circulars were ordered to be sent to the Chairmen of the Board of Commissioners of each County.

        Dr. G. W. Blacknall was appointed to visit as many of the Poor Houses and Jails of the State as practicable and report on their condition. His report will be appended to the report of the Board.

        December 13th, 1869. In compliance with a request of the General Assembly, it was provided for to obtain information in regard to suitable buildings for the Insane in different parts of the State. See report to General Assembly.

        Also, a circular was sent to the Chairman of the Commissioners of each county to learn the number of Insane and Idiotic persons in the State not now in the Asylum. See Report of Secretary.


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        It has already been stated that the Board had no means appropriated for the prosecution of their work and did not feel at liberty to ask any in the present condition of the State finances, although the benefits of a wise use of a limited amount of means would be of great service to the State. The Constitution declares "that the Board of Public Charities shall be entrusted with the supervision of all charitable and penal State Institutions." This is a work that challenges the use of all the time and energy of men of leisure. The members of the Board are all burdened with duties and labors that occupy their whole time and test all their energies. Much that has been done is owing to the earnest labors of the Secretary of the Board whose toil has no reward but the consciousness of doing good. The members of the Board should have leisure and means to gather facts in relation to the cause of crime, idiocy, insanity and pauperism from all parts of the State, so as to enable the General Assembly to adopt preventative legislation, in order to the decrease of these calamities, and to lessen the burdens of taxation. It is also of utmost moment that the treatment of prisoners in our penal institutions receive attention, in order that the convicts may be reformed, so that every year the number may grow less in proportion to population. An examination of the provisions of the Act providing for the appointment of the Board will show that that is no unimportant or light work committed to them by the State, and that these questions, on which they should place information before the General Assembly, are needful, in order that action be not taken without data--that has no reason for it but custom, and that may rather serve to increase the crime, misery and pauperism of the State than to lessen it.

THE PENAL AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS OF THE STATE.

        The charities of our State have not been varied or lavish, and there is not much that we can present with laudation. Even to this day, no institution has been established in this State, whose object is the reformation of the vicious or the restoration of the fallen. It was not altogether the old institutions of the State that produced this indifference, and our


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purpose does not require us to demonstrate the real cause. The county jail, one of which was usually erected on the creation of a new county, was the completion of the necessary trio--the Court House, the whipping post and the jail. There was nothing in the structure or management of these prisons, and is not to this day, so far as the Board are aware, that indicates any serious attempt to improve the morals or intelligence of any of the numerous unhappy beings who have, for a time, been their tenants. Their inmates were not only secluded from the outer world, but from all its sympathies and interests. It was not felt by society that anything was proper to be attempted in their behalf, except in some cases, once or oftener, to lead them from the place of incarceration to the pillory, to be publicly whipped--not, so far as experience testifies, a very improving moral or intellectual discipline. In those receptacles of accused persons and criminals, persons of every age and grade of moral character were huddled together indiscriminately, and so are to this day, and perhaps, until recently, no regard was had to sex, and both were herded in the same cell. Whenever an unhappy being passed these prison gates all claim to decent regard or christian sympathy was left behind, and he who said, "when I was in prison ye visited me" could rarely have said so here, unless it was by relatives or special cases of interest or notoriety. Even the physical wants and comforts of these unfortunate beings were not cared for, and often they were made to suffer from brutal treatment and cruel neglect.

        Even, very recently, in these cold and cheerless houses, without fire, their feet have been frozen by winter, and in these same ill-ventilated and unsheltered buildings, they swelter and almost perish from heat during the summer. Many of these prisons are filthy in the extreme, and offensive to every sense.

        The County Alms-houses are also an institution of the olden time, and very properly called "Poor Houses." These are the receptacle of the infirm, aged and diseased who are destitute or cast off by unnatural or equally poor kindred, the orphan and the child of poverty, for whom beats no heart warm with the kindly emotions. Here is almost equal banishment


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from the presence of human love and care, as in the case of the prisons. The respectable, aged and infirm pauper is shut up with the worn out strumpet, whose very presence is pollution, and no care is had, in many cases, for the innocence of childhood. Perhaps, at rare intervals, a sermon is preached at the "Poor House," but no provision is made for teaching the children gathered there, or the religious instruction of any of its inmates. The State appears satisfied with the knowledge that there is a Poor House--that there is an annual tax imposed upon the citizens which is in some manner supposed to advantage the poor. No enlightened, christian concern is felt for the welfare and comfort of these forlorn creatures, or for the education and training of the neglected children of want, who know nothing of the blessedness of parental affection. Something more is surely demanded of a christian State than what is now done in these institutions to prevent and punish crime, and to provide for the infirm and poor properly. The whole system, or rather want of system, that seems to have grown up by accident and without any benevolent concern for the welfare of the pauper classes, or the reformation of the erring or vicious, needs patient and thorough revision. No better direction could be given to public sympathy than to point it to this field of action; or to the efforts of enlightened patriotism or intelligent statesmanship, than that the legislation originating these institutions have a higher moral value, and that the character and interests, both of the State and society, be considered, in all that respects these houses, for the vicious and unfortunate; that the principle and actions of Him who was the friend of the erring and poor be brought into requisition, and their efficiency tried in the cure of great moral and social evils that are the problem of the present age.

        It is with pleasure that we now turn to those two Institutions--the pride of North Carolina--the Institution for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind and the Asylum for the Insane.

        The education of the Deaf and Dumb received attention in this State as early as 1828. On January 8th, 1845, a bill was passed making an appropriation for this purpose, and to levy a tax of $75 on a county for each pupil that was sent to the Institution.


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In January, 1847, an Act was passed appropriating money for the erection of suitable buildings for said Institution. They were completed in 1849, and occupied in January of that year for its benevolent purpose. It has been growing in usefulness and importance to the State ever since. It only asks from the people of the State the confidence it has hitherto received, and that they cherish it as its purpose demands. The department for the Blind was organized in connection with this Institution in 1851, and now light finds its way into their mind, and life is made tolerable and even pleasant to them also. Since the close of the war a department--the first instance in the South--has been organized for the colored youth, where they enjoy every advantage that the most favored in their condition can enjoy.

        The Asylum for the Insane had its origin in the wise and earnest philanthropy of Miss Dix, who visited the State in the winter of 1848 and '49, and was successful in enlisting the General Assembly in behalf of the unfortunate insane, so that an appropriation of $80,000 was made for an Asylum. In February, 1856, it was sufficiently completed to receive patients, and from that day to this hundreds have enjoyed its advantages.

        So firm is the hold of this Institution on the public heart--so widely spread over the State are its blessings--that even a demagogue need not be afraid to levy taxes on the people for its support. It cannot fail to elevate the mind and enlarge the heart of any one to pass through its wards and see what the charity of a christian State can do to redeem its unfortunate children from the greatest of calamities.

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE.

        This instrument was planned with a purpose to place our noble old State among the foremost of all her sisters in the charities that redeem and alleviate the condition of her unfortunate or vicious classes. The several provisions thereof that relate to the duties of the State toward the suffering and criminal are clearly an advance on the past of her history and policy. It proceeds to require certain action that necessitates the assumption that all the unfortunate are alike the children of the State--that all such shall be cared for at the


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expense of the State, and thus with prudent forecast relieving the minds and hearts of the poor from the distress occasioned by their designation as paupers. All ranks and classes meet now in the halls of our great public charities on a complete equality. It were not possible more deliberately to do away with all distinction in their treatment by the State of all those who claim a part in her enlightened sympathies. Not only this, but such provision is equally just. It grants to all who need it the benefit of a bounty secured by the taxation of all property. Each feels that what he bestows upon others, they, in like manner, may bestow on him and his.

        But few of the States of the Union have as yet completed their system of Institutions for the restraint of the vicious, the reformation of the fallen, the punishment of the guilty and the comfort and welfare of the unfortunate. The Constitution of North Carolina has marked out for the General Assembly a course that even now presses for completion, and only the inability of the people to meet the demand for the means, can excuse it for neglect or delay. Every country almost has its idle and vagrant population. Every city and community has its neglected children, and uncontrolled youth, whose very neglect is training them for crime, and who are soon to be a burden to the State and the violators of its laws. To prevent such a result, to turn their elements of power for good or evil, so as to neutralize their harm or convert them into engines of moral power in the State for its well-being, is both policy and economy.

        Under this view it is that the Constitution makes provision for the erection in the future of Houses of Correction for the vagrant, and Houses of Refuge for those who are the waifs of society. It is of the utmost moment that these intractable elements of a people's power be utilized for their advantage, growth and glory; for, if neglected, as certain as necessity, they will prove the peril and ruin of society. It is intended that to the orphans,--and they are counted by thousands,--the sad fruit of the late war, many of them, the State shall before God aud society, be to them as parents!that they have afforded them every facility, every care to become by education and by habits of business, fitted for the positions awaiting


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them in this great Republic, and for the duties and responsibilities of lite in enlightened society. They are in part, the hope of the State, and it is eminently important that they be not blasted by neglect and want. They will become her ornaments or her shame. It depends essentially on the manner in which the State may discharge her duties towards them whether they will cause her to rejoice over them, or to weep over their ruin. Such was the thought embodied in the Constitution. One of the saddest sights that is revealed by the light of the sun as in his march he looks down on our revolving darkened earth, or that makes the philanthropist shudder in discouragement, is the sight of intellectual imbecility and the demented victim of strong drink. They exist as dark figures on the back ground of every picture of the prosperity or happiness of the State. These too are taken into account. Enlightened, christian civilization, philanthropic statesmanship must ask what shall be done with them? Shall the finest intellects, the most genial spirits of our State, bound by the infrangible fetters of habit, be doomed to perish in a drunkard's grave and the State have no care for them? Such has been the conduct of our State in the past of our history, and thousands now fill untimely graves who well might have said: "No man careth for my soul." Until this day no Legislator has had the moral courage, urged to a noble deed by the appeals of widows and orphans, to raise his voice to ask of the State for these victims of untold horrors, these splendid bondsmen of sin, that a cure be provided for them by the suffering State as is provided by the Constitution that it may be done. It even declares that it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to put forth the hands of the State for these, often her valuable and brilliant children, and rescue them from impending ruin and shame by devising means for their restoration. Other States already are engaged in this great work of pity--New York, Massachusetts, et. al. have made provision for the rescue of their imperiled children. Shall then these provisions of our Constitution only mark the neglect of this duty, or its own advance beyond the progress of the spirit of the people as seen in the General Assembly.

        In how many households of this State are there grinning


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gibbering skeletons in the shape of an idiotic or mentally imbecile member. It has been taken for granted that a life so desolate, scarcely a remove from the brute, could have no alleviation of its intensely dreary sadness. Our eminent statesmen have ridiculed the idea that one ray of truth, light or love could be made to irradiate that chaotic and darkened understanding. Christian love and natural affection alike, appear to have been paralyzed before the wrecked or misformed mind that was thrown upon its care. Thousands have been, many are even now, cast into that common receptacle, the County Poor House, where amid filth and neglect they do not live but only languish out the burden of an existence that is scarcely more than physical, or they are consigned to an Asylum for the Insane where no special provision is made for them; or still oftener, they are the constant, living, moving sorrow of the family that knows no means to alleviate its own great grief, and cannot command, or even does not hope or know that a cheerful beam of gleaming intelligence might perhaps be made to flit over that face, or that in the evidences of care, modesty and cleanliness, there were proofs of awakened intelligence and of glimmering consciousness. Our Constitution deemed it possible to do what private means could not accomplish--devise means to train or educate to some degree all that is human and capable of being taught to imitate in such a creature and that could be called forth by painstaking effort. It is the proof of faith in the power of christian love and patient, sacrificing labor--labor that while we write has its reward in the traces of light and affection that flit over the faces of those unhappy beings on whom rest so great an affliction in the Institution at South Boston, Syracuse, Media and other places. If aught can be done to shed one ray of hope or joy on the dreary pathway of such, let it be done--let the sceptic deride and scoff, let the inert and unloving yawn, but do not let the guardian of the poor and helpless--the State--be indifferent. If he is a benefactor who makes two blades of grass to grow where but one grew before, how much more so is the State that enlarges the power to enjoy life, and that recovers and redeems the victim of vicious appetite and those of feeble minds.


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        No greater proof can be given of the indifference to the welfare and character of the criminal and pauper population than the wretched hovels that are made to answer the purpose of Alms Houses, and the horrid places called jails, where every sense is offended. The Constitution of the State proposes to remove these blemishes from her character by requiring the General Assembly to secure to the prisoners the means of breathing pure air, the denial of which is not supposed to be implied in any judicial sentence to imprisonment. It also requires that the mingling of the sexes shall not be allowed.

        That the Institutions of the State--penal, reformatory and charitable--may not become centres of idleness and vice, that the primal law which imposes labor on all should not there fall entirely into desuetude, the Constitution also provides. It guards the people against reckless, lavish expenditure while it demands that labor shall be imposed upon all that enjoy the benefactions of the State, and that they contribute all that is in their power to their own support. This is a provision that wise charity insists upon and such as the people approve and commend to the Legislators of the State, and which the Board also fully approve and believe alone to be consistent with the best interest of all those who are interested in these great duties of the State.

THE IDEA IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS.

        A very marked change has been made manifest in the prevailing idea giving character to penal institutions since the day when Howard sacrificed his life in attempting the reformation of such institutions, or the calm, sweet voice of Mrs. Fry was heard in the cells of the vicious and abandoned in those receptacles for criminals in England. It is no longer simply to punish--no longer to vindicate the majesty and severity of the law alone, but the idea is justly set forth as it respects those of civilized lands where the gospel of "good will to man" holds the sway in the words of our fundamental law--"that it is not only to satisfy justice, but also to reform the offender." So fully is this in harmony with the spirit of the age that in the statute books of nearly every State in the Union there may be found the declaration of this as the purpose of their prison restraint. This idea was entertained and


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embodied in the laws of some States soon after the war of 1776 gave the people time to perfect their own free institutions. The Commissioners of the New York Prison Association, in their report of 1866, give very full information as it respects the prevalence of this view. The uniform answer they received to the question "What do you conceive to be the primary object of prison discipline?" from the warden, inspectors, etc., of prison, was: "The reformation of the imprisoned." As this State is now for the first time in her history about to erect a penitentiary, it may not be amiss to invite the attention of those having its conduct and the charge of the convicts, to this most interesting and important question. It is well known that in 1846, when the question of "a Penitentiary" or "no Penitentiary," was submitted to the direct decision of the electors of the State, the project was voted down by the most decided majority--not one county, if we remember correctly, casting a majority of votes in its favor. No effort has since been made to accomplish so important a work, although many persons in all parts of the State favored the erection of such an institution. It was deemed a hopeless effort, and no man was willing to sacrifice his personal popularity in its championship. It was only in the reconstruction of the organic law, after the close of the recent war, that provision could be made, under greatly altered circumstances, in the new Constitution, for such an institution. Even at this late day there is a strong minority in the State who still believe in "the whipping post," and who esteem it as the very ideal of the expression of insulted justice. With such, penal inflictions have no end but to avenge wrong and deter from crime. The reformation of the criminal--the restoration of a man to society and the State as a virtuous human being and a valuable citizen, is no part of their object, and to reform does not claim their attention as feasible or desirable. Doubtless, time with its observations and experiments, will serve to change such views--with increase of light and the wider prevalence of the spirit of Him who said : "I was in prison, and ye came unto me," will secure friends to the guilty and fallen, in such persons. While it is no purpose of this report to propose any system of prison conduct or agency of reformation,


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it may be pardonable to insist on the fact that the reformation of the convict is possible, and use this possibility as a motive to induce the adoption of every means warranted by experience, enlightened reason and christian charity, to compass an end so very desirable. It is to be hoped that the exploded notions of the hopelessness of the reformation of the convict population will never find a place in the plan or views controlling the State Prison. The result under this view, of perhaps the best conducted American Penitentiary--that of Massachusetts, in the testimony of the Warden, Mr. Haynes, is that 80 per cent. or four-fifths of all the convicts can be redeemed. All those who are conversant with the history of our States' prisons in recent years, hold that much the larger proportion of them can be reformed and restored to society as honest men. Capt. Machonochie, who, "in an incredibly short space of time transformed the community of thieves and ruffians, brutalized and sunk to the lowest depths of vice and crime, in the penal colony of Norfolk Island, into a society of peaceful, obedient and well-behaved men." This man says "that convicts can be gained to a man by a system which would study their natural feelings and seek their own improvement, together with that of their country in their treatment." This may seem extravagant, and perhaps not soon or easily realized, yet the uncommon success of this remarkable man gave him full warrant to believe as he held on this subject. Unquestionably it demands and allows that the attempt be made in every prison to reform every convict placed in charge of its officers. No greater service could be done a State than this, and it opens a path of noble endeavor to every benevolent and christian man. No doubt there is yet much to do before the most perfect system of prison discipline is adopted. Much to be learned of the most successful mode of reaching the criminals and leading them to abandon their habits of vice, and to adopt a virtuous and honest life. No effort certainly will prove vain, and no labor will remain unrewarded. The Statesmen and Philanthropists of our day have had done for them a grand work by those who have gone before them, and it remains for them to follow and surpass.


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THE MEN TO SUPERINTEND.

        With the question of convict reformation is closely allied that of the character and fitness of those to whom is entrusted this important service for the State. This will be deemed very delicate ground to traverse, and must require very judicious advances. Were we to say just in one sentence, what lies clear in our mind, it would be that no other position requires such an assemblage of rare and varied qualifications as those that fit men to treat properly and successfully the unfortunate and criminal classes. No such talents are required in those that command armies or govern States as in those who govern and manage these unhappy beings whom the State assembles in an Asylum or confines in a prison. This subject has already claimed the attention of those who are most interested in the welfare of these classes of human beings, and the success of many Institutions is greatly impaired and serious harm done to the inmates as well as the State, by having improper men placed over them. When an examination shows the utter failure, in many cases, of our County Almshouses to meet the demands of enlightened charity, and our County jails as receptacles of criminals, where only vice is engendered, it usually follows, on inquiry, that the unfitness of the presiding officer is at fault for the system, for even a bad one should work better results. Often the incumbents of place are the results of a false economy or a reward for partizan services. There is no doubt but these things are the cause for most abuses that are found to exist in any of these institutions. It is poor economy, worse policy, and still worse rule of action, to prefer a man to any position where the happiness or reformation of a human being is concerned only because his services do not cost much. In the end it is great expenditure without adequate result, and great wrong done to the wards of the State. It is with a view to reach a correction of these evils that the Board have proposed to themselves the work of collecting correct and ample information, as it respects the condition and management of all the Alms Houses and jails in the several counties of the State. So far only a portion of the work is accomplished, yet the result is not by any means satisfactory, and will be found in the Report of


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the Secretary, appended to this Report. When, also, the most important positions are the reward of services done for a political party, and subject to the short rotations caused by frequent changes. There is inaugurated a system, the consequences of which can only be disastrous to such Institutions. The changes in political dynasties being so frequent there is not time to become even interested and acquainted with the duties of the office or to mature and frame, much less elaborate practical improvements. The progress and elevation of prison conduct can only be the result of patient trial, and requires that the officers of these Institutions, when found to be capable and efficient, to be permanent. In order to obtain a faithful and efficient corps of officials at any Institution of the State, care should be had, first of all, to capacity and fidelity. Removals should be promptly made for the want of these qualities--the result will be to sift out all incompetent and unworthy men--to retain the valuable without respect to political affiliation, and thus, getting the right men in the right places, it will secure an efficient and successful administration. Rotation in the offices of State Institutions, both charitable and penal, with the successive displacement, at very short periods, by party ascendancy, has been the bane of such Institutions in other States. This is the uniform testimony that is given in all cases, and a tender concern for the welfare and prosperity of those institutions about to be manned, should lead their friends, in whose discretion is placed the power of appointment, to demand fitness and honesty as absolutely essential to the designation to any office. It is proper that all Institutions of this character should be exempted from that rule of party that declares "to the victors belong the spoils." The people should teach the victors in party contests that here is a domain of the State--a world outside partizan contests, where holy duties to the unfortunate and fallen find exercise, and where this rule has no fitness of application, and where they are not allowed to intrude, in order to receive reward for service done and earned in an entirely different sphere, and in a spirit alien to the work here to be done. In the Asylums for the unfortunate and innocent wards of the State it is eminently fitting that only men of exalted moral character should be


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placed. It is revolting to every virtuous mind to have placed over the charities of the State men whose conduct fills every pure heart with loathing. Can such men, with propriety, manage and oversee the innocent children of the State? Can they represent the spirit of christian charity that seeks to bless and make happy those on whom rests the hard lot to be bereft of any sense? Equally so is it important that such men should not be set over the vicious and fallen. Such patrons would lead to confusion and degradation--make the vicious to hate the State--would lead them to despise counsel and confirm them in vice and crime rather than reform and save. The men who represent the enlightened benevolence of the State should be patterns of virtue--examples to those whose guardians they are. Aside from this crowning qualification in those who have rule in such Institutions, many other qualifications of mind and heart, of experience and peculiar habit, are needful, and make a rare union of gifts in those who shall be the immediate overseers of such Institutions. The Board will be suffered, to recommend these things to the powers that may exist, to fill these offices or to create and define the duties of such officers.

DURATION OF SENTENCES.

        It may not be improper to call the attention of the General Assembly and the Judiciary of the State, to the matter of the duration of sentence to imprisonment in the jails and Penitentiary. First: To the inefficiency of punishment in the Penitentiary when sentences are very short. In cases where the sentence is only for a month or two the punishment is hardly appreciable by the convict, and no beneficial effects are secured by it. They cannot in such time be brought under any moral restraints. It is not of sufficient duration to teach them a trade or even to read, and they will pass out only that they may again depradate upon society--that they may, at the cost of the people, be convicted anew. In all the cases where the offence is not such as to justify a term of at least six months or perhaps rather a year, and where fines cannot be collected or are not adequate, it were better for the State and better for the criminal to sentence him to the county jail, but we would commend the entire question to those


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whom it concerns directly. It is a question whether any sentence short of one year is any punishment at all aside from the disgrace--which only serves to degrade. It is very probable that this term is the shortest that affords room for the hope to realize any of the reformatory effects resulting from enlightened prison discipline so that the convict may return a better man and qualified to earn an honest livelihood, and fitted for the duties of a citizen.

        Secondly: The Inequality of Sentences. The Board are aware how very difficult this matter must be in its adjustment. Yet it is possible that legislation may improve on the present want of system or uniformity. In most cases of crime a large margin is allowed for time to which the sentence may extend, ranging from one to thirty years. It is very true that cases of the same crime may be more or less aggravated and that the Judges may have the very best reason for the disparity of sentence. But in cases of the first conviction there is excited a feeling prejudicial to the prisoner's reformation when he learns that another man from an adjoining county for the same crime as his, for which he is sentenced thirty years, has only one year to serve in the Penitentiary. He cannot see that it is just. His own innate sense of fairness is aroused against the authority of the State, and it becomes difficult to overcome his sullen sense of wrong done to him. He becomes a source of trouble in the prison which he would not be did he feel that he was dealt with as all are that were guilty alike with himself. His State and her institutions, society and its benefits, lose their value and attraction to such a man and his reformation may be regarded as hopeless. Our attention is called to this question on looking over the several terms to which convicts are sentenced for the same crime to our infant Penitentiary, viz: Arson, five years; stealing four pieces of meat, five years; felonious slaying, three years; a child 15 years old, stealing a suit of cast off clothes, one year; attempt at rape, five years; stealing $15, four years; a case of burglary, thirty years; another, one year; robbery, ten years; another case, one and one-half years; manslaughter, five years; assault and battery; two years; rape, five years; stealing, four years. Should our legislation be as near equitable as possible, yet


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perhaps, it still may be proper for the Judiciary of the State to reach some common rule to guide them in fixing the term of their sentence for the various crimes known to our law. If any existing defect in the penalties attached to certain crimes by our laws can be remedied, there is a guarantee in the position and character of the Judiciary that they will unite with those who have the oversight of our penal institutions in the great effort to reform the criminal, and that they will not willingly increase the obstacles that lie in the way. It is desirable that the legislation of our State and the conduct of our penal institutions shall become so related by and by that the sentences of criminals instead of being arbitrary as to time, will be made to depend alone on the evidences of such reformation as will prove it safe to return the criminal to society. The day that places our prisons in the hands of wise, good and experienced men, will also make it safe for the General Assembly and the Judiciary to commit all criminals into their custody only to be set at liberty when punishment has effected its main purpose, and when a recommital would be feared as the most dire calamity.

PARDONS.

        The Constitution of the State commits to the Governor the power to pardon those sentenced to death or imprisonment. It is proper that this power should be lodged somewhere, under existing modes of treating criminals. We have no purpose to arraign the wisdom of this provision, or to find fault with any pardon bestowed, but only to speak of the great difficulties that surround most of the cases where pardon is sought--the effect on prison discipline and on the prisoner's reformation. The short experience of this State in prison discipline does not afford many data, but it is evident that a hope of pardon is entertained generally among the convicts, and it so occupies their thoughts that it interferes with their duties and makes the reformation a deferred matter. It is a very questionable kindness on the part of friends to assure them that efforts will be made to obtain their pardon. It is yet more improper for prison officials to hold out to them any hope of this kind. Whatever is done for them should be done without their knowledge. The very life power of punishment


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for crime, as a reformatory agency, is its certainty. The possession of the power subjects the Chief Executive of the State to great annoyance and unnecessary importunity, yet it is only seldom that it can be used with benefit to the prisoner or the country. In cases of atrocious crime no pardon should be extended, and in no case unless the Warden of the Penitentiary can commend the criminal for such act of clemency. In cases of capital conviction the power to commute the sentence to imprisonment is one less dangerous in its exercise, as it only substitutes one form of punishment for another, but, perhaps, even the effect of this is unfavorable to the repression of crime. Let there be no uncertainty as to the consequences of crime. Let the penalty of the law be just and equal, and then inflicted with unfailing certainty. This is a matter to be viewed simply, we judge, in the light of its effect on crime, and the life and reformation of the guilty ones.

STATISTICS.

        The attention of the General Assembly is also directed to the fact that at present no provision is made by which the statistics of the county prisons and Alms-houses are required to be collected and returned to any officer of the State, or to this Board. Such legislation as will not only require to be reported the number of the inmates of such Institutions, but also the place of their nativity, their color, their occupation, previous condition, their degree of education, their moral training, their habits, the character of their parents, whether brought up in the country or in cities or villages, with all other information that will enable an approach to be made at some conclusion relative to the causes of crime and pauperism in the State.

THE DEAF AND DUMB AND THE BLIND INSTITUTION.

        This institution needs only to be visited to learn at once that its present location is not a fitting one--not only is it too small to afford room for all those who are by the Constitution entitled to its benefits, but surrounded, as it is, by other buildings, and having only a few acres of ground, it affords no adequate play-ground for the many active children collected there, who need daily exercise not only for enjoyment but for the preservation of their health. The suggestion of the


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Principal, made in his last Annual Report, that a location be found in the environs of the City of Raleigh, is very proper. While it should contain not less than fifty acres, it should be a dry, airy and elevated site, where perfect sewerage could be had--that part of the grounds should be devoted to gardening, where the vegetables and small fruits needful for the Institution might be cultivated by the larger boys, and afford them healthful employment a few hours every day. The grounds surrounding the building could be laid off and ornamented, so as to add attractiveness to the place. This being done, the present building could be devoted to the Blind, whose misfortune does not permit them the pleasure of a play-ground, or to labor in the field and garden.

THE INSANE ASYLUM.

        This noble charity also fails to meet the demands made for admission, and to-day several hundreds are unprovided for, with the care that it was contemplated they should have. The accommodation should be largely increased. This demand has been recognized by the General Assembly in their action requiring this Board to give information of suitable buildings for this purpose, in several sections of the State. It may not be improper to repeat a suggestion already made, that in point of economy, it would not be advisable to provide such temporary institutions, and that the successful treatment of insane patients, in the judgment of those competent to decide, is best secured when the several classes of patients are under the same roof and the same management. The Board would suggest that, as the present Asylum building is so constructed as to admit of its enlargement; and as a larger number of patients can be managed and cared for, without greatly increasing the present corps of officials, immediate and effective steps be taken to enlarge the present buildings, so as to accommodate 450 or 500 patients. The economy of the measure demands its adoption, and the claims of those waiting and suffering press it eloquently.

THE PENITENTIARY.

        This great work undertaken by the General Assembly is worthy of the confidence and support of the people. Should


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its great purpose be realized it will add to the character of the State abroad, and will become one of the finest institutions of the kind in the United States. There will be needed the prompt and liberal appropriation of large sums of money. There should be no delay in the prosecution of this work to its completion. Economy demands that there be no hinderance interposed by any cause. It is important that all the convicts be assigned to profitable labor as speedily as possible, thus reducing the annual expenses to the people. There is also a large amount of very important legislation required by the establishment of a State's prison that the necessities of the case and the experience of similar institutions will make manifest. Early attention should be given to this matter so that no contingency can occur that will create difficulty in its conduct.


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SECRETARY'S REPORT.

OFFICE OF THE BOARD OF PUBLIC CHARITIES OF N. C.,
RALEIGH, February 10th, 1870.

To Rev. G. W. Welker, President Board of Public Charities of N. C., Raleigh:

        SIR:--I beg leave to present the following report containing such information as I have obtained in relation to the Penal and Charitable Institutions of North Carolina, from the time of the organization of the Board of Public Charities, May 20th, 1869, to February 10th, 1870.

        In accordance with a resolution of the Board, passed at a meeting held July 6th, 1869, I addressed the following circular to the Chairman of the Board of Commissioners in each county in the State:

OFFICER BOARD OF PUBLIC CHARITIES,
RALEIGH, N. C., July 7th, 1869.

        SIR:--The undersigned, having been elected and organized under an act of the General Assembly, entitled "An act providing for a Board of Public Charities, and prescribing the duties thereof," ratified April 10, 1869, beg leave to request that you will cause full and accurate answers to the subjoined questions to be made and returned to this offiec, directed to W. J. Palmer, Esq., Secretary, with as little delay as possible.

Very respectfully,

G. W. WELKER, President.

WM. BARROW,

EUGENE GRISSOM,

G. W. BLACKNALL,

G. W. GAHAGAN.


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PRISON.

QUESTIONS.

        1. Of what material is your County Prison built?

        2. Is it fire proof?

        3. What means are there for extinguishing fires?

        4. What is the size of the building?

        5. How many stories high, and how many rooms and cells for prisoners?

        6. State the size of the rooms and cells.

        7. What size are the windows in the rooms and cells, and how many in each?

        8. Are the windows closed, or in any way obstructed? If so, why?

        9. Are there any means of ventilation except by the windows?

        10. What are the arrangements for heating the building in Winter?

        11. Are the prisoners subject to much suffering in cold weather?

        12. What amount of bedding and covering is allowed and furnished each prisoner?

        13. How many prisoners now in confinement?

        14. What part of the prison is occupied by the male and what part by the female prisoners?

        15. How often is cool drinking water furnished them during the day?

        16. What is the daily allowance of food to each prisoner?

        17. Has any punishment been inflicted upon any prisoner since confinement? If so, who? By whom? What punishment? For what offence?

        18. What means are used to preserve the cleanliness of the jails? What disposition is made of the excrement?

        19. Give the name, age, sex, color, offence or crime, date of imprisonment and term of confinement of each prisoner.


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POOR HOUSE.

QUESTIONS.

        1. Is there a poor house in your County? If not, what provision has been made for taking care of the poor?

        2. How far is the poor house from the County seat?

        3. State the number of buildings, size of each, and of what material built.

        4. How many rooms in each building?

        5. How are the buildings and rooms ventilated?

        6. What are the means of protection against fire?

        7. How is the supply of water furnished for drinking, cooking and bathing purposes?

        8. How are the buildings heated in winter?

        9. How many inmates can be accommodated with the present arrangement?

        10. How many now in charge?

        11. How many of these are able to work?

        12. How many are helpless or bed-ridden?

        13. How many are under involuntary confinement?

        14. Give the names of all such, and the cause of confinement either here or on a separate list.

        15. What is the daily average of food allowed to each inmate?

        16. What is the average weekly cost of maintenance of each?

        17. What is the name of the keeper or overseer of the poor house?

        18. Is he industrious, sober and discreet?

        19. What pay does he receive?

        20. What is the name of the physician who attends the inmates?

        21. How far does he reside from the poor house?

        22. What pay does he receive for his services?

        23. How many inmates were there in poor house July 1st, 1868?


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        24. How many admitted since that time?

        25. How many deaths since that time, and of what diseases did they die?

        26. How many discharges from other causes?

        27. Give a general description of the premises. Are they well arranged, neat and in good condition, or dilapidated and out of repair?

        28. How many acres of land belong to poor house tract, and what is the quality of the land?

        29. How much is in cultivation?

        30. What crops are raised on the land, and how are the products used?

        31. What vegetables are raised for Summer and Winter use?

        32. Are the houses and yard protected by shade trees?

        33. Are the ashes and manures saved and used in improving the land?

        34. Has any punishment been inflicted upon any inmate since admission? If so, who? By whom? What punishment? And for what offence?

        In response to this circular, I received returns from seventy-one counties. The following counties have sent in no report up to this time:

        Aleghany, Cabarrus, Caldwell, Carteret, Columbus, Currituck, Edgecombe, Harnett, Hertford, Jackson, Johnston, Jones, Macon, Madison, Mitchell, Orange, Rutherford, and Stokes.

        The information contained in the returns received, is embodied in the papers appended to this report, as follows:

        I. General report of the condition of the Prisons and Poor Houses in the State.

        II. Tabular Statement, showing the number, condition, &c., of the inmates of Poor Houses.

        III. Tabular Statement showing the number of Prisoners confined in the county Prisons.

        IV. General Statement showing the ages of Prisoners.

        V. General Statement showing the crimes and causes of confinement.


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        At a meeting of the Board, held July 6th, 1869, Dr. G.W. Blacknall was appointed a Special Agent of the Board to visit as many penal and charitable institutions as was practicable, and report to the Board with such recommendations as he deemed necessary. He made an interesting report which you will find appended to this report, No. VI.

        You will also find appended to my report, the following papers:

        VII. Report of Penitentiary.

        VII. List of officers N. C. Asylum for the Insane.

        IX. List of officers N. C. Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind.

        The expenses of the Board have been up to this time, as follows:

        
For Postage, $ 8 50
For Printing, 12 50

        The stationery used has been furnished by the Secretary of State.

        On the 1st of November, I addressed a circular to the Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners of each county in the State, requesting them to report to this Board the number of Insane and Idiotic persons in Prisons, Poor Houses and private families in their respective counties. The returns received so far, you will find appended to this report, marked No. X.

        It will also become my duty during the coming year, in accordance with a resolution of the Board, adopted September 16th, 1869, to address the Annual Convocations of the different religious denominations in the State, asking them to urge upon the ministers the duty of visiting the criminals and paupers in their respective counties, to look after their spiritual interests. I shall perform this duty cheerfully, feeling the spirit of the resolution will meet with a hearty response from the Ministers of the Gospel in the State, of all denominations.

        After learning the onerous and responsible duties which would devolve upon me, I accepted the position of Secretary of your Board with some hesitancy; fearing that the varied cares and duties incident to the office I hold as Principal of


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the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind would prevent me from devoting as much attention to this important work as would be necessary.

        I have done the best I could under the circumstances, and if the facts developed will awaken an increased interest among our people in providing for properly taking care of the afflicted, the poor and the criminals, I shall feel that I have been amply repaid.

        In conclusion, permit me to express the hope, that during the coming year, steps may be taken in connection with the census returns to ascertain the number of afflicted in our State, so that in the language of the Law, defining the duties of the Board of Public Charities, you may "be able to afford the General Assembly data to guide them in future legislation for the amelioration of the condition of the people, as well as to contribute to enlighten public opinion and direct it to interests so vital to the prosperity of the State."

Respectfully submitted,

W. J. PALMER,
Secretary.


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NO. I.
GENERAL REPORT OF THE CONDITION OF THE
PRISONS AND POOR HOUSES OF THE STATE.

ALAMANCE COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Located one-and-a-half miles from the county seat. One building used by Superintendent and family, five wooden buildings for patients, one room each. The house used by Superintendent has three rooms. The size of rooms used by patients 18×20 feet. Water furnished from well. Daily allowance of food not specified. Location high and healthy. Sixty-five acres of land--not very good. Forty acres in cultivation. Corn, wheat, oats, irish and sweet potatoes, cabbage, turnips, &c., raised. Ashes and manure used for improving the land. The overseer is Mr. James Morse. His salary is a hundred dollars a year and board of his family. The attending physician is Dr. J. S. Murphy. He receives $1 per visit for his services.

PRISON.

        The building is of brick. Size 20 × 40 feet, two stories high, containing two rooms and two cells. Size of rooms 18 × 20, cells 12 × 12. Each room and cell contains one window 3 × 6 feet. The arrangement for heating in winter is a furnace in passage with flues leading to cells and rooms; four blankets allowed to each prisoner. The males occupy the upper and the females the lower story of the prison. No specified allowance of food. The prison is kept clean by washing, &c.; the excrement is deposited in buckets and carried out.

ALEXANDER COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Located three miles from county seat. Consists of one


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house 35 × 18, having two rooms 17 × 12, and one 15 × 20 with an L. 10 × 14 of wood. Water supplied from spring. Heated by fireplaces. No restriction in food. The average weekly cost of each inmate is from $1.25 to 1.50. The buildings are pretty well arranged and in good repair. Ninety acres of land belong to the Poor House tract; four or five are in cultivation on which are raised grain and vegetables used by the keeper. The Poor House is kept at present under the supervision of the administrator of Solomon Icehour, the late keeper. His salary is four dollars per month for each inmate, with use of house, land, &c Dr. John M. Carson, physician. Pay for services fixed by County Commissioners.

PRISON.

        The building is of brick. Size 35 × 20 feet. It is two stories high and has 3 rooms and an iron cage. Iron cage 9 × 9--room which it is in 15 × 18. The other two rooms are 10 × 12. Two windows in the large room, one in each of the others. Size 1½ and 3½ feet. Fireplace in each room. A sufficient amount of bedding is allowed the prisoners to keep them comfortable. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water furnished as often as needed. The prisoners have a plenty of good and wholesome food to eat. The same means that are used in keeping an ordinary dwelling house clean, are made use of in the prison. Excrement removed by hand.

ANSON COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Located two miles from the county seat. There are four framed buildings 16 × 30, each containing two rooms. Water furnished by hand. The buildings heated by fireplaces. The patients are not limited in their eating. The buildings are tolerably well arranged and in fair condition. There are 225 acres of poor land connected with it--14 acres in cultivation. Cotton and corn raised on the land and given to the Superintendent. Cabbage, beans, peas, onions and squashes raised for summer and winter use.


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Ashes and manure used in improving the land. The keeper is Mr. Wm. H. Patrick. He receives for his services, board of himself and family and the use of land around the Poor House. No regular physician.

PRISON.

        Consumed by fire on the 2nd of April, 1868; not yet rebuilt.

BEAUFORT COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Located one-and-a-half miles from county seat. Two buildings used for paupers besides superintendent's house, kitchen and smoke-house. Nine rooms in main building besides basement, 2 in each of the others. Water furnished from well. The buildings heated in winter by fire-places. One-half pound of pork, 1½ pounds of meal daily, and 1½ pints of molasses per week is allowed to each inmate. The average weekly cost of maintenance is one dollar and twenty cents each. Location is comparatively high and healthy--building "considerably dilapidated, but partially repaired." Eight acres of good clay land belong to the Poor House tract, of which about six are in cultivation. Garden planted in corn and pease, but poor prospects. All varieties of vegetables are raised. Ashes and manure applied to the improvement of the land. The overseer is Mr. D. B. Elliot. His salary is $10.00 per month. The physician is Dr. W. A. Blount who receives $2 for each visit.

PRISON.

        The building is of brick 41 feet 3 inches long by 38 feet 9 inches wide. The front part of prison consisting of four rooms is used by the jailor. The building is two stories high and has four cells below and two rooms above. One of the rooms is 13 feet 6 in. × 17 feet 6 in. the other 12 feet × 17 feet, 6 inches. The cells are all 10 × 12. Two windows in each of the rooms above, 3 feet × 18 inches--no windows in cells. An air pipe running through the top of the house ventilates it. One good stove in the passage below does


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the heating during winter. One blanket is allowed each prisoner. The south end of the upper story is for females, the other rooms, including the cells, for the males. Cool drinking water furnished the prisoners as often as necessary. One-and-one-half pounds of corn meal with pork, fish, potatoes, cabbage and other vegetables furnished the prisoners daily. The jail rooms are scoured often and plenty of lime used in every room and passage and all the rooms and cells are whitewashed. "The excrement is all taken to the rear, put in pits with lime, fixed right for manure, and at different times carried off to farms."

BERTIE COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        It is located two miles from the county seat. The buildings on the premises are as follows: two buildings 18 × 72, one story high; 1 building 32 × 18, 1½ stories high; 1 building 16 × 16, one story high, and one smoke-house 12 × 12. In the first two buildings are 8 rooms, 3 in the next, and one in the next; 12 in all. Water is furnished by a well on the premises. The buildings are heated by fireplaces. Each inmate has an average of 1½ pounds of meat and one and three-fourth pounds of bread allowed him daily. One dollar and ten cents is the average weekly cost of maintenance of each inmate. The arrangement is good. The houses are good, framed buildings, but not plastered, they need but very little repairs. There are eighty acres of land belonging to the poor house tract; all but about two acres wood land--poor. One acre in cultivation. Nothing is raised on it but vegetables for the inmates. The ashes and manure used on garden. The keeper is F. W. Bell who receives a salary of two hundred dollars per year. Dr. Francis Gilliam is the physician. Salary one hundred dollars a year.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of wood. Size of the building 25 × 35; two stories high, containing two rooms for keeper and two cells for prisoners. Size of rooms and cells 15 ×


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35. Eight good sized windows in keeper's rooms; 4 windows in the others. No arrangements for heating the building, consequently no way to prevent suffering from cold but by blankets. Each prisoner has two blankets furnished him. The lower room is occupied by the male and the upper one by the female prisoners Cool drinking water furnished three times per day. One pound of meat and one pound of bread is the daily allowance of food. The prison is kept clean by scouring. The excrement is taken out daily and burned.

BLADEN COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Located 2 miles from county seat, consists of 4 small wooden buildings which have, some of them, 2 rooms and some one room each. Water is procured from springs. Fire places are used for heating; 1½ pounds of pork and quart of meal is the daily allowance of food. Average weekly cost of each inmate, $1.00. The premises are not well arranged and are rather dilapidated. 1300 acres of medium quality land belong to the poor-house tract; 100 acres are in cultivation, corn, pease, potatoes, cabbage, &c., raised and used in supporting paupers. Jesse J. Croom, overseer, salary, $500 for 1869. Dr. A. K. McDonald Physician, no salary prescribed him.

PRISON.

        Is built of wood and iron, and is 36 × 42 feet. It is two stories high and has 5 rooms and cells 16 × 18 feet. Two windows in each room 2 × 3 feet. No arrangement for heating in winter, and "it may be possible and probable" that the prisoners suffer from cold, 2 blankets allowed each prisoner. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water furnished twice a day. One pound of flesh and one pound of bread is the daily allowance of each. The excrement is carried off in vessels.


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BRUNSWICK COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        No Poor-house, but paupers are assisted by the county.

PRISON.

        Is built of wood and is 35 × 25 feet. It is 2½ stories high and has 4 rooms for prisoners, three of which are 10×25 feet, the other, the full size of the building. The windows are 14 inches square and there are three in each room. Only one of the rooms is heated during the winter, though very little complaint has been made of the cold. Each prisoner is allowed two blankets. No female prisoners. Fresh drinking water is furnished twice per day and oftener. One pound of meat and one pound of bread is the daily allowance of food. All available means are used to preserve the clean-liness of the prison. The excrement is buried in the jail yard.

BURKE COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Located four miles from the County seat. One building 50 × 18 feet built of wooden logs, partition in centre, three rooms in each end. A supply of water is procured from a spring about 40 yards from the house. The building is heated by fire places. As much of ordinary food as is usually used is allowed to the inmates. $1 90 is the average weekly cost of maintenance of each inmate. The building is in a very dilapidated condition. One hundred acres of poor land belong to the poor-house tract, of which twenty are in cultivation. Wheat, oats, corn and the usual garden vegetables are raised. Peas, beans, corn, potatoes and cabbage, are raised for winter consumption. The ashes and manure are used in improving the lands. Mr. H. Calvin Snipes is the overseer, and his salary is seventy three dollars per anuum. Christopher Happold, M. D., is Physician. He gets no pay for his services.

PRISON.

        No report.


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CAMDEN COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Located three miles from the County seat. There are four buildings 16 × 24 with shed and piazza--built of wood. Five rooms each in two of the buildings, and one apiece in the others. The supply of water is from spring. The buildings are heated by fire places. The daily average of food to each inmate is, half pound meat, half pound bread, flour, molasses, coffee and tea. $4.00 is the average weekly cost of maintainance of each. The premises are not so well located or arranged as is desirable, but the buildings are in tolerably good repair. About fifty acres belong to the poor-house tract, of which about two acres are in cultivation. All that is raised is small patches of potatoes and vegetables, the cultivation of which is done by the inmates. Potatoes and coleworts are raised for winter. The ashes and manures are used on the land. The overseer is Abner Aydlett. He gets for his services ten dollars per month. Dr. W. E. Pool, is the attending Physician. His charges are fixed by the State Medical Society.

PRISON.

        The building is of brick and slate roof, and is thought to be fire-proof. Its size is 30 × 16 feet. It has two stories, one room and three cells, 14 × 16 feet. The windows, of which there are two in each room, are 2½ × 3 feet in size. The building is heated by means of stoves. Enough bedding is allowed the prisoners, to keep them warm. There are no female prisoners. One pound of polk and one pound bread is the daily allowance of food to each prisoner. The excrement is carried out in tubs and thrown away.

CASWELL COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Located one mile from the county seat. There are two buildings; one 64 × 16 feet, single story, four rooms; the other 120 × 16 feet, single story, eight rooms, material brick.


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The supply of water furnished from a well in the yard. The buildings are heated in winter by fire places. There is no allowance in food; the inmates have as much as they wish. There is no estimate kept by which the average weekly cost of each inmate, can be approximated. The buildings are well arranged and are kept in good condition. The roof of the larger building needs repairs. There are three hundred and sixty acres of land connected with the poor house of which the quality is prety good, light sandy soil. Sixty acres in cultivation. Corn, oats, wheat, hay, and vegetables of nearly all kinds are raised for the use of the paupers. Potatoes, peas, beans, turnips, cabbage and various kinds of salads are raised for winter use. The ashes and manure are used in improving the land. It is contemplated to erect some additional buildings this Fall for the accommodation of colored persons. Mr. Levi C. Page, is the overseer. His salary is two hundred dollars per annnm. No regular physician. When one is called in, he charges the ordinary fees for visit and medicine.

PRISON.

        It is built of wood and is in size 29 feet square with a wing 18 × 16 feet. There is an entry or passage in front of the building 8 feet wide. The main building is 2 stories high; the wing, one. Two rooms below, 11 × 13 feet, one above 24 × 13, with an iron cage or cell 12 feet square. There are two windows in each room containing twelve glass apiece, besides which each room has a door. There are no arrangements for heating in winter, but provision for it is in contemplation. The prisoners are not subjected to much suffering in cold weather; they have a sufficiency of covering to keep them warm. The lower apartment is occupied by females. No allowance or restriction in point of food. The rooms are cleansed daily and the excrement is thrown into a branch near by.

CATAWBA COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        It is located six miles from the county seat, and consists of


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two double cabins, log wall, brick chimney in centre, ceiled overhead, 32 × 16 feet in size; one room and one window in each; one cabin 12 × 15, brick chimney in end containing one room with one window. The supply of water is from a spring. The buildings are heated by fire places. There is no allowance in food, each one having as much as he wants; 84½ cents is the weekly average cost of maintenance of each. The buildings are tolerably well arranged but are now in a rather bad condition; they will however be repaired and improved soon. There are two hundred acres of poor land belonging to the poor house tract, of which eight acres are in cultivation. Corn, oats, cotton, sugar cane, and some wheat are raised for the poor. Sweet and Irish potatoes and cabbages are raised for winter use. The ashes and manure are used in improving the land. Mr. Alfred Hoffman is the keeper. He receives for his services forty-four dollars per year for each inmate. Dr. W. H. Conner is the attending physician. He lives eight miles from the Poor House, and receives fifty cents per mile for his visits.

PRISON.

        It is built of brick and has wooden roof and windows Size 42 × 22; two stories high and has four prison rooms, two of which are 16 feet square, the other two, 10 feet square; two large windows in each room. The building is heated in winter by fire places in each room. A sufficient quantity of covering is allowed the prisoners to keep them warm. The males and females are kept in different rooms There is no restriction in food. The filth is all taken out and thrown away daily.

CHATHAM COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Located three miles from the county seat, and consists of five buildings of logs weatherboarded, the sizes of which are as follows: One is 54 × 16; two, 36 × 16; one, 30 × 16 and one, 12 × 12; six rooms in one of the buildings, our in one, two in one, and two others with one room


Page 40

apiece. Water is gotten from spring. One-third pound of meat and one and a half pounds of meal is allowed the inmates daily, also coffee, flour, milk, butter and vegetables-The average weekly cost of the maintenance of each, exclu. sive of milk, butter and vegetables which are furnished at the place, is about one dollar and ten cents. The arrangement is not good; buildings in vary fair condition and in good repair. There are about three hundred acres of poor land attached to the Poor House, of which twenty-five acres, including meadows, are in cultivation. Corn, wheat, oats, and potatoes are planted and the products used for the support of the inmates and of the stock belonging to the place. Cabbage, snaps, Irish potatoes and turnips are raised for summer and winter consumption. Ashes and manure are used in improving the land. The overseer is Mr. R. B. Webster. His salary is $240 per year. Dr. H. C. Jackson is the physician. He charges one dollar a visit.

PRISON.

        Is built of brick and the rooms and cells are lined with wood and iron. Its size is 40 by 20; is two stories high and has four rooms and cells, the size of which is sixteen by sixteen. Each room and cell has two windows, two and a half by four feet. The building is heated in winter by stoves. The males and females occupy different apartments. They have fresh water three times per day, and they are allowed as much as they want to eat. The jail is kept clean by sweeping and the excrement is carried out by hand.

CHEROKEE COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The Poor House which is just completed is four miles from the county seat. It consists of one wooden building one story high and eighteen by thirty-six feet in size, which contains two rooms. Water is procured from a spring some distance from the house. The building is heated in winter by rock fire places. The average weekly cost of maintenance of each inmate is fifty cents. The premises


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are dilapidated and out of repair. Three hundred and thirty-three acres of land belong to the Poor House tract--inferior quality. None in cultivation.

PRISON.

        It is built of brick, and is fifty by thirty-three feet in size, having seven rooms and two cells for prisoners; six of the rooms are sixteen by fourteen, one, thirty by sixteen; two cells, seventeen by seven. There are two windows in each room. The building is warmed by a fire-place in each room. Cool drinking water is furnished three times a day, and they have three meals a day of good wholesome food. The excrement is carried off by means of a tin pipe leading from the different apartments.

CHOWAN COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        It is situated eight and a quarter miles from the county seat. There are two buildings of wood, sixty by twenty-eight feet in size, eight rooms in one and five in the other, for the use of the paupers; also a dwelling for the keeper, and necessary out buildings. The supply of water is from a well in the yard. The rooms are warmed by fire-places. The daily average of food allowed each inmate is one and a half pts. meal, half lb. of meat, one qt. of tea, &c.; $2.10 is the average weekly cost of the maintenance of each. The buildings are in a good situation, and are well arranged, but are out of repair. One hundred and forty acres of poor sandy land are connected with the poor house, of which twenty are in cultivation; corn, peas and potatoes are raised for the benefit of the keeper; collworts and potatoes are raised for summer and winter use. The ashes and manure are used in improving the land. The keeper is Asberry J. Turner; his salary is $150 per year and other extra expenses. Dr. Robert R. Winborn is physician; he receives for his services, $44.00 a year.

PRISON.

        The prison is built of brick, and is forty by twenty feet in


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size. It has two stories and four rooms--no cells. The rooms on the lower floor are sixteen and a half by seventeen and a half; those on the upper floor, seventeen by seventeen and a half. The lower rooms have two windows in each, one window two and a half by two, the other three feet three inches by three feet six inches. Upper rooms have three windows in each, four by two feet nine inches in size. The building is heated by means of stoves. In winter each prisoner has one mattress and four blankets, in summer, two blankets. The lower part of the prison is occupied by the males and the upper part by the females. They have fresh water three times per day. The daily allowance of food to each inmate is half lb. of bread, fish and tea in the morning, three-fourths lb. bread, meat and vegetables, half lb. of bread and tea at night. To preserve the cleanliness of the prison, the floors are scoured when needed, the blankets washed every two months, prisoner's clothes washed every week, soap allowed regularly, spittoons kept in order, and walls white-washed when needed. The excrement is carried off by means of pipes leading from the roof to sinks, and thence through sewers. Lime is used for cleansing.

CLAY COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        There is no poor house in the county, the paupers being let out to the lowest bidder.

PRISON.

        The prison is built of brick and timber, and is in size thirty by twenty feet. It has two stories and two prison rooms. The size of the rooms is about twelve by eighteen feet; two windows in each room--very small, without glass. No arrangement for heating in winter, except chimney of fire-place in adjacent room, and the prisoners are subjected to much suffering from cold. The excrement is carried out by jailor.


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CLEVELAND COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house, which has been in operation for the past twenty years, is situated about three miles from the county seat, and consists of three houses--one for the overseer and two for the paupers. There are two rooms in each of the buildings, twenty by twenty-one feet in size. The supply of water is from a spring. The heating in winter is by fire-places. There has never been any regular allowance of food. The location is a very good one, but the houses are in a very dilapidated condition. The poor house tract contains one hundred and fifty acres of very poor land, of which four acres are in cultivation; cotton was raised this year. Sweet and irish potatoes are raised for summer and winter use. The houses for paupers are not well shaded. The ashes and manures have been used by the keepers to put on their own lands. Lewis Gardner is the overseer; he gets $5.00 a month for each inmate. Dr. J. W. T. Miller is the physician; he receives for his services, one-third less than the regular fees.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick, and is thirty by twenty-six feet in size. It is three stories high, and has four cells for prisoners, including debtor's room; iron cage, &c. The iron cage is eight feet square and six feet high, the other part of the room twelve feet by fifteen. The other rooms for prisoners, fifteen by ten and fifteen by seven. There is one window in each room and cell, four and a half by three feet in size. There is no way of heating the prison except that of giving the prisoners, in cold weather, a heated rock. There have been some of the prisoners frost-bitten during extremely cold weather. Each prisoner has allowed him, a straw bed and three blankets. The males and females are confined in different apartments. They have fresh water as often as they want it, and just as much food as they wish. The excrement is removed from the prison, and tar is often burned in the cells to take away the offensive smell.


Page 44

CRAVEN COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The Poor House is situated one and a half miles from the county seat. There are four buildings. The main building has two stories and ten rooms, two others of them have a room each, and the fourth has two rooms. The supply of water is furnished from a well in the yard. The buildings are heated by a fire place in each room. Each inmate is allowed as much to eat as he wishes. The average weekly cost of each pauper is $3.00. The buildings are well arranged and in pretty fair condition. Fifty acres of good farming land belong to the Poor House track, of which twenty-five are in cultivation. Vegetables, corn and cotton are raised and are conceded to the overseer by the contract. Potatoes, coleworts, pease, beans and garden vegetables are raised for summer and winter use. The houses are protected by shade trees. The ashes and manure are used to improve the land. The keeper is Richard S. Tucker, Esq., His pay is $3.00 per month, for each inmate and the use of farm. The attending Physician is Dr. P. B. Rice. He receives $2.00 per visit for his services.

        

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick, with slate roof, and is in size, fifty-five by fifty-two feet, with two stories, a basement, and an attic. There are four rooms and five cells. One room is sixteen by eighteen feet, one, fourteen and a half by eighteen, one, nineteen and a half by nineteen and a half, one, nineteen and a half by eleven. The five cells are nine by nine feet and have no windows except iron grating. The room sixteen by eighteen, has two windows, room fourteen and a half by eighteen, one window, room nineteen and a half by nineteen and a half, three windows; room nineteen and a half by eleven, one window. Size of windows three feet six inches by five feet six inches. The means of ventilation are as follows: four windows on roof, open attic, holes for ventilation through attic floor to each room on second floor. There are no arrangements for heating the


Page 45

cells, the rooms have fire places and stoves. All the bedding is furnished that the Sheriff thinks necessary. The males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished three times per day and oftener if necessary. The prisoners are not restricted in the amount of food they eat. The prison is often inspected by the county Physician and the walls whitewashed and floors scoured by the prisoners, for the purpose of preserving cleanliness.

CUMBERLAND COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The Poor House is situated seven miles from the county seat and consists of eight buildings. The main building is thirty-six by forty, containing six rooms; there are six other buildings, two rooms each, eighteen by forty; and one containing one room eighteen by twenty. The supply of water is from a well in the yard.. The buildings are heated in winter by fire places. The daily allowance of food is one pound of meal, half pound of bacon and vegetables. The average weekly cost of each pauper is $1.05. The premises are well and neatly arranged, good ventilation, &c., one hundred and fifty-six acres belong to the poor house tract, of poor sandy land, fifty acres which are in cultivation. Corn and pease are raised and are devoted to the support of the inmates. Coleworts, turnips and potatoes are raised for summer and winter consumption. The houses of the paupers are well shaded by trees. The ashes and manure are used in improving the land. The overseer is Mr. M. N. Taylor, his salary is $300, a year. Dr. K. A. Black, who lives seven miles from the poor house, is the Physician. He receives $1.00 per mile for his visits.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick and is fifty-two by forty two feet in size. It is two stories high and contains six rooms, four of which are eighteen by eighteen feet, and the remaining two, twelve by twelve. The four large rooms have two windows each, five and a half by two


Page 46

and a half. In each of the small rooms there is one window five by two. There are no arrangments for heating, but the prisoners are not subjected to much suffering from cold. From three to four blankets are allowed each prisoner. No females in confinement. Three times a day the prisoners have fresh water furnished them. The prisoners are not allowanced, they have as much as they wish to eat. The jail is swept daily and scoured when necessary by the prisoners. The excrement is carried out daily in buckets.

DAVIDSON COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is located four miles from the county seat, and consists of one large brick building eighteen by sixty-two, two wooden buildings eighteen by thirty-six, and one eighteen by twenty. The brick building contains four rooms, the wooden, two each. Water is procured from a well in the yard. The daily allowance of meat is one-third of a pound, no allowance in any thing else. The average weekly cost of the mainteinence of each is $1.00. The buildings are well arranged in a beautiful situation, and are in tolerably good condition. There are one hundred and fifty acres of moderately poor land, belonging to the poor house tract, of which forty acres are in cultivation. Corn and wheat are raised, half of the products of which goes to the overseer, as per contract, the balance, to the in mates. Potatoes, cabbage and onions &c., are raised for summer and winter consumption. The houses are to some extent shaded. The ashes and manure are devoted to the improvement of the land. W. G. Laflin, is the keeper, his salary is $200 per year. Dr. R. L. Payne is the Physician. He receives $75 per annum as his salary.

PRISON.

        It is built of brick, wood and iron, and is forty feet by thirty-five, containing two stories with five rooms. The cells are twelve by fifteen feet, the rooms are twenty feet square. The windows of the cells are about one foot square, those of the rooms six feet by three. There are wooden shutters to the


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windows besides the iron bars. There are no arrangements for heating the building in winter except one fire place, and the prisoners suffer a good deal from cold. Each prisoner has furnished him one bed and from three to five blankets in winter. The males and females are confined separate. The prisoners have fresh drinking water furnished twice per day. The weekly allowance of food to each one is three pounds of meat, one peck of meal, and different vegetables. The jail is swept once a day and scoured once a month. The excrement is carried out once a day and deposited in a sink about fifty yards from the prison.

DAVIE COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Is located two miles west of the county seat, and consists of five wooden buildings. The size is as follows: First building, eighteen by thirty-six feet, with two rooms; three others, small buildings, with one room each; the fifth contains three rooms and a loft. The supply of water is gotten from a spring near by. The buildings are heated by fire places. The prisoners have as much food as they wish. The average weekly cost of each is about one dollar and fifty cents. The locality is a healthy one, but the buildings are getting old. Some repairs have been recently made. About one hundred and twenty-five acres of medium quality land belong to the poor house tract, of which thirty acres are in cultivation. Potatoes, cabbage, peas, beans, corn, wheat, &c., are raised and used for the support of the keeper and inmates. The buildings are shaded in a measure, by some fruit and other trees near the house. George W. Campbell, Esq., is the overseer. He gets six dollars per month for each inmate and the use of the farm. Drs. Martin and Bell are the physicians. They receive $2 per visit for their services.

PRISON.

        Is built of brick and is twenty by forty feet in size, containing two stories with two cells and two rooms; rooms, twelve by fifteen; cells, ten by twelve feet. The windows in


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the rooms are three feet by five, in the cells, two by two, with iron bars as an obstruction. Fire places and stoves are used for heating the building in winter. The prisoners have a bed, sheet, and two blankets each. Best rooms always given to females. Three pounds of solid food, with coffee and milk, is allowed each prisoner daily. The means of cleansing the jail are to scour it with soap and sand. The excrement is carried out it buckets.

DUPLIN COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Is situated about six miles from county seat and consists of four wooden buildings sized respectively as follows: two buildings, forty by eighteen feet; one, fifty by eighteen feet; one, twenty by eighteen feet. Three of the houses have two rooms each; the other, six rooms. The supply of water is gotten from wells on the premises. The buildings are heated by fire places in winter. The daily allowance of food is about five ounces of bacon or salted pork, with meal, molasses and potatoes, and vegetables in their season. The average weekly cost of maintenance of each is abouttwo dollars. The buildings are not in very good repair. About two hundred and seventy acres belong to the poor house tract, of which about seventy acres are in cultivation. Corn, potatoes, &c., are raised on the land, and the rent goes to the support of the paupers. Coleworts, turnips, squashes, sweet and Irish potatoes are raised for summer and winter consumption. The houses are sufficiently shaded. The ashes and manures are used in improving the land. Samuel B. Evans, Esq., is the overseer. He receives for his services $4.35 per month for each pauper. Dr. James W. McGee is the physician. He charges $1.50 per visit.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of wood and iron and is in size twenty-four by thirty feet. It contains one story and has four rooms for prisoners ten by twelve feet in size. Two rooms have one window each, the other two have none, but


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have large grated doors opening on lighted passage. There is no means of heating the building, but the prisoners seldom complain of excessive cold. The prisoners have from two to three blankets each. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished three times daily. There is no allowance in food. The jail is frequently scoured and the excrement is all carried some distance from prison.

FORSYTHE COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        It is located three miles from the county seat and consists of two buildings of brick; one, twenty by forty feet, and the other, twenty by sixty, four cabins, a barn, and a smokehouse. There are four rooms in one of the brick buildings and three in the other. The supply of water comes from a well and pump. The fire places in the buildings are the only means of heating them. No restriction in food. The average weekly cost of each inmate is about $1.50. The premises are well arranged, but somewhat out of repair. Ninety acres of tolerably poor land belong to the poor house tract, sixteen of which are in cultivation. Corn, oats, potatoes and garden vegetables are raised and used for the support of the inmates. The buildings are well protected by shade trees. Ashes and manures used in improving the land. The overseer is Mr. R. L. Tally. His salary is a hundred dollars per year. Dr. A. T. Zevely is the physician. He has no stated salary but gets paid according to the services rendered.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick and covered with tin, and is in size thirty by forty feet. It contains two stories by a basement; four cells for prisoners. Size of cells thirteen by fourteen feet. The windows are two feet, seven inches, and four feet, six inches. There is a stove for heating in winter. A straw bed and a blanket are furnished each prisoner. Males and females confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished three times per day. No restriction in food; the prisoners have as much as they will eat. The excrement is carried off by means of a pipe and sewer.


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FRANKLIN COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        It is situated six miles from county seat, and consists of six buildings. There is one dwelling house, thirty-two by eighteen with four rooms; one kitchen, twenty-eight by sixteen; one house, forty-eight by sixteen, with four rooms, besides an old framed house, thirty-two by sixteen. The others are out houses. They are all built of wood. The supply of water is from a well. The heating is done in winter by fire places. The inmates are not restricted in what they eat. The average weekly cost of each inmate is one dollar and forty-two cents. The buildings are very well arranged; some of them are good, the others need repair. Five hundred and seventy acres of poor land belong to the poor house tract, of which fifty-eight acres are in cultivation. Corn, potatoes, cotton, oats, pease, cabbage, turnips &c., are raised. The buildings are situated in a beautiful grove. Ashes and manures used in improving the land. Henry Best, Esq., is the keeper. He gets seventy-five dollars a year for each adult and half that price for children. Dr. P. S. Foster is the physician. He receives the regular fees for his services.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick and is lined with thick oak planks. Its size is twenty-four by forty-four feet. It is two stories high and has two rooms and two cells. Size of rooms, fifteen by twenty; of cells, twelve by thirteen. In each of these rooms there are two windows two and one-third feet by four feet, and in each cell, one, twelve inches by eighteen. The windows in the two upper rooms are free to the air and sunlight, those in the cells are obstructed by the outer wall of the house. No means of heating the prison except stoves which are dangerous, as the prisoners have tried to burn through the floor and make their escape. The prisoners do not suffer much, however, with cold. Four blankets are allowed the prisoners, generally. Males and females are confined separate. The prisoners have more bread to eat than the law allows but not so much meat; they also have plenty of vegetables. The jail is swept clean twice a day; the excrement is thrown into the river near by.


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GASTON COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The Poor House is situated three miles from the county seat, and consists of five log houses twenty by twenty feet in size. There is one room in each house. Water is from a spring one hundred and fifty yards from the Poor House. The buildings are heated in winter by fire places. No restriction in point of food. The average cost of each pauper is about one dollar and twenty-five cents per week. The premises are not well arranged and are considerably in need of repair. Two hundred acres of medium quality land belong to the tract of the Poor House, of which twenty-five are in cultivation. Corn and oats are raised for the benefit of the paupers. Wm. J. Lay, Esq., is the overseer. He receives for his services, sixty dollars for each inmate per year. Dr. E. B. Holland is the attending physician. He receives no stated sum for his services.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of stone, brick, iron and wood, and is in size forty-two feet by thirty-two. There are two stories in the building and four rooms and cells, the size of which is fourteen by fourteen feet. Each room has a window four feet square. There are no arrangements for heating in winter, and consequently, the prisoners are subjected to a great deal of cold. They have, however, a sufficiency of blankets. Fresh water furnished as often as necessary. No restriction in eating; the prisoners have as much as they want. The prison is kept clean by sweeping, washing and scouring. The excrement is carried out twice daily.

GATES COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated three-fourths of a mile from the county seat, and consists of two wooden buildings, sixteen by sixty-four feet in size. There are four rooms in each building. Water is procured from a well. The buildings are heated by fire-places; no restriction upon the inmates,


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as regards eating. The average weekly cost of each one is $1.50. The buildings are somewhat out of repair, but comfortable. Seventy acres of medium quality land belong to the poor house tract, of which about twenty.five are in cultivation; corn, pease, potatoes and cotton are raised and used for the benefit of the poor house; also cabbage, turnips, beets and all vegetables ordinarily raised in gardens. The ashes and manures are used in improving the land. The overseer is Mr. George W. Hayes; he receives for his services, $6.00 per month for each adult, and $4.00 for every child six years old and under, besides the use of farm, &c. Dr. O. B. Savage is the physician; he charges a dollar a visit.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick and wood, size thirty by eighteen feet. The building has two stories--two rooms and three cells. The size of the rooms is as follows: First room, eighteen by twelve feet; second, twelve by ten; the cells are ten feet square, five windows below, four feet by two feet two inches, and three above, two feet eight inches by two feet two inches. There are no arrangements for heating in winter, but there is not much suffering from cold. The prisoners have all the bedding and covering that is necessary. Males and females confined separate. Water is furnished as often as required; no specified amount of food; the prisoners eat as much as they want. The prison is kept clean by scouring and washing, the excrement being carried off by spouts.

GRANVILLE COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE

        The Poor House is situated one and a half miles from the county seat, and consists of four brick buildings and one wooden one. The size of the brick buildings is thirty-six by eighteen and they contain two rooms each, that of the wooden one is twenty by thirty and it has only one room. The supply of water is gotten from wells. The buildings


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are heated by fire places. No limitation in food. About two dollars per week is the average cost of each pauper. The premises are well arranged and in good condition. About five hundred and fifty acres of pretty fair land belong to the poor house tact. About one hundred acres are in cultivation. Corn, oats, pease, potatoes, beans, turnips, greens, &c., raised. The ashes and manure are used in improving the land. Solomon Howard, Esq., is the name of the overseer. His salary is $250 per annum and board. The physicians who attend the inmates, are Drs. Young and Hicks. They have no stated salary and are very moderate in their charges.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick with tin roof. It is considered fire-proof on the out side. The size of the building is thirty-two by forty-six feet. It has four cells for prisoners nine by fifteen feet. There is a window to each cell fronting upon a passage five by two and a half feet, also iron lattice works two and a half by two and a half feet in the rear of each cell. The prison is heated by stoves in the passage. The is no specified amount of covering, each one having as much as he needs. Male and female, white and colored are confined separately. Fresh drinking water is furnished from three to four times daily. No allowance in food, they have a sufficient quantity. The excrement is removed daily from the prison and the bad odor is kept down by means of lime and white washing.

GREEN COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        It is two miles from the county seat and consists of three buildings one of which is for paupers and the other two for keeper. The size of the paupers house is sixteen by thirty-two and it has two rooms, the other two has one a piece. The supply of water is from a well. To heat the building in winter, fire places are used. About two pounds of food is allowed each inmate per day. The average weekly cost of the


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maintenance of each is twenty five or thirty cents. The buildings are only ordinary and the furnishing of them is very inferior, one hundred acres of pretty fair land belong to the poor house tract, of which about twenty-five are in cultivation. Corn, pease, potatoes, cabbage, beans, turnips, &c., raised and evoted to the inmates. Ashes and manure are used in improving the land. Mr. Seth Watson, is the overseer. His salary is a hundred and fifty dollars per year. Dr. Hughes is the physician, he has no stated salary.

PRISON.

        No report.

GUILFORD COUNTY

POOR HOUSE.

        Located three miles from the county seat. The principal building is fifty by thirty-six, with eight rooms, eighteen by eighteen feet--passage above and below. There are two wings to the building, forty-eight by thirty-four, with four rooms each. House built of brick. Supply of water from well. The heating in winter is done by fire places. The daily allowance of food to each pauper is one-fourth pound of meat, two pounds of bread, coffee and molasses. One dollar and fifty cents is the average weekly cost of each inmate. The buildings are well arranged and in a healthful location; they are also fire proof. The poor house land is as poor as poverty; fifty acres are in cultivation. Corn, rye, oats, sugar cane, cabbage, potatoes, &c., are raised. The punishment of a slight whipping has been inflicted by superintendent for the following crimes: Stealing, selling rations, fighting and quarrelling. James R. Wiliams is overseer and physician. Salary three hundred and twenty-five dollars a year.

PRISON.

        Built of logs, and is forty-one by twenty-eight feet in size. It is two stories high and has seven rooms, six of which are twelve by fourteen, the other, twenty-seven by


Page 55

fourteen; four windows in the largest room, two in two of the others and one each in the rest; size of windows, four by two and a half feet. The building is heated by furnace and stove. A sufficiency of covering allowed the prisoners. No female prisoners. Fresh water furnished twice a day. No restriction in eating. Excrement is removed once a day by hand.

HALIFAX COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated three miles from the county seat and consists of six buildings containing one room each, sixteen by eighteen feet in size. A supply of water is gotten from a well conveniently situated. Fire places are used for heating in winter. The weekly allowance of food is two pounds of bacon, fish, molasses, vegetables, and bread without stint. The average weekly cost of each inmate is one dollar. The superintendent's house is in good repair, the others are not at all in good condition. The arrangement is not good. There are one hundred and ninety six acres of very poor sandy soil connected with the poor house tract, of which sixty are in cultivation. Corn, pease, potatoes and vegetables are raised and used for the support of inmates. The ashes and manures are used in improving the land. The name of keeper of the poor house is William Wade Carter. His salary is three hundred dollars per annum and board for himself and family. A. D. Pierce, M. D., is the physician. He charges two dollars per visit.

PRISON.

        The prison is built of brick and lined with white oak posts. Its size is thirty by thirty feet. There are two stories in the building. The room below has two cages built of iron bars in the middle of the room separated from the walls of the jail by a passage three feet wide on three sides and six feet on one side. The upper story is divided into two rooms with a passage eight feet wide in front. The cages are sixteen by nineteen feet six inches in size;


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the upper rooms fifteen feet four inches by twelve feet nine inches. The size of windows in lower story are four feet by two feet two inches; those in upper story are three feet by one foot nine inches. No arrangements for heating building in winter. The prisoners are not subject to much cold, being well provided with blankets. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished twice a day. About a half pound of meat, vegetables and bread without limit is furnished them daily. The floors are swept, and scoured when deemed necessary by the jailor. The excrement is carried out daily.

HAYWOOD COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The Poor House is located seven miles from the county seat, and consists of one building forty by eighteen feet, of wood. There are four rooms in the building. The supply of water is from a spring and branch. The heating is managed by means of a stove and two fire places. No restriction in food. The average weekly cost of each inmate is three dollars and fifty cents. The premises are well arranged, but in rather a dilapidated condition. One hundred and ninety-eight acres and a half of broken land belong to the Poor House tract, of which fifteen acres are in cultivation. Corn, wheat, rye, oats, potatoes, cabbage, and other vegetables are raised. The ashes and manures are used in improving the land. Mr. W. L. Moody is the overseer; he receives fifty cents per day for his services. No regular physician.

PRISON.

        No county prison, it having been burnt by the Federal army in 1865. There is one being built at present.

HENDERSON COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        There is no Poor House, but the County Commissioners have rented two small houses in the county seat in which


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to take care of the poor. The size of the buildings are eighteen by fifteen feet, and there are two rooms in each of them. The supply of water is from a well in the yard. The buildings are heated by fire places. No limitation in eating. The average weekly cost of each inmate is about one dollar and seventy-five cents. The buildings are badly arranged--neat enough but not furnished--cold and uncomfortable--will do well enough in summer. The situation is healthy. Ferrell W. Taylor, Esq., is the overseer. He receives for his services eight dollars per month for each inmate. W. D. Whitted, M. D., is the physician who attends the inmates; he receives therefor the regular pay of physicians.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of stone and wood and is two stories high, being forty by twenty feet in size. There are four rooms, of which the size is as follows: One dungeon, eighteen by fifteen feet; debtor's room, fifteen by twelve feet; one room, fifteen by eight feet, nine inches; one room, nine by eight feet, nine inches. The dungeon has two windows; the three other rooms have one window each, besides which two of them have gratings facing a passage. There are no arrangements for heating in winter, in consequence of which the prisoners are subjected to a great deal of suffering from cold. The amount of bedding furnished each prisoner is one straw bed and two blankets. The males and females are confined separate, the best rooms being reserved for the females. Fresh drinking water is furnished three times per day, and as regards eating there is no limitation. The prison is swept every morning and scoured when necessary.

HYDE COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is located one mile from county seat and consists of three buildings, the size of one of which is thirty by forty feet; of another, thirty by sixteen; and of the


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other, twenty-four by sixteen. There are eight rooms in the larger building and two in each of the others. The supply of water is obtained from two good wells. The buildings are heated by fire places. There is no special allowance in food. The premises are in moderate repair. Fifty acres of land (savannah) belong to the poor house tract--none in cultivation. Cabbage, beans, &c., raised to help support inmates. David Jarvis, Esq., is the overseer. His salary is one hundred and fifty dollars per annum. Dr. Stephen P. Sparrow is the regular physician. He lives twelve miles from the poor house, and receives four dollars for each visit.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick and timber and is thirty feet square, containing two stories. There are four rooms fourteen feet square, with two windows in each, two by four feet. There is a stove to each cell; two blankets are allowed to each prisoner. Males and females confined separate. The means of cleansing are lime, water, broom, &c. "Excrement returned to its mother dust."

IREDELL COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated five miles from the county seat, and consists of three log houses, thirty-two by sixteen, containing two rooms each. There is a window and a fire place in each room. Water is supplied by a spring sixty or seventy yards distant. There is no specified allowance of food. The premises are very well arranged, and in tolerably good repair. Buildings protected as much as necessary by shade trees. "Paupers need sunshine." Two hundred and twenty-five acres of land belong to the poor house tract, of which about fifty are in cultivation. Corn, oats, wheat, potatoes, cabbage, turnips, &c., raised for the support of the inmates. The ashes and manure are used in improving the land. Mr. Owen Plyler is the overseer. His salary is one hundred and eighty dollars per year. Dr. Thos. Beatty is the physician. He receives for his services two dollars per visit.


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PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick, stone, iron and wood, and is fire proot. The size of the building is twenty-four by thirty-six feet. It is two stories high, and has four rooms and cells, the size of which is eleven by eleven feet. There are two windows in the passage, from which the light enters the rooms by means of open iron doors. Besides these, there is one in each room three by two and a half feet in size. There are no arrangements for heating in winter, but still the prisoners are not subjected to much suffering from cold, as they have as many blankets as are necessary for their comfort. No females in prison Water is furnished from two to three times per day. The daily allowance of food to each, is one pound of meat, one pound of bread, and vegetables. The rooms are cleaned, and scoured as often as necessary, the excrement carried out twice per day.

JACKSON COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        No poor house.

PRISON.

        The prison is built of brick, having wooden roof, floors, &c. It is, in size, thirty-two by forty-five feet. There are two stories and three rooms. One room is thirty-two by eighteen feet, the other two, eighteen by sixteen. There are two windows to each room, five feet ten inches by three feet. Two fire places in one room and one in each of the others. The prisoners are kept tolerably comfortable, having a mattress and three blankets a piece. The males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished three times per day. The daily allowance of food is one and a fourth pounds of bread and the same amount of meat, with vegetables and coffee. The prison is kept clean by sweeping, the excrement being carried out daily.


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LENOIR COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated about seven miles from the county seat, and consists of three buildings, the size of two of which is eighteen by thirty-six; the other is thirty-three by forty. The supply of water is furnished by a well. Heated by fire places in winter. The daily allowance of food to each inmate is half pound of meat, one and a half quarts of meal, vegetables and molasses. The average weekly cost of each inmate is one dollar and seventy-five cents. The premises are well arranged, but in a considerably dilapidated condition. One hundred and twenty-five acres of poor piney-woods land belong to the poor house tract, of which only one acre is in cultivation. Nothing is raised except a few vegetables, which are used in summer. Mr. Jesse Jackson is the overseer. His pay is seven dollars per month for each inmate. Physicians are employed only in extreme cases, and they receive, when so called in, the regular fees which are paid them elsewhere.

PRISON.

        Is built of brick, with lining of square sills, twelve inches by twelve on the inside of the cells. It is fire proof from the outside. Size of building, thirty by twenty-one. There are two stories in it, and four rooms or cells besides the passage. The size of cells is ten by twelve feet. There are three windows in each cell one foot square. Stoves are used for heating purposes in winter. Five blankets are furnished each prisoner. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished twice daily, and oftener if necessary. Three-quarters of a pound of bacon, one and a quarter pound of bread or meal daily, a quart of molasses weekly, and sometimes peas and greens, are furnished the prisoners. The prison is kept clean by scouring once a month, the excrement being carried out daily.

LINCOLN COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated four miles from the county seat, and consists of there wooden buildings, each containing two


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rooms. The size of the buildings is forty by eighteen feet. Water is gotten from a well and spring. Heated in winter by fire places. Ten dollars is allowed to be expended every month for each inmate. The buildings at present are in bad condition and are very much out of repair; the commissioners, however, are having better ones erected. The old site has one hundred and fifty acres of very poor land connected with it, the new one, one hundred and ninety-two acres of the very best. None of the land at present in cultivation. David Fisher, Esq., is the overseer. He receives ten dollars per month for each inmate. Dr. E. Caldwell is the physician. He is paid according to his services.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick and wood, and is thirty by thirty-five feet in size, containg two stories and two cells. The size of cells is ten by twenty-five feet. There are two windows in each cell, three by five feet. The rooms are heated by fire places. No particular amount of covering allowed the prisoners. There are no female prisoners. Fresh water is furnished twice a day. There is no restriction in food. For preserving the cleanliness of the prison it is often scoured and the excrement thrown away.

MARTIN COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated three miles from county seat. There are on the premises three buildings, eighteen by thirty feet in size, containing two rooms each. There are ladders and hooks on the premises in case of a fire. Water is gotten from a well, and heating is done by means of fire places. No specified amount of food is allowed the inmates; four dollars per week is the average cost of maintenance of each including all the expenses except doctor's bills. The buildings are very well arranged and in tolerable good condition. Two hundred and twenty-five acres of ordinary land are connected with the poor house, of which fifteen acres are in cultivation. Corn,


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pease, potatoes, coleworts, beans, &c., raised and used for the support of the inmates. The ashes and manures are used in improving the land. John N. Griffin, Esq., is the overseer. His salary is one hundred and forty dollars per year. Thos. C. Pugh, M. D., is the physician. He receives two dollars and fifty cents for each visit.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of wood, and is in size, twenty-four by thirty-six feet, containing two stories and four rooms; two of the rooms are fourteen by sixteen feet; the other two, seventeen by twenty-two. There is one window in each room below, thirty by fourteen inches; four in each of the rooms above, two by six feet. There are fire places in the rooms above, but none in those below. A sufficient quantity of bedding is allowed the prisoners to keep them comfortable. The males and females are confined separate. During warm weather fresh drinking water is furnished three times per day. No limitation in point of food. The rooms are kept in good order by cleaning out. Buckets with lids fitting closely are used by the prisoners to deposit their excrement in, which are emptied twice a day and washed out.

McDOWELL COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated two miles from the county seat. The buildings on the premises are as follows: one hewn low house eighteen by eighteen feet; one thirty-two by sixteen; and one framed house thirty by sixteen. There are two rooms in one of the log houses and one in the other; the framed house has two rooms. Water is gotten from a spring. The buildings are heated in winter by a large fire place in each room. The inmates are well fed. They cost the county seventy-five dollars each per year. The buildings are in good repair. Fifty-seven and a half acres of common hill and branch land belong to the poor house tract, of which ten are in cultivation. Corn, vegetables, &c. are raised and used for


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the poor house. The houses are not protected from the sun by shade trees. Ashes and manures used in improving the the land. Mr. John L. Pool, is the overseer. He receives as pay, seventy-five dollars for each inmate yearly. No regular physician.

PRISON.

        The prison is built of brick. Its size is forty by twenty-six feet. It is two stories high and has three rooms. The cage is fourteen by twenty-six, the other two, thirteen by fourteen; four windows in each room three by six feet. Each room has a fire place for heating in winter, two blankets each are furnished the prisoners. Males and females confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished three times per day. The daily allowance is one pound of meat and one of bread. The excrement is carried off daily.

MECKLENBURG COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated three miles from the county seat and consists of the following buildings: one brick building, twenty by one hundred feet, one story high and containing six rooms; one framed house, twenty by forty feet, having two rooms; corn-crib, cook-house, etc. Water is procured from a spring. The buildings are heated by a fire place in each room. No limitation in food, every one having as much as he wants. The average weekly cost of each inmate is about fifty cents. The premises are well arranged and neatly kept, but somewhat out of repair. About one hundred and forty acres of poor land belong to the poor house tract, of which forty-five acres are in cultivation. Corn, wheat, oats, cabbage, potatoes, turnips, &c., are raised and devoted to the use of the poor house. Ashes and manures are applied to improving the land. Mr. A. F. Gondles is the overseer. His salary is two hundred and seventy-five dollars per annum. Dr. L. G. Jones is the physician. He receives one dollar and fifty cents per visit.


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PRISON.

        The prison is built of brick, and is fifty by forty feet in size. There are three stories and seven rooms and cells for prisoners, eight feet by twelve. There are two windows each to two of the rooms, and one apiece to the others; size of windows, two and a half by four feet. There are no means for heating the prison but the prisoners do not suffer much from cold. They have a sufficiency of bedding and covering to keep them comfortable. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished three times per day, and there is no restriction in food, each one having as much as he wishes. To preserve cleanliness in the prison, washing and scouring are resorted to. The excrement passes through sewer.

MONTGOMERY COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house consists of four buildings sixteen by thirty-two feet in size. Two rooms in each building, which are heated by fire places. Water is gotten from a well. The average weekly cost of each inmate is one dollar and fifty cents. The condition of the premises is good, the houses being new. Fifty acres of poor land belong to the poor house of which one and a half acres are in cutivation. Vegetables and potatoes are raised and used by the inmates. Ashes and manures used to improve the land. Mr. Malcom A. Monroe, is overseer. He receives for his services seventy two dollars per annum for each inmate. No regular physician.

PRISON.

        The prison is built of wood and is fifty by twenty-five feet. It has two stories two cells and two rooms. The size of cells nine by five, size of rooms ten by ten feet. The windows are two feet by two. The arrangement for heating the building is a fireplace, and in the cells the prisoners are subject to a great deal of cold. A sufficient amount of bedding and covering is allowed the prisoners to keep them comfortable.


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Fresh drinking water is furnished three times per day. No special means are used to keep the prison clean.

MOORE COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is one mile from the county seat, and consists of three wooden houses, thirty-two by eighteen feet in size. There are two rooms in each house. Water is obtained from a spring. Heated by fire places. One pound of bread, and one-half pound of meat with vegetables is the daily allowance of food. The average weekly cost of each inmate is one dollar and fifty cents. The arrangement is very good and two of the buildings are in good condition, the other is somewhat dilapidated. There are over one hundred acres of mostly sandy soil belonging to the poor house tract, of which fifteen are in cultivation. Corn, pease, potatoes, turnips, beans, and almost all other vegetables are raised and used by the keeper and paupers. Ashes and manures used in improving the land. Mr. Lemuel W. Muse is the overseer. He receives six dollars and fifty cents for each inmate in his charge, per month. Dr. John Shaw is the physician; he is paid according to the services rendered.

PRISON.

        The prison is built of brick, and is in size, fifty by thirty feet. There are two stories in the prison--two rooms below--three cells above. The rooms are twenty by fifteen feet; cells, twelve by twelve; four windows to each room, three by five; three windows apiece to two of the cells, eighteen by twenty-four inches, and two to the other; one of them, three by four, the other, eighteen by twenty-four inches. There being no means of heating the building in winter the prisoners are subjected to considerable suffering from cold. Three to four blankets are furnished to each prisoner. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished twice per day, and in eating, there is no restriction. The excrement is carried out daily.


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NASH COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        It is situated three miles from the county seat, and consists of seven houses, built of wood, eighteen by twenty. One room in each building. Water is obtained from a well in the yard. Fire places are used for heating. The daily allowance of bacon is one-third pound, there being no restriction in other food. The average weekly cost of each inmate is one dollar. The buildings are not very well arranged, but in tolerably good condition. About three hundred acres of land belong to the poor house tract, of which forty acres are in cultivation. Corn, pease, potatoes and vegetables are raised and are used in supporting the inmates. Ashes and manures are used in improving land. Wm. W. Wheless is the overseer. His salary is two hundred and fifty dollars per annum. Dr. T. H. Scott attends the inmates and is paid according to the services rendered.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of wood, and is thirty feet square. It has two stories and four rooms, the size of which is twelve by twelve feet. There are two windows in one room, three by four and a half feet; one in another of the rooms, three by four and a half feet; and one in each of the others, two by four feet. There is no means of heating the building, in consequence of which there is much suffering among the prisoners from cold. As much covering as is thought to be necessary by the jailor, is given each prisoner. Fresh drinking water is furnished twice a day. here is no restriction in eating, the prisoners having as much as they want. Excrement removed twice a day.

NEW HANOVER COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is two miles from county seat, and consists of the following buildings: One house one hundred and ten feet long, sixteen feet wide, containing ten rooms;


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two buildings, thirty by ten, two rooms each, and two, fifteen by ten, with one room apiece. A supply of water is furnished by springs and a well. There are fire places in all the rooms. There is no allowance in food--they have as much as they will eat. The average weekly cost of each inmate is two dollars and ten cents. The premises are well arranged, and in tolerably good condition. "Two or three hundred acres of land" belong to the poor house tract, of which fifty are in cultivation. Sweet potatoes, coleworts, onions, &c., are raised for use of the inmates. Ashes and manures used in improving the land. Mr. H. E. Scott is the overseer. He receives thirty cents per day for each inmate. Dr. J. E. Winants is the physician. He receives eight hundred dollars per year for attending poor house, work house and jail.

PRISON.

        It is built of wood, iron, brick, and stone. Several fire engines in the vicinity of the prison which would be on hand in case of fire. The size of the building is sixty feet by forty-eight, minus fourteen feet off in front for jailers dwelling. It has three stories and twenty-four rooms and cells, eight of the cells in basement are too damp to confine any one in. The construction of the prison renders it imposible to have windows in the cells, but the iron grate doors face the outer wall of the jail, thus giving good light. On the first story there are eleven windows, second ten, and third thirteen--size six by three feet. Two of the rooms are seventeen feet five inches by ten feet eight inches, the others are nine feet eight inches and ten feet by ten feet five inches. The arrangements for heating are insufficient, being fire places in two of the rooms and place for stove in other part of jail. One mattress and two blankets are furnished each prisoner. Males and females confined separate. There is a pump in each story of the jail. One pound of bread, one of meat, and vegetables and rice is the daily allowance of food. To preserve cleanliness the prison is scoured and plentifully supplied with disinfectants. Excrement is carried off by means of a drain through which a stream of water runs from a spring.


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NORTHAMPTON COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated two miles from the county seat, and consists of four double buildings with two rooms each eighteen feet square. One dwelling house for superintendent and a large kitchen. A supply of water is gotten from a well. The buildings are heated in winter by means of fire places. There is no allowance in food, the inmates having as much as they want. The arrangement is very good and the situation is high and pleasant, the buildings are somewhat out of repair. Some three hundred acres of land belong to the poor house tract, of which about one hundred are in cultivation. It is piney woods land. Corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, cabbage, turnips, pease &c., raised and used in the support of the inmates. Manures used in improving the land. Mr. Jno. J. Martin, is the overseer. His salary is four hundred dollars a year and board. Drs. Wm. Barrow and W. S. Copeland, are the physicians who attend the inmates. Their charges are moderate.

PRISON.

        The prison is built of wood and is forty by twenty-four feet in size. It is two stories high and contains four rooms for prisoners twelve feet square. There is one window in each room. No arrangements for heating in winter, still the prisoners are not subject to much suffering from cold. As much bedding and covering is allowed each prisoner as is necessary for his comfort. No female prisoners. Fresh drinking water is furnished twice per day. No restriction in eating. The means of cleansing the prison are sweeping and scouring. The excrement is deposited in covered vessels and removed daily.

ONSLOW COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        There is no poor house in the county. The poor are let out to the lowest bidder.


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PRISON.

        The prison is built of wood and is in size, twenty-four by thirty-six feet. There are two stories and four cells about twelve feet square. There are two windows to each cell two and a half by four feet. No arrangements for heating in winter, yet the prisoners are not exposed to a great deal of suffering from cold. One mattress with as many blankets as are necessary for comfort are furnished each prisoner. Drinking water is furished twice per day and there is no limit to the amount of food allowed the prisoners. Such means are used to provide for the cleanliness of the prison as are necessary. The excrement is removed daily.

PASQUOTANK COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated less than a mile from the county seat, and consists of three wooden buildings, two of which are twenty by thirty feet, the other, one hundred by forty. In the larger building there are fifteen rooms, in the smaller ones, two each. The supply of water is gotten from a well-on the premises. The buildings are heated by fire places. The inmates are not limited in food. It costs for the sustenance of each inmate, about $2 per week. Fences on the premises are in a dilapidated condition. About ten acres of rather poor land belong to the poor house nearly all of which is in cultivation. Corn, potatoes, and vegetables are raised and used for the support of overseer's family and inmates. Manures are used in the improvement of the land. Mr. Wm. Etheridge is the overseer. His salary is $150, per annum with board for himself and family. Dr. W. G. Pool, is the physician. He is paid the usual rate for services rendered.

PRISON.

        Is built of brick and iron and is nearly fire proof. It is about thirty by forty feet in size, two stories high and has three cells and two rooms; cells, fifteen by fifteen feet; rooms, twelve by forty. The windows are two feet square


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--two in each room and one in each cell. The building is heated in winter by stoves. A bed, two sheets and two blankets are allowed each prisoner. No female prisoners. Fresh drinking water is furnished twice per day in winter and three or four times a day in summer. The prisoners are well fed, having more food and a greater variety than is provided by Statute of State. Two prisoners have been confined in irons for the past few weeks for attempting to break jail. The jailor is required to keep the jail clean by the commissioners. The excrement is carried off in tubs.

PERQUIMANS COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated three miles from county seat, and consists of five buildings, as follows; one dwelling for keeper, forty by forty-five, having six rooms; one kitchen, twenty five by fifteen, containing two rooms; one large building for inmates, fifty by thirty-seven feet, with seven rooms; one smaller building thirty-five by seventeen and a half feet, having two rooms, and one jail, ten by twenty feet, with two rooms--all of wood. The supply of water is obtained from a well, and the heating is done by fire places. About one-half pound of meat, besides bread, fish, vegetables and molasses is the daily allowance of food. One dollar and twenty-five cents is the average weekly cost of each inmate. The arrangement of the premises is good, though the fence and piazza of the keeper's house are in rather a bad condition. Two hundred acres of poor land are attached to the poor house, of which about twenty are in cultivation. About one-half of an acre in cotton and one and one-half acres in potatoes are planted for use of inmates, the balance for overseer. Manures are used for improvement of the land. Mr. Wm. B. Jordan is the overseer. His salary is two hundred dollars per annum. J. D. Smith, M. D., is the attending physician; his salary is one hundred and twenty-five dollars per year.

PRISON.

        The prison is built of brick and covered with shingles.


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The size of building is twenty-four by thirty-six on outside. It is two stories high, and has two rooms and three cells. The size of one of the rooms, nineteen by eleven feet; of another, eleven by eleven feet, and of the three cells, eleven by twelve. Two large windows in one of the rooms, and one in the other; also one in each of the cells. There is no arrangement for heating the building except a small stove in the lower story, in consequence of which the prisoners are subjected to a great deal of suffering from cold. Two blankets generally are given to the prisoners and more when needed. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh water furnished three times per day. Two full meals per day are allowed the prisoners. For preserving the cleanliness of the jail, scouring and whitewashing are resorted to. The excrement is carried off by means of sinks.

PERSON COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated two miles from the county seat, and consists of four buildings of brick and wood; size as follows: one, one hundred by eighteen feet; one, eighteen by thirty; one, eighteen by eighteen, with shed, and one, eighteen by twenty. Six rooms in one of the buildings; four in another; three in another, and one in the other. The supply of water is from two springs. The buildings are heated by fire places. No allowance of food, the inmates have what they want. One dollar per week is the average cost of each inmate. The buildings are well arranged and in good condition. Two hundred and ninety six acres of land belong to the poor house tract, of which fifty are in cultivation. Corn, wheat, oats, cotton, potatoes, cabbage, snaps, onions, &c., are raised and used in supporting inmates. Manures are used in improving the land. Mr. C. C. Clayton is the overseer. His salary is one hundred and twenty-five dollars per annum and board for himself and family. Dr. J. C. Dickens is the physician. He has no stated salary but is paid according to services rendered.


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PRISON.

        The county prison is built of wood and iron and is twenty by twenty-four feet in size. It is two stories high and has five rooms, two below and three above. Two of the rooms are ten by twelve feet; the three others are a little smaller. One good sized window to each room and iron grating. Stoves are used for heating in winter. The prisoners have a reasonble supply of blankets. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water furnished three times per day. For preserving the cleanliness of the prison, scrubbing is resorted to. Excrement thrown away.

PITT COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated six miles from county seat, and consists of five double houses eighteen by thirty-two and an overseer's house with four rooms. Water is obtained from a well. Fire places used for heating in winter. Ordinary rations of meat bread, rice &c., furnished the inmates. The average weekly cost of the maintainance of each is $1.50. Arrangement of buildings is very good and they are in tolerably good repair. About one hundred acres of poor land belong to the poor house tract. Only a garden in cultivation, in which is raised potatoes and cabbage for inmates. Manure and ashes used on garden. Mr. Wm. M. Page is the overseer. He receives $35, per month for himself and horse, and his rations. No regular physician.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick and is in size, thirty-four by twenty-four feet. It is two stories high and has two rooms sixteen by twelve, two cells ten by ten, and one hall ten by twenty-two feet. No windows, but grating instead, and the building is enclosed by wall reaching nearly up to the second story. Stoves are used for heating in winter. Iron bedsteads and sufficient clothing for them have been ordered by commissioners. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh


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drinking water furnished as often as required. There is no limit to the food of the prisoners. Excrement removed from cells daily and from premises once a week.

POLK COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is eight miles from county seat. On the premises there are six log cabins, which have each a room with chimney and fire place. Water from a spring. A plenty of wholesome food is furnished three times a day. The average weekly cost of each one is eighty cents. The buildings are well arranged and are in good condition. Three hundred and twenty-five acres of poor land belong to the poor house, only one acre of which is in cultivation, as a garden. Potatoes, cabbage, &c., raised and used by inmates. Ashes and manure used in improving land. Mr. T. C. Bradley is the overseer. He receives thirty nine dollars per year for each inmate. Dr. J. I. Davis is the physician. He receives no stated salary for his services.

PRISON.

        The prison is built of rock and brick. Its size is thirty by fifty feet, and it is three stories high. There are two cells twelve by fourteen feet and two cages ten by ten. Two large windows in each room. A stove is used for heating the building in winter. A sufficiency of bedding and covering is allowed the prisoners. Males and females are kept separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished as often as required, and there is no restriction in the food of the prisoners. The prison is kept clean.

RANDOLPH COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated five and a three-fourth miles from the county seat. There are four log buildings for the accommodation of inmates, twenty feet square, and containing one story, and one framed building thirty by eighteen


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feet, used by the steward. There is only one room in each of the log houses. Water is gotten from a well in enclosure he buildings are heated by fire places. The inmates have three meals per day, and eat as much as they want. One dollar and eight cents is the average weekly cost of each. The buildings are old and somewhat below par. About three hundred acres of poor land are attached to to the poor house, of which twenty are in cultivation. Wheat, corn, oats, cabbage, &c., raised and used by inmates. Manures used in improving the land. The overseer is Mr. Jesse Robbins. He receives fifty dollars a year for each inmate. W. H. H. Conner, M. D., is physician, and superintendent. His salary is one hundred dollars per annum.

PRISON.

        The prison is built of wood, and is forty-five by thirty-five feet in size. It is two stories high, and has four cells for prisoners, fifteen by fifteen feet. Two iron barred windows in each room, two feet eight inches by four feet. A stove is used for warming the building in winter. "There is not more suffering from cold than is usual." The prisoners have a sufficiency of bedding and covering to keep them warm. No female prisoners. Two meals per day furnished of meat and bread. Lime is used for keeping the prison clean, the excrement being removed daily from the cells.

RICHMOND COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated about three miles from county seat. There are on the premises six framed buildings thirty two by eighteen feet, containing two rooms each, with a fire place and three windows to each room. A supply of water is obtained from a well in the centre of the premises. The buildings are heated by fire places. Half pound of meat, half pound of bread, coffee and tea are allowed each of the inmates twice per day. One hundred and fifty acres of poor sand-hill land are attached to the poor house, of which five acres are in cultivation--the balance is rented


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out. Corn, rye, irish and sweet potatoes, pease, cotton, tobacco, cabbage, turnips, &c., are raised. Manure and ashes used in improving land. Mr. Joseph Smith is the overseer. His salary is about one hundred and fifty dollars per year. Dr. James A. Covington is the physician. His services are supposed to cost about one hundred dollars per year.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of wood, and is forty by forty feet in size. The building is two stories high and has eight rooms. The four upper ones are used for prison rooms, two of which are cells. Rooms nineteen feet by fifteen. Cells eleven by eight and a half feet. There are two windows in each of the rooms two feet eight inches by four and a half feet. One in each of the cells two feet eleven by eight inches. No arrangements for heating the building, and consequently the prisoners would be subject to a great deal of suffering from cold in winter. Two blankets are allowed each prisoner. No female prisoners. Fresh drinking water is furnished three time per day. There is no allowance in food. The prisoners have what they wish to eat. All that can be, is done to preserve the cleanliness of the jail. The excrement is removed daily by the keeper.

ROBESON COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is about seven miles from the county seat, and consists of three wooden buildings thirty feet long, containing each two rooms. Water is supplied from a well on the premises. Heated in winter by fire places. One pound of meal and half pound of meat is allowed each inmate. The premises are well arranged and are neatly kept. One hundred acres of land belong to the poor house tract, of which ten are in cultivation. Corn, pease, potatoes, cabbage, beans, &c., are raised and used on the premises. Manures are saved and used in improving the land. Joshua L. Nance, Esq., is the overseer. His salary is one hundred and twenty-five dollars per year. Dr. J. B. Brown is the physician. He has the usual fees for his services.


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PRISON.

        The county prison is built of wood, and is thirty six by eighteen feet in size. It is two stories high and has eight rooms. Size seventeen by thirteen feet. The size of windows is four and a half by two and a half. No arrangement for heating the building in winter, yet the prisoners are not subject to a great deal of suffering from cold, as they have a sufficient amount of covering to keep them comfortable. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished three times per day. No restriction in food. The prisoners have as much as they want. To preserve the cleanliness of the prison, it is cleaned out once a day and the excrement thrown into the river.

ROCKINGHAM COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated two miles from the county seat. There are nine hewed log buildings eighteen by twenty feet in size, containing two rooms each. Seven of them are used for the accommodation of the poor. The supply of water is gotten from two good springs near the buildings. For heating the buildings in winter, fire places are used. No regular allowance of food to the inmates. One dollar and a half is the average weekly cost of each pauper. The buildings are well arranged, neat and comfortable, but somewhat out of repair. One hundred and twenty-five acres of very poor land belong to the poor house tract, of which six are in cultivation. Corn, pease, potatoes, cabbage, snaps, &c., are used for the benefit of the poor. The houses are not protected from the sun. Manures used in improving land. Mr. Jno. G. Mitchell is the overseer. His salary is two hundred dollars per year. Dr. Jno. R. Rain is the physician. He lives two miles from the poor house, and his charges are two dollars and a half per visit.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick, iron, wood and tin,


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and is, in size, thirty-three by forty feet. The building is two stories high and has two cells lined with iron and two rooms. The rooms are about fourteen feet square, cells not quite so large; one window to the cell, six by four feet, and one in the wall; two, six by four, to each of the other rooms, and two in the passage of the same size. There is no means of heating the prison, and the prisoners in cold weather are subject to a great deal of suffering. Three blankets are furnished each of the prisoners. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished three times per day and there is no restriction in food. For preserving the cleanliness of the jail the keeper resorts to washing it out. The excrement is carried off by means of cast iron pipes.

ROWAN COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is three miles from the county seat and consists of three brick buildings one story high, an overseer's house of wood two stories high and a barn. The size of one of the brick buildings is eighteen by forty; another, eighteen by thirty-six; and the other, eighteen by thirty-four. The overseer's house is twenty by twenty-six; the barn, sixteen by twenty. The overseer's house and two of the others, have two rooms each, the other brick house has four rooms. The supply of water is from a well. The heating in winter is done by fire places. The daily allowance of food to the inmates is one quart of meal, with one-fourth of a pound of meat, molasses and vegetables to each. The average weekly cost of the inmates, including clothes, is four dollars each. The buildings are in good repair. One hundred acres of very poor land belong to the poor house tract. Only truck patches are in cultivation. Potatoes, cabbage and turnips are raised and used by inmates. Ashes and manures used in improving the land. John Pringle, overseer. Salary one hundred and fifty dollars per year and dwelling. Dr. J. J. Summerell, physician. Salary one hundred dollars per year.


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PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick and is not fire proof. There is a fire company in the town which would be on hand in case of fire. The size of the building is forty feet by thirty. It is three stories high and has on the third floor five cells, twelve feet square, which are used for confinement of prisoners. There are twelve windows around outer wall of third story, four by three feet. No arrangement for heating building in winter, but as the prisoners have a sufficiency of covering they are not subject to much suffering from cold. Male and female, white and colored, are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished three times per day. The prisoners have more than the law allows to eat of bread, meat vegetables, &c. Prison is kept clean by scouring and sweeping. Excrement is carried off in buckets.

SAMPSON COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is four miles from the county seat. There are on the premises four framed buildings thirty-six by eighteen having two rooms with a fire place in each. The supply of water is obtained from well and spring. The premises are in a high sandy pine country considered very healthful. The buildings are very plain and rough and are badly out of repair. One hundred acres of very poor land belong to the poor house tract. There at present no inmates in the poor house the poor being provided for by commissioners in each township.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of wood, brick and iron. Its size is twenty-four by thirty-six feet. There are two stories in the building--two rooms and two cells. Size of rooms, ten by twenty-two feet; of cells, ten by fourteen. Two windows to each room and three to each cell, size four by six feet.-- There is no way of warming the prison, in consequence of


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which the prisoners, in extreme cold weather, suffer from cold. Three or four blankets are allowed each prisoner. No female prisoners. Fresh drinking water is furnished twice per day. No restriction in eating. The prisoners have plenty to eat of bacon, bread, pease and vegetables. Frequent scouring and white-washing are resorted to, to preserve the cleanliness of the prison. Excrement is thrown into a ditch which carries it off.

STANLEY COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Located three and one fourth miles from the county seat. It consists of two buildings for paupers, one thirty by thirty feet and the other eighteen by thirty-six. There are five rooms in the larger building and two in the other. Supply of water gotten from a well in yard. The warming of the buildings is by means of fire places. The inmates have a plenty of ordinary food. The average weekly cost of each is $1.50. The buildings are in tolerably good repair. Seventy-one acres of poor land belong to the poor house tract of which eight or ten acres are in cultivation. Cabbage, turnips, potatoes &c., are raised and used by inmates. No protection of of the houses by shade trees. Jno Howell is overseer. He receives for feeding and clothing the inmates sixty-four dollars and fifty cents each per year. Dr. A. J. Shank, physician; receives one dollar and fifty cents per visit.

PRISON.

        It is built of wood and is thirty by forty feet. It is two stories high, has two rooms and two cells. Size of rooms sixteen by sixteen, of cells fourteen by fourteen. One window to each room two by four, one to each cell, a foot square. There are fire places in the rooms but none in the cells. A sufficient amount of bedding is allowed the prisoners to make them comfortable. Males and females are confined separate. There is no restriction whether in fresh drinking water or in food though the latter is necessarily common. Excrement removed by hand.


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SURRY COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is nine miles from the county seat. There are on the premises four buildings. One built of brick, is fifty-six by twenty-six feet in size and has eight rooms. The other three are hewed log houses and are as follows: One thirty by twenty feet with three rooms, one twenty-four by eighteen with one room, and one eighteen by twelve with one. Water is supplied from a spring. The buildings are warmed by fire places; half pound of bacon with cabbage, potatoes, &c. furnished each inmate daily. The average weekly cost of each inmate is one dollar without taking into consideration that which is raised at poor house. The houses are tolerably well arranged, in pretty fair condition and are neatly kept. Some repairing is necessary. Two hundred and twenty-five acres of common up land, thin, hilly &c., belong to the poor house tract. Two acres in cultivation. Corn potatoes cabbage, beans, &c., raised and used by paupers. The houses and yard are only partially shaded. Manures used in improving land. Thomas J. Williams is overseer. His salary is about one hundred and twenty dollars per year. Dr. Geo. W. Clemmons is attending physician. He receives forty dollars per year.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick, and is forty by fifty feet. It is two stories high and has four cells for prisoners eleven by nine feet. Two by four feet is the size of windows--three to two cells. No arrangements for heating in winter, and the prisoners are, on this account, subject to much suffering from cold. A good straw bed, with a sufficiency of covering, is allowed the prisoners. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished as often as required. The prisoners have as much to eat as they want three times per day. Water is used for cleansing the jail, and the excrement is conveyed to ground floor of the prison by pipes and thence by covered ditch.


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TRANSYLVANIA COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        There is no poor house in the county. The poor are kept by proper agents. From six to seven dollars is paid quarterly for their support.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of wood, and is sixteen by twenty-two feet in size. It is two stories high, and has four rooms and two cells, the size of which is nine by sixteen. There is a window in each room, four by two and a half, and one in each cell, one and a half feet by three. There is no means of heating the building in winter and the prisoners are subject to much suffering from cold. A sufficient quantity of bedding and covering is given the prisoners. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished as often as necessary. The prisoners are not allowanced in their food. To preserve cleanliness the cells are swept out twice per day or as often as is necessary.

TYRREL COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is about six miles from the county seat, and consists of three wooden buildings, viz: A dwelling house, a cook house and a barn. The dwelling house is about twenty-six by twenty-six feet; the cook house and barn, twenty-five by twenty. The supply of water is obtained from a well in the yard. The buildings are heated by fire-places. The inmates are fed by keeper, and there is no complaint. The average weekly cost of each inmate is three dollars. The buildings are out of order and in bad condition generally. One hundred acres of land belong to the poor house tract, the most of which is poor land. Seven or eight acres are in cultivation. Mostly potatoes were raised last year. Cabbage and other vegetables were raised to some extent. Uriah Sands, keeper. Salary two hundred and twenty-five dollars per year. No regular physician employed.


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PRISON.

        The county prison is built of wood and iron. It is forty by twenty feet in size, is one story high, and has three rooms for prisoners; one of which is twelve by sixteen; one, fourteen by sixteen; and one, sixteen by sixteen feet in size. One window in each room, two by three feet. No arrangements for heating in winter. Enough bedding and covering generally, furnished the prisoners to keep them warm. The males and females are confined separate. No allowance either in fresh drinking water or food. The prison is generally kept clean by the jailor.

UNION COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated at county seat, and consists of two buildings; one, twenty by forty feet, with two rooms and two fire-places; one, twenty by forty-four feet, with five rooms and two fire places. Water is supplied from a well. Fire places are used for heating. No definite allowance of food is given but as much as the inmates wish to eat. About one dollar is the average weekly cost of each of the inmates. The arrangement of the buildings is tolerably good. Houses constructed with a view to "neatness and commodiousness." One of the buildings is not in good repair. Twenty-five acres of moderate quality land belong to the poor house tract, of which about four acres are in cultivation. Corn, potatoes, cabbage, beans, pease, &c., raised and used by inmates. Ashes and manures are used in improving land. Several other families are partially supported by the county outside of the poor house. John D. Stewart, Esq., is the overseer. Salary twelve dollars and fifty cents per month. Thos. W. Brickett, M. D., physician. He receives one dollar and fifty cents per visit--subject to a reduction by commissioners.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick, and is in size, thirty by forty feet. It is three stories high and has five cells, including


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debtor's room. The debtor's room is thirteen by twenty-seven feet. Two of the rooms are thirteen by thirteen, and the other two, nine by nine. There are four windows in the debtor's room, four by three; the rooms next in size have two windows each, and the other two rooms have a window apiece, thirty inches by fifteen inches in size. No arrangements for heating except a fire place in debtor's room, and in consequence, "without a good deal of bed clothing the prisoners are subject to much suffering from cold." They have as much covering as they are supposed to need. Males and females are confined separate. No restriction in either their eating or in fresh drinking water. The jail is swept to keep it clean and the excrement carried out by hand.

WAKE COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is six miles from the county seat, and consists of seven wooden buildings, thirty-two by sixteen feet in size. There are two rooms in each house. Fire places are used in winter for warming purposes. The inmates are fed plentifully without any particular allowance. The premises are in tolerably good condition. Three hundred and sixty-two acres of good land belong to the poor house tract, sixty of which are in cultivation. Corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, cabbage, turnips, &c., raised and used in the support of inmates. Ashes and manures are used in improving the land. No punishment ever inflicted except confinement of the insane. Mr. Riley Yearby is overseer. Salary three hundred dollars per year and rations. Dr. Wm. P. Forrest, physician. He receives two dollars and fifty cents per visit.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick, stone, iron and wood. Its size is forty by forty feet; it is two stories high, and has six rooms. There are two rooms, sixteen by twenty, and four cells, eight by ten feet. Two windows in each of the


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upper rooms, three by four feet, and four in each cell, three feet by ten inches. The windows in upper rooms are closed with sheet iron to prevent communication from outside. There are grated doors in the rooms and cells. There are no arrangements for heating the building in winter, yet the prisoners are not necessarilysubjected to a great deal of cold as the sheriff furnishes as much covering as is required. The amonnt generally given each prisoner is two pair of blankets. Males and females are confined separate. The daily allowance of food is from one and one half to two pounds of meat and one pound of bread. Fresh drinking water is furnished three times per day. For breaking jail, attacking jailor, &c., two prisoners were chained to the floor and deprived of water for twelve hours in two successive days. The rooms are whitewashed frequently, and the excrement is thrown into a sink and chloride of lime thrown over it.

WARREN COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        No poor house in the county. The paupers are taken care of by different persons in the county under special contract. Arrangements have already been made to build a new poor house, which will be carried into effect during the present year.

PRISON.

        There is no prison in the county, but one is in course of erection, to be built of granite and to be thirty-five by forty-five feet in size. It is contemplated to have it fire proof. There is on the premises a reservoir a hundred yards distant from the jail, of which the capacity is fifteen thousand gallons, but there is not yet any fire engine. It is to be two stories high and will have eight rooms four of which are to be devoted to the jailer and family, and the other four with two passages, to the prisoners. Size of rooms, twelve by fourteen feet; of passages twelve by eight. Two windows in each room two by two. The jail will be warmed by means of stoves. On the fifth of February, 1868, the prison and all in it, save the prisoners,


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was consumed, since which time the adjoining counties have taken the prisoners of this county in charge. There is a small caliboose twelve by twelve feet used temporarily as a prison, and the prisoners in this are allowed as much as they want to eat and fresh drinking water three times per day. The caliboose is swept, and the filth removed daily.

WASHINGTON COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Located two miles from the county seat, consists of five buildings as follows:--One twelve by fourteen feet, one thirty-two by sixteen, one fourteen by twenty-two, one twenty-eight by fifteen with shed and piazza, one smoke-house ten by ten. There is one room in the first house, two in second, two in third, five in fourth and one in fifth. Water is obtained from a well. The buildings are heated by fire places. One bushel meal, twelve pounds of pork, one pound of coffee, half pound of tobacco, half gallon of molasses, five pounds of flour one bar of soap, is the monthly allowance of each inmate. The average weekly cost of each is one dollar and twenty-five cents Buildings are in good condition. Ninty acres of land--sandy soil--belong to the poor house tract. Eight acres are in cultivation on which are raised, cabbage, beans, potatoes &c., used for the support of inmates. Asa M. Johnston, overseer. Salary one hundred and fifty dollars per annum. Dr. W. W. Ward, Physician. Salary one hundred dollars per year.

PRISON.

        Is built of brick and iron with wood cover. It is, in size, forty-eight by twenty-four feet. Two stories high, has four rooms twenty by sixteen feet. Two windows each in the rooms below, five by three feet, four in each of those above two by two feet. Stoves are use in heating the building. Two double blankets are furnished to each of the prisoners. Water furnished two or three times daily, one pound meat, over a pound of bread and vegetables is the daily allowance of food to each. Excrement carried off from jail in tubs.


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WATAUGA COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        There is no poor house in the county but the poor are attended to by agents. There are eight paupers in the county whose snpport costs three hundred dollars per year.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of wood, and is, in size, thirty-four by twenty-four. It has two stories, one cell and two rooms for prisoners. Cell twenty-two by twenty-four feet, the other rooms eight by twelve. There are two windows in cell room two by five feet. The building is heated in winter by fire places and a stove. There have never been any prisoners in the jail in winter up to this time, and there are none in it at present. The excrement is carried off from prison by means of sewers.

WAYNE COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated six miles from the county seat. There are on the premises four buildings, two of which are sixteen by twenty, and the other two sixteen by thirty-four, with shed one side. There are two rooms in each building. A well of good water is convenient, from which a supply is obtained. For heating the buildings in cold weather, fire places are used. No allowance in eating, every one having as much as he wants of good wholesome food. One dollar is the average weekly cost of each inmate. The poor house is situated immediately on the W. & W. R. R. It is well arranged, neat, and in very fair condition. From eight to ten acres are in cultivation, on which are raised corn, potatoes, vegetables, &c., used by paupers. Manures are used in improving land. Blancy Scott, Esq., is overseer. Salary, fifteen dollars per month. Dr. Jno. B. Owen, physician. Salary, fifteen dollars per month.


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PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick, wood and iron. It size is thirty by forty feet, and it is two stories high, having five rooms. Three of the rooms are ten by twelve feet, and the other two twelve by fourteen. There are two windows to each room ten by twelve inches. No arrangements for heating the building; there is not, however, more suffering from cold than is general in prisons. A fair supply of thick blankets is furnished the prisoners. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished generally three times a day. Enough of well cooked meat and bread is furnished to maintain good health. Sometimes light punishment is inflicted for disorderly conduct. The jail is scoured out twice a week, with boiling water. Chloride of lime has sometimes been used. The excrement is removed, morning and night, to a ditch fifty yards distant.

WILSON COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE

        The poor house is two miles from the county seat, and consists of four thirty-four by sixteen feet dwellings, built of pine lumber. There are two rooms in each. The houses are built one hundred feet apart. Water is supplied from a well. The buildings are heated by fire places. The daily allowance of food is from five to six ounces of bacon, with vegetables, flour, sugar, coffee, &c. The average weekly cost of the maintenance of each is two dollars and a half. The houses are in good condition, only one of them needing repairs. One hundred and forty acres of ordinary sandy land belong to the poor house tract, of which twenty-five are in cultivation. Corn, pease, potatoes, tobacco and garden vegetables are raised and are used at the place. Houses only partially shaded. Manures are used in improving the land. W. A. Overman, Esq., is overseer. Salary, one hundred and thirty dollars, in specie, and board per year. Dr. S. Woodward, physician. Salary, one hundred and fifty dollars per annum.

PRISON.

        No report.


Page 88

YADKIN COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is about a quarter of a mile from the county seat, and consists of two double log buildings twenty by forty feet. There are two rooms in each. The supply of water is from a spring. The buildings are heated by fire places in winter. The poor house having become destitute of furniture, the poor were put with different persons through the county. The commissioners anticipate refurnishing it, and taking the poor back at an early-date. About fifty persons receive help from the county at present, but only about one-half of these will be admitted into the poor house. The average weekly cost of the maintenance of each is sixty cents. The fences of the premises are very good, but the arrangement for a rotation of crops is not. The buildings on premises need repair. About one hundred and fifty acres of rather poor land belong to the poor house tract, of which thirty acres are in cultivation. The land is rented out and the rent applied to defraying the expenses of the poor. There is no shade to the houses, except that afforded by fruit trees.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick, and is thirty by forty feet. It is two stories high and has four rooms below and four cells above. The rooms are fourteen by sixteen feet, and the cells twelve by fourteen. There are eight windows above and eight below, twelve by sixteen, and one in each cell, two by three feet, with two sets of cross bars of iron. The lower rooms are heated by fire places; those above are not heated at all, and the prisoners are subjected to a great deal of suffering on account of cold. Very little bedding and covering is furnished the prisoners at present, but the commissioners anticipate getting more. Males and females are confined separately. Water is furnished as often as necessary. No regular daily allowance of food--no complaint from prisoners. The excrement is carried off by means of pipes.


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YANCEY COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The county poor house is now being built. The paupers are kept by citizens in the country. The poor house is about five miles from Burnsville. It consists of two buildings, one of which is eighteen by twenty-two, the other, twenty-two by twenty-eight, built of hewed logs. The supply of water is from a spring and branch near by. The buildings will be heated by fire places. Fifty acres of good land belong to the poor house tract, of which twelve or fourteen are in cultivation. Corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, cabbage, &c., are raised. Samuel Austin will be overseer when the buildings are completed. He will receive sixty dollars for each inmate per year, for his services.

PRISON.

        The county prison is built of brick, and is forty-four by twenty-two feet. It is two stories high, and has three cells for prisoners--seven rooms in all. One of the rooms is sixteen by eighteen, the other two, nine by sixteen. There are two good-sized windows in one room, and one in each of the others. The prison is heated by a fire place in one room, and a stove in the other rooms. The prison is not yet finished.


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TABULAR STATEMENT, SHOWING THE NUMBER, CONDITION, &C., OF THE INMATES OF POOR HOUSES.

Names of Counties. No. of inmates that can
be accommodated.
No. in charge
July, 1st, 1868.
No. admitted
since that time.
No. discharged. No. died. No. in poor
house at present.
No. able to work. No. helpless. Remarks.
Alamance, 20 10 20 7 4 19 4    
Alexander, 12 6 8 4 3 7 1    
Aleghany,                 No report.
*Anson, 25 12 9 3 4 13 3    
Ashe,                 No report.
*Beaufort, 60 12 4 1 2 14 6 5  
Bertie, 30 20 5     25     23 persons are supported by County outside of Poor House.
*Bladen, 20 6 4   2 9 2 2  
Brunswick,                 There is no Poor House in this County $3 per month is allowed by the County to each person unable to work.
Buncombe,                  
Burke, 10 4 8 7 2 3      
Cabarrus,                  
Caldwell,                 No report.
Camden, 20-30 3 7   2 8 7 1  
Carteret,                 No report.
*Caswell, 60 42 12 7 11 42 9 14  


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*Catawba, 18 20 3 4 6 10 2 2  
Chatham, 35 29 4   8 25 3 2  
Cherokee, 10 5 4   1 8   3  
*Chowan, 22 6 10 7 1 4   2  
Clay,                 No Poor House.
*Cleveland, 24 12 3   2 11 6 3  
Columbus,                 No report.
Craven, 30 8 43 9 5 37 3 3  
Cumberland, 50   14 19 5 30 4 5 No record was kept up to Jan. 1st, 1869.
Currituck,                  
*Davidson, 40 24 21 16 5 23 4 3 No records kept up to Oct. 5th, 1868.
*Davie, 20-25 12 4 3 1 11 5    
Duplin, 40 25 30 41 4 10      
Edgecombe,                 No report.
Forsythe, 30       3 13 4    
*Franklin, 32 14 9 1 4 19 4 3  
*Gaston, 15 10 16 1 10 16 6 1  
*Gates, 50 2 6 5 3 3   2  
Granville, 50-55 55     13 27     No account kept of admissions and discharges.
*Greene. 10 7 3 3 4 4 1 1  
*Guilford, 90 50 72 40 11 66 19 11  
Halifax,   38 21 7 6 46 11 7  
Harnett,                 No report.
Haywood, 10 3   1 1 1 1    
Henderson, 4 2 4   2 4   2  
Hertford,                 No report.


Page 92

*Hyde, 20 13 5 17 1 2   2  
Iredell, 24 14 6 3 1 16 4    
Jackson,                 No report.
Johnson,                 No report.
Jones,                 No report.
Lenoir, 10-15 10       5 1 2 Some who receive support from County are not in Poor House.
*Lincoln, 32 9 7 1 1 16   16  
Macon,                 No report.
Madison,                 No report.
Martin, 20 11     1 10 1    
*McDowell, 15 6 5   1 8 1    
*Mecklenburg, 40 20 22 13 8 18 6 3  
Mitchell,                 No report.
Montgomery, 40 16 7   2 21 1    
*Moore, 24 13 1 1   15 3 1  
*Nash, 42 27 4 12 3 16 6    


Page 93

New Hanover, 65 30 135 70 25 38 8 7  
Northampton, 35     1 7 35 3 3 No account kept of admissions.
Onslow,                 No Poor House.
Orange,                 No report.
Pasquotank, 30 5 2 3   4   2  
Perquimans, 20 5 16 5 3 13 3 4  
*Person, 40 30 4 7 1 25 6    
*Pitt, 30 20 10   7-8 24   4  
Polk, 12--15 6 3     9   2  
*Randolph, 30 27 16 22 4 19 3    
*Richmond, 20 7 5 1 2 12   4  
*Robeson, 36 14 1   2 12 1 11  
Rockingham, 35 48 25 15 6 32   5 Some of those reported are kept by friends outside of Poor House.
Rowan, 40 26 2 2   26   2  
Rutherford,                  
Sampson,                 No paupers are kept by Co'ty.
Stanley, 24 5 7 4 4 4      
Stokes,                 No report.
Surry, 30 18   1   17 3 1  
Transylvania,                 No Poor House.
*Tyrrel, 10 1 1 1 1 2 2   All cared for by County are not in Poor House.
Union, 30 24 13 10 5 22 6 5  
Wake, 80-100 83 30 30 24 59 10 5  
Warren,                 No Poor House.
*Washington, 40 13 19 3 5 18   3  
Watauga,                 No Poor House.


Page 94

*Wayne, 32   11     10 3 7 Opened Jan. 21, 1869.
Wilkes,                 No report.
Wilson, 15--20 12 11 9 4 10 4 2  
Yadkin, 24               Poor House not open at present.
Yancey,                 The Poor House being built.
Totals. 1,835 950 722 417 244 1,026 180 163  

The figures are put down just as they were received in the reports of the different counties. Those marked * are inaccurate.


Page 96

        

TABULAR STATEMENT SHOWING THE NUMBER OF PRISONERS CONFINED IN THE COUNTY PRISONS.

Names of Counties. NO. of white prisons.
Male.
NO. of white prisons.
Fem'le
NO. of color'd prisoners.
Male.
NO. of color'd prisoners.
Fem'le
Total No. White. Total No. Color'd. Total No. Pris'n'rs Remarks.
Alamance   1 5   1 5 6  
Alexander, 3       3   3  
Alleghany,               No report.
Anson,               No prison.
Ashe,               No report.
Beaufort, 2   15   2 15 17  
Bertie,     5     5 5  
Bladen, 3   1   3 1 4  
Brunswick, 1   1   1 1 2  
Buncombe,               No report.
Burke,               No report.
Cabarrus,               No report.
Caldwell,               No report.
Camden, 2   2   2 2 4  
Carteret,               No report.


Page 97

Caswell, 1   3 1 1 4 5  
Catawba, 1 1 2   2 2 4  
Chatham, 1   3   1 3 4  
Cherokee, 2       2   2  
Chowan,     8     8 8  
Clay,               No prisoners confined.
Cleveland,               No prisoners confined.
Columbus,               No report.
Craven, 2   11 1 2 12 35 There are 21 added in total, awaiting trial, whose color cannot be ascertained by the report received.
Cumberland. 1   13   1 13 14  
Currituck,                
Davidson,     4     4 4  
Davie,     2     2 2  
Duplin,     5     5 5  
Edgecombe,               No report.
Forsythe, 1   6   1 6 7 Three of these are from Yadkin County.
Franklin,     3 7   10 10  
Gaston, 3 3   1 6 1 7  
Gates,     2     2 2  
Granville,     7 1   8 8  
Greene,               No report.
Guilford, 2   8   2 8 10  
Halifax,     2     2 2  
Harnett,               No report.
Haywood,               No Prison.
Henderson.     2     2 2  


Page 98

Hertford,               No report.
Hyde,     5     5 5  
Iredell, 1   8   1 8 9  
Jackson,               No prisoners in confinement.
Johnson,               No report.
Jones,               No report.
Lenoir, 1   4 1   5 5  
Lincoln, 1   3   1 3 4  
Macon,               No report.
Madison,               No report.
Martin,     7     7 7  
McDowell, 1       1   1  
Mecklenburg, 4   14 1 4 15 19  
Mitchell,               No report.
Montgomery,               No prisoners in confinement.


Page 99

Moore, 2   4 1 2 5 7  
Nash, 1   6   1 6 7  
New Hanover, 2   27 1 2 28 30  
Northampton,     2     2 2  
Onslow,     1     1 1  
Orange,               No report.
Pasquotank, 1   2   1 2 3  
Perquimans, 1   2   1 2 3  
Person,     1     1 1  
Pitt, 2   1 1 2 2 4  
Polk,     2     2 2  
Randolph,     1     1 1  
Richmond,     3     3 3  
Robeson,               No prisoners.
Rockingham,     2 1   3 3  
Rowan, 3   4   3 4 7  
Rutherford,               No report.
Sampson, 2   12   2 12 14  
Stanly, 1       1   1  
Stokes,               No report.
Surry, 1   1   1 1 2  
Transylvania,               No prisoners confined.
Tyrrell,               No prisoners confined.
Union,     1     1 1  
Wake, 9   22   9 22 31  
Warren,     1     1 1  


Page 100

Washington, 1   4   1 4 5  
Watauga,               No prisoners confined.
Wayne, 2   15 1 2 16 18  
Wilkes,               No report.
Wilson,               No report.
Yadkin, 2   1   2 1 3  
Yancey,               No prisoners confined.
Totals, 62 5 266 18 67 284 372  

There are twenty-one prisoners added in the total of Craven County who could not be classified on account of their color not being reported.


Page 101

NO. IV.
GENERAL STATEMENT SHOWING AGES OF PRISONERS.

        
AGE. No.
10 years, 1
12 years, 1
13 years, 2
14 years, 1
15 years, 4
16 years, 4
17 years, 11
18 years, 20
19 years, 13
20 years, 28
21 years, 25
22 years, 32
23 years, 23
24 years, 11
25 years, 25
26 years, 8
27 years, 8
28 years, 5
29 years, 3
30 years, 24
31 years, 6
32 years, 2
33 years, 4
34 years, 5
35 years, 20
36 years, 3
37 years, 3
38 years, 3
39 years, 3
40 years, 14
41 years, 1
43 years, 3
44 years, 1
45 years, 6
46 years, 1
47 years, 1
48 years, 1
50 years, 9
51 years, 2
52 years, 1
53 years, 3
55 years, 3
59 years, 1
60 years, 1
61 years, 1
66 years, 1
70 years, 1
Unknown, 23
Total 372.


Page 102

NO. V.
GENERAL STATEMENT SHOWING THE CRIMES AND CAUSES OF
CONFINEMENT.

        
CRIMES AND CAUSES OF IMPRISONMENT. No.
Adultery, 3
Aiding in riot, 1
Arson, 10
Assault and battery, 7
Assault intending murder, 2
Attempt at rape, 4
Bastardy, 3
Breach of Peace, 3
Breaking jail, 1
Burglary, 27
Conspiring to rob, 2
Drawing deadly weapon, 1
False pretenses, 1
Highway robbery, 8
Horse stealing, 13
Illicit distilling, 1
Infanticide, 1
Killing Jack, 1
Killing horse, 1
Larceny, 199
Manslaughter, 7
Misdemeanor, 1
Murder, 18
Poisoning, 1
Rape, 8
Robbery, 8
Slander, 1
Shooting, intent to kill, 1
Violation of revenue law, 2
Crimes not reported, 27
Cost of suit, 1
Escaped prisoners, 2
Insanity, 6
Total, 372


Page 103

NO. VI.
REPORT OF DR. G. W. BLACKNALL, SPECIAL AGENT
BOARD OF PUBLIC CHARITIES.

RALEIGH, N. C., 15th Nov., 1868.

To the Board of Public Charities
of the State of North Carolina:

        GENTLEMEN:--The important duties assigned me at the last meeting of this Board have had as much of my time as my other business would admit of. Through correspondence, and by personal inspection, I have been enabled to find out something in reference to the general condition of our penal and charitable institutions. To from a clear, correct and comprehensive idea of the mission assigned me, and to give an intelligent opinion as to what was necessary for the guidance and practical government of our institutions, I have also visited some of those of the Northern and Eastern States, where I saw and learned many things which might be turned to practical use in our own State, and about which I will speak in this communication, as occasion demands. Of our poor houses, I will first speak, and I trust you will excuse me when I say, in most cases, they are really what their name indicates--poor houses--yes, poor houses. Most of them are not only a disgrace to the State, but a sin against humanity; and to make them what they should be, a radical change must be brought about. To speak of their many imperfections gives me no pleasure, and I am sure would be a mortification to you Suffice it to say, the houses are fast coming to decay, not sufficient in size and number, and, in many cases, no better than out doors--and the bedding and clothes are in a bad condition, and the inmates generally a miserable set of people, left there to eke out an unhappy existence. Are the people of this good old State willing to see her poor, many of whom are very good people, cast off and not cared for as


Page 104

well as cattle should be? No, I can answer for them, and feel sure, if the matter was properly brought before them, it would be different; and I will here say that every poor house in the State should be visited--together with the jails and other institutions--and direct information and instructions given those in authority, as to the general management of the institutions and the care of those under their charge, and many other things necessary for their guidance.

        The jails visited were on a par with institutions of the kind; but much--yes, much--is yet to be done to make them more comfortable, and turn out men who would feel while their crimes had caused their confinement, the State had an eye to their general welfare and wished them to reform and become not only useful to themselves and families, but to society and their fellow-man.

        The civil war has left us a sad inheritance of corruption and vice, and the work of improving the morals of the masses requires time--especially time of peace--but we must be charitable, and not denounce, in too strong terms, all men found inside the prison walls and think they are the only bad men. Far from it, as we meet equally bad men in our every day walk of life. Be this as it may, it be comes us, as civilized and christian people, to look after the unfortunate, and lend them a helping hand towards reclamation. Our prisons seems to have been established rather to intimidate and deter, than to reform. They punish, but do not, in but few instances, correct. The convict should be surrounded with every good influence possible, such as religious instruction, and the reading of books--having as their object a good moral influence--and, above all, the frequent visits of ministers of the gospel, whose duty, I must think, it is to pay some attention to these people, and try to put them in a way of reformation. As a general thing our jails are miserably constructed, and there is little or no attention paid to the division and classification of prisoners. Every offender, or even one accused of crime--the boy of twelve, put in for a street fight, or some slight misdemeanor, and the hardened criminal, deep dyed in infamy, are all thrown together in filth and idleness, thereby making the


Page 105

jail a seminary of crime and corruption. And once an inmate, ten to one, if the person is not irretrievably lost, and with ideas instilled into their minds which will cause them to discard everything good and follow in the footsteps of some abandoned and god-forsaken jail associate! Therefore I would strenuously recommend, in every case where it is practicable, that great care should be exercised in classifying prisoners, and that special rules and requirements be forwarded immediately to every jailor in the State, as many are of the opinion that muscle alone, and not brain, is all that is necessary for the good management of jails.

        I find that another great evil appertaining to the affairs of our prisons--is that the accommodations and appropriations provided for prisoners by the public contemplate scarce anything beyond the bare necessaries of life and secure confinement. And when this has been done jail-keepers and the community at large think they have done their duty; and thus it is we find no effort at the reformation of prisoners, and no attempts at improvement or discipline; no provision for moral or religious instruction corresponding with what intelligent and christian sentiment might expect, and public opinion should demand. That there is this lamentable indifference and culpable neglect on the part of our citizens, in reference to their duty in connection with the proper care and management of prisoners, no right minded, liberal man can deny.

        Let it not be inferred from anything we have said above, that we desire to see our jails transformed into palaces--nothing could be further from our wishes, or our sense of the fitness of things. What we do insist upon is that patriotism, philanthropy and religion demand that they should be so constructed, organized, arranged and managed that they may become schools of virtue instead of seminaries of vice, and that the influence on those confined within their walls may be such as to purify and reform rather than corrupt and destroy. I have only one object in view, which, from my heart, I wish to see accomplished, and it is this: to see justice ever tempered with humanity--all distinctions of religion, color and country laid aside when we enter


Page 106

upon the great work of philanthropy--to serve the unfortunate members of the great brotherhood of mankind; and I am sure every good man has at heart the same object.

        I would here recommend the establishment of a house of industry or correction, where vagrant boys and girls might be sent, and not only learned to work and be useful, but at the same time acquire an education, and have their moral principles so cultivated that, instead of being drones in society, they may become useful. In this respect I deem it unnecessary to designate plans and specifications, or definitely state the modus operandi of such an institution, but simply to make special mention of it, so as to call direct attention to its importance. If all Northern States require many like institutions, why should we not have one to begin with, as an experiment? This would enable us to test its practicability--then all might be worked from this one centre.

        The institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind, located at Raleigh, and under the supervision of Willie J. Palmer, Esq., in its general discipline and management, compares very favorably with any institution of the kind North or South; therefore I have no complaint to make or any suggestions or advice to give, which could add in any way to its better government. But permit me here to say that the institution is much too small for its present number, and if the State desires to care for this class of persons, some addition is inevitable, and I would respectfully call the immediate attention of the Board to the many inconveniences submitted to on account of the deficiency in room.

        The Lunatic Asylum of the State, under the management of Dr. Eugene Grissom, and his accomplished assistant, Dr. F. T. Fuller, in internal construction, discipline, neatness, general good care of the patients, kindness and humanity, rank it equal to any institution of the kind in the United States. Here the unfortunate can find a good home, and have every care necessary for their comfort. But at present the institution is crowded much beyond its capacity, and to accommodate not only those already there, but others, the


Page 107

State must either enlarge the present buildings or build a new one entire. From the best information obtained, I find that there are from four to five hundred insane persons now in the State awaiting admission into the institution, and for want of room, they are now confined in jails, poor houses, and kept at home to the detriment and annoyance of their friends and neighbors, and without the necessary and skilled medical aid essential for their hope of recovery. Now must this be so--shall these poor unfortunate people drag out a miserable and beastly existence, or will the State, in her great generosity and magnanimous spirit, come to their relief--unfetter their chains, and say--go to the home we have provided for you? We suppose, and take it for granted, that no man or woman of common sense doubts the propriety and use of an Insane Asylum. Certainly none but the profoundly ignorant could object to the care and protection of these unfortunate and miserable people, and throw them on the world, not only endangering the peace and safety of others, but a curse and burthen to themselves. All, then, must admit the necessity of such institutions, and all see they are as essential as the houses we live in, and it must always be kept in mind that no institution is half so necessary as that. Other dependants may be disregarded-- other sick folks neglected--but the insane must be cared for, and as friends individually cannot do so, the State must step in to their relief. Men and women of the highest intellect and social position are often seen afflicted with this dreadful malady, and the disease, like death, is no respecter of persons. The sick and the poor, the white and black, are alike its victims. Therefore, among the various institutions which become necessary to civilization, to communities, to society and to afflicted humanity, Asylums for the Insane, we must admit, are the most necessary, as well for the safety of the patient as for the public well-being. Admitting all this to be true, and I feel sure none will dispute it, does it not become us to make provisions for the several hundred unfortunate men scattered over the State, uncared for. Then comes about the inquiry--what shall be done? Shall we enlarge the present Insane Asylum, or shall we


Page 108

build a new one? To enable me to throw some light on the subject, while in the Northern States, I consulted men of vast experience in such matters, and in consequence thereof, I must give my opinion in favor of an enlargement of the present buildings; for various reasons. Among others I will mention: the saving of several hundred thousand dollars in the buildings--a large saving in annual expenses--the requiring of fewer officers--the better management and classification of the patients, and the present locality being at the Capital. I have at hand plans and specifications for new buildings; also plans for the enlargement and improvement of the present building, which may be done, adding beauty and convenience instead of detracting from its present stately appearance; and in fact, by the addition, the buildings may be much improved in appearance. In visiting institutions North, I noticed one vast, yes, very great, improvement on ours. While in general management and care of the patients they do not excel us; they make all their grounds and surroundings a perfect show of beauty and magnificent scenery, each one trying to excel the other. Elegant trees and shrubbery--beautiful flowers--tastily laid-off walks--rustic houses and seats, and in fact, everything that could be suggested to beautify and adorn the premises.

        Now are we so much behind our Northern friends in such things? Will we acknowledge not only to them but to the world, that we have no taste for the refined and beautiful, and no disposition to keep pace with the times. No, gentlemen, I protest against this, and recommend that the State put into the hands of the Board of Supervisors the necessary funds to carry out this improvement, as I feel well assured that money cannot be better expended. Every consideration of beauty and cheerfulness that surrounds the private dwelling should adorn the Asylum for the Insane. Some may argue that these things are of no special importance as they possess no curative powers. This I emphatically deny, and call all persons skilled in such matters to my support, and they will tell you that everything cheerful and beautiful is essential, as it cultivates moral sentiment and settles the mind


Page 109

on something grand, sublime and majestic, instead of permitting it to dwell on some vain hallucination or frivolous and imaginary superstition. Cure your patients and return them to their friends, through mild and gentle means and the proper surroundings, instead of having them, as many are now, kept in jails and poor houses, and by incompetent men pronounced incurable.

        In my remarks it must not be inferred that I am finding fault with, or making suggestions to, Dr. Grissom, the Superintendent. He had done all he could with the means at his command. I feel confident if those in authority would take the proper view of the matter, and place at the disposal of the Board of Supervisors the necessary means, no appropriation could be more judiciously expended and reflect more credit on our good old State.

        All of which is very respectfully submitted, by

Yours most respectfully,

G. W. BLACKNALL.


Page 111

NO. VII.
REPORT OF PENITENTIARY.

    BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS:

  • GEN. A. DOCKERY, . . . . . PRESIDENT.
  • REV. G. WM. WELKER, . . . . . SECRETARY.
  • JOHN R. HARRISON.
  • A. L. LOUGEE,
  • ALFRED HOWE.

    OFFICERS:

  • WM. H. THOMPSON, . . . . . . DEPUTY WARDEN.
  • M. GRAUSMAN, . . . . . . STEWARD.
  • JOHN ROBINSON, . . . . . . CLERK.
  • LEVIT. SCHOFIELD, . . . . . . ARCHITECT.
  • W. J. HICKS, . . . . . . ASSISTANT ARCHITECT.
  • JOHN ROSEMOND, . . . . . . SERGEANT OF GUARD.

Page 112

        

NUMBER OF PRISONERS CONFINED IN PENITENTIARY
WITH CAUSES OF CONFINEMENT.

Crimes. Period of confinement. White Males. Colored.
male.
Colored.
fem.
Total. Afe of prison'rs.
AGE.
Age of prison'rs.
NO.
Murder, For life, 1 3   4 14 2
Burglary, 30 years,   1   1 15 3
Burglary, 20 years,   4   4 16 2
Arson, 20 years,   1 2 3 17 4
Arson, 5 years, 1 2   3 18 6
Arson and bnrglary, 10 years,   2   2 19 8
Manslaughter, 10 years, 1 3   4 20 11
Manslaughter, 4½ years, 1     1 21 10
Murder & manslaugt'r, 5 years,   3   3 22 11
Robbery, 20 years, 2 2   4 23 6
Robbery, 10 years, 3 2   5 24 7
Robbery, 5 years, 2 1   3 25 9
Robbery, 4 years, 1     1 27 3
Robbery, 2 years, 1 2   3 28 2
Robbery. 1½ years,   1   1 29 4
Rape & attemp'd rape, 10 years,   3   3 30 4
Rape & attemp'd rape, 5 years,   5   5 31 2
Horse stealing, 10 years, 1 3   4 32 1
Horse stealing, 7 years, 1     1 33 2
Horse stealing, 5 years, 3 3   6 34 1
Larceny et al., 10 years, 1     1 35 5
Larceny, 5 years, 1 1 1 3 39 2
Larceny, 4 years,   1   1 41 1
Larceny, 3 years, 2 4   6 45 2
Larceny, 2 years, 3 6   9 47 2
Larceny, 1½ years,   4   4 49 2
Larceny, 15-12 years,   1   1 50 1
Larceny, 1 years, 3 24   27 51 1
Larceny, 5-6 years, 1 1   2 52 1
Felonious slaying, 3 years,   1   1 54 1
Malicious mischief, 3 years, 1     1 55 2
Forgery, 2 years, 1     1 66 1
Assault and battery, 2 years, 1     1 75 1
Conspiring to kill, 3-4 years,   2   2    
Total,   32 86 3 121   121


        Thirty-eight of the prisoners can read; twenty-five can read and write; twenty-one used to get drunk occasionally; fifty-five were moderate drinkers, and forty-nine never drank at all. There are ninety-five who are natives of North Carolina, and twenty-six natives of other States.



Page 113

Insane Asylum of North Carolina.

BOARD OF SUPERVISORS.

  • His Excellency Gov. W. W. HOLDEN, ex officio President,
  • Hon. J. W. HOLDEN,
  • JEFFERSON FISHER, Esq.,
  • Hon. C. L. HARRIS,
  • R. W. LASSITER, Esq.
  • Rev. G. W. BRODIE,

OFFICERS.

  • EUGENE GRISSOM, M. D., Superintendent,
  • F. T. FULLER, M. D., Assistant Physician,
  • E. A. WHITAKER, Steward,
  • Mrs. MARY A. LAWRENCE, Matron,
  • JOHN F. CURFMAN, Engineer.


Page 115

N. C. INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF & DUMB AND THE BLIND.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

  • HON. S. S. ASHLEY, President,
  • THOMAS H. COATES, Esq.,
  • JAMES H. HARRIS, Esq.,
  • Hon. D. A. JENKINS,
  • Prof. W. C. KERR,
  • T. F. LEE, Esq.,
  • JOHN B. NEATHERY, Esq.

OFFICERS:

  • W. J. PALMER, A. M., Principal,
  • R. B. ELLIS, M. D., Steward and Physician,
  • JOHN NICHOLS, Treasurer.

TEACHERS OF THE BLIND.

  • W. J. YOUNG, A. M.,
  • NARCISSA J. DUPREE,
  • JOHN A. SIMPSON, A. B.,
  • MARY H. ALLSTON,
  • Mrs. A. E. SLATER, Teacher of Music.

TEACHERS OF THE DEAF AND DUMB.

  • D. R. COLEMAN, A. B.,
  • ZACH. W. HAYNES,
  • EMILY C. NICHOLS,
  • D. R. TILLINGHAST,
  • ELLEN C. JOHNSON,
  • MARY A. ASHLEY,
  • JASPER A. JAMISON,
    Page 116

  • Mrs. E. J. TAYLOR, Housekeeper.
  • Mrs. E. A. GORMAN, Matron.
  • Mrs. V. C. AYER, Assistant Matron.
  • Mrs. M. HARRISON, Matron Colored Department.
  • _____ _____, Foreman of Printing Office.
  • JOSEPH WATSON, Foreman of Shoe Shop.
  • HENRY GORMAN, Foreman of Cabinet Shop.
  • DAVID C. DUDLEY, Jr., Foreman of Broom Shop.


Page 116a

TABLE X. Report of Insane and Idiotic in Prisons, Poor Houses and Private Families.

        
Counties. Insane in prison       Insane in poor ho'se       Insane in pr. f'm'es       Idiotic in poor ho'se       Idiotic in pr. f'm'es       Total insane in prison.   Total insane in poor ho'e   Total insane in pr. f'm'ies   Tot'l idi'c in poor ho'se.   Tot'l idi'c in pr. f'm'es   Tot'l NO. of insane   Tot'l NO. of idiotic  
  White Mal White Fem Col'd Mal. Col'd Fem. White Male White Fem Col'd Mal Col'd Fem White Mal White Fem Col'd Mal Col'd Fem White Mal White Fem Col'd Mal Col'd Fem White Mal White Fem Col'd M. Col'd Fem White Col'd White Col'd White Col'd White Col'd White Col'd White Col'd White Col'd
Alamance,           1     1 1 1   1   2   5 5 2 3     1   2 1 1 2 10 5 3 1 11 7
Alexander,   1 1   1                 1       2     1 1 1       1   2   2 1 3  
Alleghany,                                                                    
Anson,                 4 2       2 1 1 8 5 1           6   2 2 13 1 6   15 3
Ashe,                                                                    
Beaufort,       1         3 2 2 1     1   7 3 7 4   1     5 3   1 10 11 5 4 10 12
Bertie,         1       2 2   1         6 2 6 1     1   4 1     8 7 5 1 8 7
Bladen,                                                                    
Brunswick,                                                                    
Buncombe,                                                                    
Burke,                                                                    
Cabarrus,       1         1       1 1               1     1   1 1     1 1 1 1
Caldwell,                                                                    
Camden,                 2 1     1         1 3           3   1   1 3 3   2 3
Carteret,                                                                    
Caswell,                                                                    
Catawba,         2 1     1 3       1 1 1             3   4   1 2     7   1 2
Chatham,                                                                    
Cherokee,     1             1 1             1       1     1 1     1   1 2 1  
Chowan,                 1               3 1   1         1       4 1 1   4 1
Clay,         2       3 2                         2   5           7      
Cleveland,                                                                    
Columbus,                                                                    
Craven,                                                                    
Cumberland,                 1               1               1       1   1   1  
Currituck,                                                                    
Davidson,                                                                    
Davie,                                                                    
Duplin,                                                                    
Edgecombe,                                                                    
Forsythe,                                                                    
Franklin,           1       2     2 2 1 1 3   2 2     1   2   4 2 3 4 3   7 6
Gaston,                                                                    
Gates,                   3 2           2   1           3 2     2 1 3 2 2 1
Granville,     1             1 2 1   2 2 4 1 1   2   1     1 3 2 6 2 2 1 4 4 8
Greene,                                                                    
Guilford,                   1                                                
Halifax,                     3 1     2 2                   1   4       1   4
,                                                                    
Haywood,           1                     4 5         1           9   1   9  
Henderson,                                                                    
                                                                   
Hyde,                 3 4 1 1         2     1         7 2     2 1 7 2 2 1
Iredell,               1 1       2 1     5 2           1 1   3   7   1 1 10  
Jackson, 1               1                 1     1       1       1   2   1  
Johnson,                                                                    
Jones,         3     1   2                         3 1 2           5 1    
Lenoir,                   4 3 3                         4 6         4 6    
Lincoln,           1     1               1   2       1   1       1 2 2   1 2
Macon,                                                                    
Madison, 1               1       1 1         1   1       1   2     1 2   2 1
Martin, 1     1   1             3 1 3           1 1 1       4 3     2 1 4 3
McDowell,                 1 1             3 1             2       4   2   4  
Mecklenburg,           2     4 3 2 2     2   3 4 6 8     2   7 4   2 7 14 9 4 7 16
Mitchell,                                                                    
Montgomery,                             2 2     3 3               4   6       10
Moore,                                                                    
Nash,                                                                    
New Hanover,                                                                    
Northampton,           2   2 3 1 1   1       4 2 1 1     2 2 4 1 1   6 2 6 3 7 2
Onslow,                                                                    
Orange,                                                                    
Pasquotank,                 1 1       1     1   1           2   1   1 1 2   2 1
Perquimans,           1                     2 1 1       1           3 1 1   3 1
Person,                                                                    
Pitt,                                                                    
Polk,                                                                    
Randolph,         3       3 1     1 1   1 4 2         3   4   2 1 6   7   8 1
Richmond,                                                                    
Robeson,                                                                    
Rockingham,                 3       2 1 1     1 1           3   3 1 1 1 3   4 2
Rowan,               1         1 2   1   1           1     3 1 1     1 4 1
Rutherford, 1       1 1       2 1           1       1   2   2 1     1   5 1 1  
Sampson,                                                                    
Stanley,                         3 5 1                       8 1         8 1
Stokes,           1   1         3 1 1 1             1 1     4 2     1 1 4 2
Surry,                 1               2 1   1         1       3 1 1   3 1
Transylvania,                                                                    
Tyrrel,                       1 1       6 4 2 2           1 1   10 4   1 11 4
Union,           1             1 1     5 1         1       2   6   1   8  
Wake, 1         2   1     1       1   5 2 1   1   2 1   1   1 7 1 3 2 7 2
Warren,                                                                    
Washington,                                                                    
Watauga,                                                                    
Wayne,     1           1       1     1 1         1     1   1 1 1   1 1 2 1
Wilkes,                                                                    
Wilson,                                                                    
Yadkin, 2         1     6 3     1 4     1 1 2   2   1   9   5   2 2 12   7 2
Yancey,                                                                    
Totals. 7 1 4 3 13 17   7 49 42 18 10 26 28 21 15 86 50 43 29 8 7 30 7 91 28 53 37 136 72 129 42 189 109

        In the above statement it will be seen that reports have been received from only 43 Counties.



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APPENDIX
CONTAINING REPORTS OF COUNTIES SENT IN SINCE FEBRUARY 10TH, 1870.

ASHE COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        There is no poor house in the county; the poor are taken care of by contract, which is awarded to the lowest bidder.

PRISON.

        Is built of brick, and is thirty by forty feet. It is two stories high, and has four rooms and cells. Size of rooms, of which there are three, fourteen by twenty-eight--of cell, twelve by fourteen. Ten windows in building two and a half by five; five of them have grates. A fire place is used for heating. The prisoners are not subject to a great deal of suffering in cold weather; they have four blankets each. Males and females confined separate. Fresh drinking water furnished five times a day. Excrement is carried off by means of pipe and ditch. No prisoners at present in confinement.

BUNCOMBE COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        There is no poor house in the county, but about forty-five persons are taken care of at the county's expense, of whom the average weekly cost of maintenance is one dollar. There were fifty-two supported by the county July 1st, 1868. There have been admitted since that time six others. There have been eight deaths and five discharges since that time.


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PRISON.

        Is built of brick, and covered with shingles. Its size is thirty by forty-six feet. It has three stories and three rooms. One of the rooms is sixteen by thirty feet, and eight feet high, having in it an iron cage twelve by twenty-four. The other two rooms are thirteen by fifteen. The size of the windows in the building is three by four and a half feet. There are five in the largest room and two each in the others. The building is heated by a stove. Prisoners not subject to any suffering from cold. One blanket is furnished to each prisoner. No females in prison. Fresh drinking water is given three or four times a day. The prisoners have as much to eat as they desire. No punishment inflicted on prisoners except hand-cuffing them to prevent their escape. Scouring and white washing are resorted to, to preserve cleanliness in the prison, the excrement being carried off in buckets. There are eight male prisoners in confinement--four white and four colored. Their ages are as follows: One nineteen years, one twenty-five, one twenty-six, two twenty-eight, two thirty, and one fifty-five. The cause of confinement of one, is failing to appear as witness; of another, failing to pay fine and costs; the third, for larceny; the fourth, for arson and murder; the fifth, for horse stealing; sixth, for assault and battery with intent to kill; seventh, for burglary; and the eighth for arson and burglary.

BURKE COUNTY.

PRISON.

        Is built of brick, and is forty by thirty feet. It is three stories high, and has three rooms twenty-four by twenty. Four windows in each of two rooms, and two in the other--size six by three feet. A small fire place is the arrangement for heating the building. The prisoners are not subjected to very much suffering from cold. The two prisoners in confinement have nine blankets between them. Fresh drinking water is furnished once a day in winter and three times a day in summer. One pound of meat and one pound


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of bread is the daily allowance of food. The prison is cleaned out once per day. Two colored male prisoners in confinement, aged respectively twenty-one and thirty-nine years. First committed for larceny, second for murder.

COLUMBUS COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house is situated five miles from the county seat, and consists of four buildings as follows: One framed building forty-two feet long with two rooms, one log building twenty by sixteen feet with one room, one log building with clay chimney, and a framed ware-house ten by twelve feet. Water is supplied by well. The buildings are heated by fire-places. No specified allo wance of food; in last report eighteen pounds of pork was allowed each inmate per month. Seven dollars and fifty cents is the average weekly cost of each inmate. The premises are in good condition the houses conveniently arranged. About sixty acres of poor piney land belong to the poor house tract of which three acres are in cultivation. Sweet and irish potatoes, corn and garden vegetables are raised. Ashes and manures used on garden. Mrs. Sarah A. Cook, Overseer. Salary two hundred dollars per year. No physician needed for more than a year. Twenty inmates can be accommodated with the present arrangement. Three are in charge at present. One able to work, the other two helpless. Five were in poor house, July 1st, 1868; there been two admissions since that time, one death and two discharges.

PRISON.

        Is built of brick, and is forty-five by thirty-five feet. It is two stories high, and has four rooms or cells twelve by twelve. No windows in cells, but ten windows in upper story three by five feet. Fire places are used for heating the building. Prisoners have a sufficiency of covering. Males and females confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished three times a day. Meat, bread and vegetables


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are allowed the prisoners--no particular amount. Prison cleaned out once per day, and lime applied occasionally. Excrement deposited in compost heap. Eight prisoners in confinement--six colored males, one white male and one white female. Their ages are as follows: One seventeen, one eighteen, one twenty-two, one twenty-four, one twenty-five, one thirty-four, one thirty-six, and one forty. Three were committed for horse stealing, four for larceny, and one for murder.

HARNETT COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Situated eight miles from county seat, consists of six wooden buildings, one story high, eighteen by twenty feet. One room in each building. Water is supplied by springs, and the buildings are heated by fire places. Thirty cents worth of food is allowed each of the inmates daily, making the average weekly cost two dollars and ten cents each. The buildings are in good condition, having been erected within the last four months. Four hundred and fifty acres of good land belong to the poor house tract, of which some will be put in cultivation during the present year. Allen B. Jones is overseer; he receives fifty cents per day for each inmate. Drs. I. A. McDougald and J. W. Atkins are the physicians. They receive the usual fees for their services. Twenty inmates can be accommodated with the present arrangement. "No inmates in poor house July 1st, 1868; ten have been admitted since that time, of which several have died--causes unknown--and one has been discharged. The number of inmates at present is ten."

PRISON.

        Is built of wood, and is twenty-eight by thirty feet. It is one story high, and has four rooms thirteen by fourteen. Four windows in each room three feet by six inches. No arrangement for heating the building, but the prisoners have a sufficiency of blankets and bedding to keep them warm. Fresh drinking water furnished once a day. No


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specified allowance of food. To preserve cleanliness the excrement is carried out and the jail scoured. No prisoners at present in confinement.

JONES COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house has been dispensed with, and the poor are let out to individuals. It is situated one and a half miles from the county seat, and consists of two buildings of pine lumber eighteen by twenty. Two rooms in each house. About sixteen persons could be accommodated in the poor house with the present arrangement. There are thirty at present cared for by the county, and the average weekly cost of the maintenance of each is two dollars. Forty acres of ordinary land belong to the poor house tract. Ten acres are in cultivation--rented out for the benefit of the poor.

PRISON.

        Is built of brick, with wood lining or ceiling. Size, twenty-six by twenty-six feet. It is two stories high and has four ten by ten rooms. The windows, of which there are two in passage and one in each room, are two by two and a half feet. The roof of the building has ventilators through it. A stove is used for heating. "No specific amount of covering and bedding is furnished the prisoners, but a sufficiency for their comfort." Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished twice per day. "No specific amount of food is allowed the prisoners--they eat to satisfaction." The punishment of wearing fetters was imposed on one of the prisoners for trying to break jail. The prison is swept every morning and scoured once a week. Excrement deposited in a sink a hundred feet from prison. Three colored male prisoners in confinement, aged as follows: One twenty, one twenty-four, and one thirty-seven years. The first committed for stealing cattle, the second for highway robbery, and the third for rape.


Page 122

MACON COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        There is no poor house in the county; the poor are let out at auction to the lowest bidder. Seven white and three colored persons are cared for by the county. The average weekly cost of the maintenance of the whites is one dollar and seven cents, that of the colored is one dollar and twenty-seven cents.

PRISON.

        The prison is built of brick, and is twenty-eight by thirty-eight feet. It is two stories high, and has two rooms and an iron cage. Size of rooms, ten by twelve. The cage is eight by sixteen, and is in a room twelve by twenty-eight-- making two apartments of the one room. Two windows to each of the small rooms, and four in the large one, also two in passage--size, three by five. Fire places are used for heating the building. "The prisoners are subject to very much suffering from cold, but they have a sufficiency of bedding and covering to keep them warm." Males and females confined separate. Fresh drinking water furnished three times per day. Amount of food furnished prisoners is according to statute of State regarding it. Jailor keeps rooms clean and removes excrement. One colored male prisoner in confinement, for larceny, aged 18 years.

ORANGE COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house which has been in operation for the past forty-five years, is five miles from the county seat and consists of two brick buildings one story high and one hundred feet long. Six rooms in each. A supply of water is gotten from well and pump in yard. Fire-places are used for warming the buildings; one quart of meal or flour, one-fourth pound of bacon or pork, one gill of molasses, one pint of coffee and one pint of milk, is the allowance of food; one dollar and twenty-five cents the average weekly cost of the maintenance of each. The buildings are well arranged, neat and in good condition. Four


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hundred acres of poor qualiity land belong to the poor house tract of which seventy-five are in cultivation. Corn, wheat, oats, hay and cotton, and the different vegetables are raised and used for the support of inmates. Ashes and manures used in improving land. Jas. M. Bain, Overseer. Salary one hundred and seventy-five dollars per annum. Dr. Edmund Strudwick, Physician. Salary seventy-five dollars per annum. Fifty or sixty inmates could be accommodated with the present arrangement. There were eighteen inmates in the poor house on July 1st, 1868--thirty-three admissions since. There have been ten deaths since that time. No. in poor house at present, forty-one, of which ten are able to do light work.

PRISON.

        Is built of wood and stone, and is forty-five by twenty-four feet. It is two stories high and has two cells above and two rooms below, size of cells ten by ten of rooms nineteen by sixteen. Two windows in each room two feet four inches by four feet. The building is heated by stoves and fire-places. Two blankets and a straw bed are furnished each prisoner. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh water is furnished three times per day, and the prisoners have as much to eat as they wish. The jail is swept daily. Excrement is removed in buckets. There are sixteen prisoners in confinement aged as follows: one, seventeen, five eighteen, three, twenty-three, two, twenty-five, one, twenty-eight, two, thirty-one, one, thirty-three and one, forty-nine,--eleven colored males, three colored females and two white males. Five were committed for murder, eight for larceny, one for horse-stealing, one for barn burning and one for debt.

RUTHERFORD COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Situated five miles from the county seat and consists of six framed buildings size as follows: keeper's house forty by twenty, with three rooms, three houses for the accommodation of inmates thirty by twenty and two others twenty-five by twenty. The whole five have two rooms each.


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Water is gotten from a spring, and the heating, is by fire-places. No specified allowance of food. The buildings are well arranged, neat and in good condition. One hundred acres of common land belong to the poor house tract. Corn, potatoes, cabbage, turnips, &c., raised--used by keeper. Ashes and manures used in improving land. D. D. Allen, Keeper. Salary twenty-eight dollars for each one per year. Dr. J. W. Harris, Physician. Salary forty dollars per year. From thirty to forty inmates can be accommodated with present arrangement. Twenty are in charge of which three can work. Twenty-five were in poor house, July 1st, 1868--have been six admissions since. Two deaths and eight dismissions since that time.

PRISON.

        Is built of brick, and is forty by thirty feet. Three stories high, and has three rooms for prisoners, two of which are fifteen by fifteen, the other fifteen by thirty feet. Two windows in each of the smaller rooms and four in the other--size four by five feet. Fire-places are used for heating the building. When the weather is very cold, the prisoners are subjected to suffering on account of it. A straw bed and two blankets are furnished each prisoner. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water furnished twice or three times per day. The prisoners have as much to eat as they wish of bread and meat with vegetables. Excrement carried out every morning. One white male, and four colored male prisoners in confinement age as follows: two nineteen years, one twenty-two, one thirty, and one forty-five. Four of them committed for larceny and the other for rocking a house.

STOKES COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        The poor house was burnt sometime ago, but there are two small buildings used for that purpose at present of the following description; one house twenty feet, one story high with two rooms, the other eighteen by twenty, one story high and one room. Water is supplied from a


Page 125

spring. The buildings are heated by fire-places, one-fourth pound of meat and a quart of meal is the daily allowance of food to each, $1.50 is the average weekly cost of each inmate. Two hundred acres of exceedingly poor land belong to the poor house tract--nothing is raised on it. Peter Smith is overseer. Salary seventy-five dollars per year for each inmate. Dr. W. W. McCanless, Physician--he is paid according to services rendered. With the present arrangement ten inmates can be accommodated. Nine were in charge July 1st, 1868; there have been two deaths since that time. Number at present in poor house, seven. No account kept of admissions and discharges.

PRISON.

        Built of wood, and is twenty-four by thirty-six feet. It is two stories high, and has four cells for prisoners, twelve by twelve. One window, three by six feet to each cell. No arrangements for heating the building in winter, yet, the prisoners, having a sufficiency of covering, are not subject to much suffering from cold. Males and females are confined separate. Fresh drinking water is furnished from three to six times per day, and the prisoners have as much as they wish to eat. The prison kept clean by scouring and the excrement removed by Jailer. Six prisoners in confinement--four colored males, one white male and one colored female. Their ages, are as follows:--one twenty, one twenty-one, one twenty-eight, two thirty, and one thirty-five. Four were committed for larceny, one for murder, and one for adultery.

WILKES COUNTY.

POOR HOUSE.

        Located two and one-half miles from county seat consists of five double buildings eighteen by twenty feet, built of hewn logs. There are four rooms to each house. A supply of water is gotten from a spring and branch. Fire-places are used for heating purposes, one and three-fourth pounds of bread and one-fourth pound of bacon and vegetables is the daily allowance of food. The average weekly cost of the maintenance of each pauper is eighty-five cents. The buildings


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are well arranged, and in good condition. One hundred and seventy-three acres of second quality land belong to the poor house tract, ten, are in cultivation. Not more than twenty-five bushels of grain have been raised in any year. This, together with vegetables raised for the purpose is used by the inmates. Buildings well shaded. Ashes and manures used in improving land. The punishment of chaining and whipping inflicted on Catherine Leach, colored by J. N. Wiles, for abusing the rest of the paupers. J. N. Wiles, Overseer. Salary three hundred dollars per year. Dr. R. F. Hacket, Physician. He receives the regular fees for his services. Fifty inmates can be accommodated with the present arrangement; fourteen in the poor house, and fourteen outside, are at present supported by county. Ten of those in poor house are able to work some. Twenty-three inmates on July 1st, 1868--there have been eight admissions since. Of this number ten have been discharged and five have died.

PRISON.

        Is built of brick and wood, and is forty by forty feet. The building is two stories high, and has two Debtors' rooms and two cells. Size of cells, eight feet square of Debtors' rooms, fourteen by fourteen. Two windows to each room fourteen by three feet. No means of heating the cells. Fire-places in Debtors' rooms. The prisoners are subject to a great deal of suffering from cold in winter. Six blankets and a bed are furnished to every three men. The cells are used for the confinement of the male, and the Debtors' rooms for the female prisoners. Fresh water furnished three times a day in summer and twice a day in winter. The prisoners have two meals per day. No punishment inflicted except the chaining of the prisoners in the cells for trying to escape, &c. The jail is swept and the excrement carried off daily. There are three male prisoners in confinement--two colored and one white. Their ages are respectively twenty-two, twenty-eight and twenty-nine. Two of them were committed for larceny, the other for crime against nature.