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Biennial Report of the North Carolina State Board of Charities and Public Welfare,
July 1, 1938 to June 30, 1940:

Electronic Edition.

North Carolina State Board of Charities and Public Welfare.


Funding from the Institute for Museum and Library Services supported the electronic publication of this title.


Text transcribed by Apex Data Services, Inc.
Images scanned by Andrew Leiter
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First edition, 2003
ca. 640K
Academic Affairs Library, UNC-CH
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
2003.

        © This work is the property of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text.

Source Description:
(series) Biennial Report of the North Carolina State Board of Charities and Public Welfare
(title page) Biennial Report of the North Carolina State Board of Charities and Public Welfare, July 1, 1938 to June 30, 1940
(running title) Biennial Report State Board of Charities and Public Welfare
North Carolina State Board of Charities and Public Welfare
181 p.
Raleigh
Edwards & Broughton Company
[1940]

Call number C360 N87p 1938/1940 (North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)



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Illustration

[Title Page Image]


        

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[Title Page Verso Image]


BIENNIAL REPORT
of
The North Carolina State Board
of Charities and Public
Welfare
July 1, 1938
To
June 30, 1940
MRS. W. T. BOST
Commissioner


Page 2

EDWARDS & BROUGHTON COMPANY
RALEIGH


Page 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page 4

NORTH CAROLINA STATE BOARD OF CHARITIES
AND PUBLIC WELFARE


Page 5

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

To His Excellency, Clyde R. Hoey,
Governor of North Carolina.

        Sir: I have the honor of handing you herewith the report of The North Carolina State Board of Charities and Public Welfare for the biennial period dating July 1, 1938, through June 30, 1940.

Very truly yours,

Wm. A. Blair,

Chairman.


Page 6

CONSTITUTIONAL MANDATE

        "Beneficent provision for the poor, the unfortunate, and orphan, being one of the first duties of a civilized and Christian State, the General Assembly shall, at its first session, appoint and define the duties of a Board of Public Charities, to whom shall be entrusted the supervision of all charitable and penal state institutions, and who shall annually report to the Governor upon their condition with suggestions for their improvement."


Page 7

DEDICATION

        In grateful recognition of a combined record of seventy-three years of public service on behalf of the poor and unfortunate in North Carolina, the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare dedicates this volume jointly to

WILLIAM ALLEN BLAIR

        who for forty-nine years has been a member of the board and who for thirty-six years has served as its chairman, and to

ALEXANDER WORTH McALISTER

        who for twenty-four years has aided Colonel Blair as a member and vice chairman in developing the modern, forward-looking social welfare program of the state.


Page 8

        

Illustration

[William Allen Blair]


Page 9

        WILLIAM ALLEN BLAIR has spoken, written, argued and thought public welfare for the forty-nine years he has spent as a member of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare, thirty-six of them as its chairman. Such service as a state welfare board member is without parallel in the country so far as it can be ascertained.

        In the years subsequent to his appointment as a member in December, 1891, Mr. Blair has seen many changes come into being in the North Carolina welfare program. Sterilization of mental defectives, an expanded mental hygiene program, improvement in county jail facilities, a boarding home fund to assist juvenile courts in caring for certain dependents, abolition of apprenticeship of children by indenture, replacement of county chain gangs by a state prison system, discarding of the practices of farming out prison labor and of working women on the public roads, parole and probation facilities, social security legislation--all have come into being during the years of his chairmanship or connection with the board.

        Mr. Blair is the fourth chairman of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare since it was organized under direction of the constitution of 1868, and succeeded to the direction of its activities in October, 1904, after thirteen years' experience as a board member.

        He witnessed the reorganization of the old Board of Public Charities into the organization of today when the 1917 General Assembly re-vamped North Carolina's program to allow for expansion into the numerous activities supervised today by the state board.

        The conceptions of Mr. Blair and his associates concerning state responsibility toward the unfortunate have passed from adolescence toward maturity by the experience of a half-century; and having grown to manhood, represent the foundations upon which the social and economic lives of North Carolinians of the next century will be based.


Page 10

        

Illustration

[Alexander Worth McAlister]


Page 11

        ALEXANDER WORTH MCALISTER has been a member of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare for almost a quarter of a century. Twenty-four years ago he succeeded his father on the board in December, 1916, and thus entered on an active official career in welfare work.

        Mr. McAlister is known as the father of North Carolina's county unit welfare system. Before his appointment to the board, as president of the North Carolina Conference for Social Service 1915-1916 he had been in correspondence with persons of recognized authority in other states on the development of a suitable plan for North Carolina, and after his appointment the 1917 General Assembly authorized the present county unit system of state-supervised, local administration of North Carolina's care of its unfortunate.

        Counties having as much as 32,000 population were required to set up regular welfare departments, while superintendents of schools were charged with part-time welfare duties in the smaller counties. This was the beginning from which grew the full-time departments in every county in the state following the passage of social security legislation.

        Mr. McAlister was interested in the passage of the child labor and the juvenile court laws, the mother's aid and the parole legislation, and prison reforms that brought about a vast modernization of the state's methods of caring for its law offenders.

        In all his activities he brought civic clubs and community organizations into the fights for better social legislation, for the establishment of training schools and for the opening of institutions for the defectives. He worked not alone, but as a foreman in marshalling private activities and public thought to accomplish the welfare plan North Carolina has today.


Page 12a

        

Illustration

N.C. SUPERINTENDENTS OF PUBLIC WELFARE, PHOTO by Wolcotts, Black Mtn., N.C.


Page 13

INTRODUCTION

        In the following pages there is a detailed accounting of the business of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare covering the biennial period July 1, 1938-June 30, 1940. It has been compiled for the information of the Governor, the legislature and for the tax supporters of the state generally. Appropriations were made to the state board to administer the public welfare program in the state and as trustees of the funds, the board, through its staff members, has set forth somewhat in detail the activities of the various divisions in justification of its biennial expenditures. Public service, it is recognized, is regarded as a public trust. In attempting to meet human needs those who are engaged in public welfare work have been entrusted with a grave responsibility.

        The dominant slogan of modern social work is service, but it must be a balanced service; that is, it must be service adapted to meet community needs. Social work, it must be recognized, is only one of a number of welfare activities under public direction and the place of our agency in the whole public structure should be thoroughly understood.

        With the multiplicity of social agencies today operating at the various levels of government there is a need for clearance and coordination; otherwise, services to those of our people who are in need, will be unrelated and perhaps duplicated by the various agencies in the field. As Fred Hoehler, director of the American Public Welfare Association, points out, "there is a definite need to organize every function which looks to public funds for support, which calls for large resources of personnel....We need to do the necessary things in the soundest and the simplest and in the least wasteful way possible. Public welfare organizations, therefore, should be properly directed and staffed with the best personnel it is possible to obtain at federal, state and local levels."

        The Social Security Act as amended August 10, 1939, required that the state public assistance agencies must include, after January 1, 1940, a provision for methods relating to the establishment of personnel standards on a merit basis for a merit system of personnel administration. A draft rule was therefore issued by the Social Security Board on November 13, 1939, to all state welfare departments, the standards included therein representing the minimum requirements


Page 14

of the Social Security Board with respect to personnel administration in state agencies. Since January 1, 1940, the North Carolina State Board of Charities and Public Welfare has submitted a merit system plan to the federal agency, setting forth rules and regulations for a merit system in conformity with the Social Security Board's draft rule. Classification and compensation plans which constitute a part of the merit system have been formulated by a committee from the staff in consultation with a technical adviser from the Society Security Board. A merit system council has been appointed, composed of three public-spirited citizens of recognized standing and of known interest in the improvement of public administration and in the impartial selection of efficient government personnel. One of the main functions of the council will be to establish general policies for the administration of merit examinations. They also have the responsibility for recommending the appointment by the state agency of the merit system supervisor.

        Merit examinations under the above conditions will be held for state and local employees engaged in public assistance and child welfare services in the late fall of 1940, according to present plans.

        On the basis of the North Carolina Old Age Assistance and Aid to Dependent Children Act "the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare, through the Commissioner of Welfare as the executive head of the department, is hereby empowered to organize the department into such bureaus and divisions as may be deemed advisable, not inconsistent with the provisions of this act, in order that the work of the entire department shall be coördinated on an efficiency basis and duplication of effort may be avoided."

        Every effort has been made in the interest of economy and efficiency to integrate the newer services--public assistance, referral and certification services in connection with WPA, CCC, NYA, and surplus commodities--with the older services that had been established a number of years prior to the initiation of the social security program. The field social work supervisors, for instance, serve as representatives for the various divisions within the department, thus coordinating the work on the local level. The auditing division, established in 1937 at the time the public assistance program was established, serves the entire department through a centralized accounting system, which operates in conformity with the regulations and requirements of the state Budget Bureau. The statistical unit which came into existence when certifying services in connection with the various federal programs became the responsibility of the state board,


Page 15

and was expanded with the advent of public assistance, likewise serves the whole department in whatever capacity the work of the functional divisions indicates.

        Through the information service set up by the state board, there has been an excellent and most effective interpretation of the various welfare activities under the board's direction. This has been accomplished through the routine channel of regular news releases, radio talks, the monthly Public Welfare News, and exhibits at the annual State Fair. In view of the fact, for instance, that approximately $6,000,000 of federal, state and local funds is expended under the board's direction, it feels very definitely that the public is entitled to know how that money is spent.

        One activity that, when complete, will add greatly to the efficiency of operation of the state office is the project begun in the fall of 1939 to establish a central filing unit to replace seven independent filing systems developed in the course of years. This WPA-aided operation will cover approximately 200,000 cases representing twenty years of department activity from 1919 to 1939, with the cases being filed and cross-indexed according to a standard system to promote speedy, efficient and accurate handling.

        In addition, about 25,000 records of the state board from its inception in 1869 to 1919 will be prepared for proper filing. Not a normal activity of the department because no budgetary funds were provided for the work, the assistance of the Work Projects Administration was necessary. The project consequently has given employment to approximately ten needy, educational, professional and clerical workers for more than a year.

        Because of cramped quarters and lack of adequate room for a central filing system, it was a physical impossibility to set up this vast and much-needed improvement until the staff offices were moved into consolidated quarters in a new office building in December, 1938.

        The present quarters embracing nearly the whole of the fifth floor of the largest state office building represent the fourth home of the department since it was established. During the years following the legislature of 1869 when the work of the department was handled entirely by the secretary to the old Board of Public Charities, office space was allotted in the Capitol. Even after reorganization of the old board into the present State Board of Charities and Public Welfare by the 1917 General Assembly to provide for a commissioner to direct the administrative work of the department, the Capitol still provided office space for four years until the first move in December, 1921.


Page 16

        This change placed the department on the third floor of the brick building formerly standing at the head of Fayetteville Street on part of the site now occupied by the building housing the Supreme Court and department of justice. This was the site of Peter Casso's famous inn of Raleigh's first days as the capital of North Carolina.

        Five years later, in the early fall of 1926, the department moved into the building provided for the department of agriculture where it stayed for twelve years, the longest time it has occupied any quarters since leaving the capitol building.

        When the social security program came into North Carolina the work of the department was expanded to such an extent that space was required in five different buildings located in the Raleigh business district. It was only with the final move into the present quarters in December 1938, that the various divisions of the expanded department were brought together into efficient working space that had so long been needed.

        Preparation for the country's national defense requires coöperative effort with unity of purpose throughout the country, and in the national emergency the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare stands ready with its entire organization to bear any share of the work in North Carolina that may in the future be assigned to its respective fields of activity. The nation must have strong military and naval forces, adequately trained and equipped; yet it must be realized that the economic, physical, spiritual and social well-being of the people as a whole is really its first line of defense. Without these a 'total defense' cannot be built. It is necessary that the state board look forward to a continuing operation of its program of aiding North Carolina's poor, unfortunate and orphan called for by the North Carolina Constitution.

        Should an advisory council for state defense at any subsequent time require its assistance, the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare, along with other state agencies, is in a position to coöperate fully in any coördination activities needed to bring the general defense measures in working harmony with existing or future programs to guard the people of the state from the uncertainties of want and discrepancies of social welfare.

MRS. W. T. BOST,
Commissioner.


Page 17

FINANCIAL REPORT OF THE BIENNIUM

J. A. STEWART, Auditor

STATE BOARD

        
  Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939 Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1940
Salaries and wages $30,996.00 $34,221.66
Supplies and materials 581.90 531.32
Postage, telephone and telegraph 1,526,18 1,542.87
Travel expense 3,932.94 3,909.95
Printing 941.41 626.29
Repairs 41.27 35.93
General expense 78.40 69.60
Equipment 472.41 499.79
Psychological service ---- 52.50
  $38,571.51 $41,489.91
Less estimated receipts 356.67 2,406.64
  $38,214.84 $39,083.27

OLD AGE ASSISTANCE AND AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN ADMINISTRATION

        
  Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939 Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1940
Salaries and wages $58,888.29 $58,304.67
Supplies and materials 2,765.83 2,797.54
Postage, telephone and telegraph 3,807.89 4,399.90
Printing 3,821.17 1,978.00
Travel expense 10,261.57 7,767.96
Rents and lights 1,168.13 ----
General expense 400.77 86.76
Equipment 3,466.84 499.76
  $84,580.49 $75,834.59
Less estimated receipts 11,350.00 14,550.00
Total $73,230.49 $61,284.59


Page 18

SURPLUS COMMODITY DISTRIBUTION

        
  Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939 Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1940
Salaries and wages $20,560.00 $15,771.68
Office supplies 555.50 410.61
Packing supplies 2,555.79 5,285.50
Postage, telephone, telegraph and lights 2,006.88 2,291.25
Travel expense 5,579.14 3,886.82
Freight & express 180.80 208.66
Printing 894.09 970.79
Motor vehicle operation 11,379.90 12,841.69
Equipment 54.81 1,273.14
Purchase of trucks--special appropriation ---- 7,994.47
  $43,766.91 $50,934.61
Less estimated receipts 1,826.85 4,364.54
  $41,940.14 $46,570.07

CERTIFYING SERVICE

        
  Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939 Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1940
Salaries and wages $ 24,042.33 $ 17,441.33
Supplies and materials 407.60 346.68
Postage, telephone and telegraph 957.34 1,307.73
Travel expense 9,681.92 6,423.34
Printing 244.39 174.54
General expense 29.85 34.64
Equipment 299.57 49.60
  $ 35,663.00 $ 25,777.86
Total requirements 202,581.91 194,036.97
Less estimated receipts 13,533.52 21,321.18
  $189,048.39 $172,715.79


Page 19

SUMMARY BY OBJECTS

        
  Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939 Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1940
Salaries and wages $134,486.62 $125,739.34
Supplies and materials 6,866.62 9,371.65
Postage, telephone and telegraph, freight, express and lights 8,480.09 9,750.41
Travel expense 29,176.68 21,667.07
Printing 5,901.06 3,749.62
Motor vehicle operation 11,379.90 12,841.69
Repairs 41.27 35.93
General expense 1,956.04 564.50
Equipment 4,293.63 10,316.76
  $202,581.91 $194,036.97

CARE DEPENDENT CHILDREN

        
  Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939 Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1940
Care Dependent Children $ 7,491.52 $ 7,311.36
Federal--State    
Salaries $ 2,044.67 $ 215.00
Rent 360.00 ----

EUGENICS BOARD OF NORTH CAROLINA

        
  Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939 Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1940
Salary--secretary $ 330.00 ----
Salary--stenographer 1,260.00 $ 1,260.00
Supplies and materials 24.51 39.87
Postage 7.46 85.44
Telephone and telegraph 6.75 9.98
Printing forms, etc 10.55 39.27
Printing bulletins 47.15 ----
Subscriptions and dues 6.00 5.00
Equipment 93.31 54.39
  $ 1,785.73 $ 1,493.95


Page 20

ROSENWALD FUND

        
  Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939 Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1940
Rosenwald Fund $---- $ 168.00

CHILD WELFARE SERVICE--FEDERAL FUNDS

        
  Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939 Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1940
Division Child Welfare--County    
Salaries and wages $29,526.90 $24,710.91
Travel expense 9,261.80 1,634.58
  $38,788.70 $26,345.49
Division Child Welfare--State    
Salaries and wages $10,388.33 $11,594.59
Supplies and materials 69.62 83.83
Telephone and telegraph 217.34 218.07
Postage 125.00 141.00
Travel expense 2,987.65 3,059.57
Printing 23.55 28.26
Repairs 17.74 14.57
Equipment 46.75 50.00
Books and periodicals 116.59 95.39
Training service 1,620.33 1,781.83
Travel for Advisory Commission 228.76 134.36
  $15,841.66 $17,201.47
Division Mental Hygiene    
Salaries and wages $ 2,408.33 $ 7,141.08
Travel expense 411.06 1,547.35
Supplies 84.02 445.59
Equipment 197.27 ----
Telephone and telegraph ---- 11.07
Printing ---- 6.30
Postage ---- 16.50
Repairs ---- 10.72
  $ 3,100.68 $ 9,178.61
Division Institutions and Corrections    
Salaries and wages $ 2,555.00 $ 1,500.00
Travel expense 179.37 37.40
  $ 2,734.37 $ 1,537.40
Total $60,465.41 $54,262.97


Page 21

FIELD SOCIAL WORK SERVICE

R. EUGENE BROWN
Assistant to the Commissioner
and
Director of Field Social Work Service

        In January 1936 the field social work service of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare was established for the purpose of serving as general staff for all divisions and services of the state office in their relationships with the county departments of public welfare. The field staff which originally consisted of five field social work representatives was increased as the state board and the county departments of public welfare were given additional responsibilities. From July 1, 1937, through June 30, 1939, the counties of the state were divided among ten field representatives. Effective July 1, 1939, funds were available for only eight field representatives, the average number on the staff from that time until June 30, 1940. The eight field representatives and the counties assigned to each as of this date are as follows:*

        * One additional field social work representative was added July 1, 1940.


        Miss Victoria Bell: Buncombe, Clay, Cherokee, Graham, Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, Macon, Madison, Polk, Swain, Transylvania, and Yancey.

        Mr. Wade N. Cashion: Alamance, Durham, Forsyth, Gaston, Guilford, Mecklenburg, Moore, Randolph, Rockingham, and Rowan.

        Mr. H. D. Farrell: Bertie, Camden, Chowan, Currituck, Dare, Edgecombe, Johnston, Nash, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Wake, Wayne, and Wilson.

        Mr. S. J. Hawkins: Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Cumberland, Harnett, Hoke, New Hanover, Onslow, Pender, Richmond, Robeson, Sampson, and Scotland.

        Miss Nancy Jones: Anson, Cabarrus, Catawba, Davie, Davidson, Iredell, Lincoln, Montgomery, Stanly, Stokes, Union, and Yadkin.

        Mr. Wallace H. Kuralt: Beaufort, Carteret, Craven, Duplin, Greene, Hyde, Jones, Lenoir, Martin, Pamlico, Pitt, Tyrrell, and Washington.


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        Miss Ada McRackan: Alexander, Alleghany, Ashe, Avery, Burke, Caldwell, Cleveland, McDowell, Mitchell, Rutherford, Surry, Watauga, and Wilkes.

        Mrs. W. F. Wilson: Caswell, Chatham, Franklin, Gates, Granville, Halifax, Hertford, Lee, Northampton, Orange, Person, Vance, and Warren.

STATE OFFICE AND FIELD SERVICE

        The members of the field social work service have been made directly responsible to the administrative office of the state board in order that they might be in a better position administratively to represent to the counties all divisions and services of the state office. The assistant to the commissioner was made director of this service and as director of field social work service it is his responsibility under the direction of the commissioner to give coödinating direction to the work of the field social work representatives, who are under the functional supervision of the directors of divisions and services in their respective fields.

Responsibilities of Director of Field Service

        It is, therefore, the responsibility of the director of field service to plan the work of the field representatives with the directors of the divisions and services in order that their time and efforts may be utilized in the interest of the over-all program of public welfare and that due emphasis may be given to specific phases of the program at the appropriate time. To this end and that the field representatives may be kept informed of new plans, policies and procedures, the director of field service plans, and conducts in coöperation with the directors of divisions and services, periodic conferences of the field representatives in the state office for the discussion of plans, policies, procedures and problems; provides methods of clearance for the benefit of the state office staff and the field representatives on communications between the state office and the county departments of public welfare, between the state office and field representatives, and between the field representatives and the county departments of public welfare. Incidentally, it may be of interest to know that an average of more than 2,000 pieces of mail passed through the clearing house each month.

        It is also the responsibility of the director of field service to have individual and group conferences with field representatives for the purpose of reviewing and planning work; discussing general problems of supervision, policies, and procedures; for the purpose of evaluating their work and the progress of the work in their respective territories;


Page 23

for the purpose of developing the types of reports which will be most helpful to the state office and the counties which the reports concern. Other responsibilities are of studying and evaluating reports of field representatives and presenting to the commissioner and the directors of divisions and services developments in the counties as they are reported by field representatives in their reports or in group and individual conferences; and the assignment of territories to field representatives with a view to obtaining the best results possible with a limited staff.

Responsibilities of Field Social Work Representatives

        In general, then, it may be stated that the function of the field representatives, under the coördinating direction of the director of field service and under the functional supervision of the directors of divisions and services of the state board, is to develop and coördinate in an assigned group of counties the various phases of the public welfare program to the end that each county department of public welfare may meet the needs of the people within the limitations, laws, rules and regulations.

        The field representatives are carrying out this function by:

        Making frequent planned or special visits to the county departments for the purpose of exercising general developmental supervision through conferences and consultations with the county superintendents.

        Participating and assisting in the public welfare staff development program particularly as it relates to the county staffs.

        Meeting periodically with the superintendent and his case work staff for the purpose of studying policies and procedures and case work techniques.

        Reviewing case records from time to time in helping the county superintendent evaluate the work of the department.

        Interpreting state policies and procedures and advising on their application.

        Providing information and guidance in the use of available resources and consultant services.

        Consulting with the superintendents in the selection and placement of personnel and in the annual preparation of county welfare budgets.

        Meeting with county boards of public welfare and county commissioners in company with the superintendent.

        Holding group meetings with county superintendents for the purpose of interpreting policies and procedures and studying common problems.

        Interpreting the needs and problems of the county departments to the state office and conferring with members of the state office staff on problems, policies and procedures.

        Making periodic progress reports and occasional comprehensive reports to the state office on the operation and progress of the various phases of the public welfare program in the counties.


Page 24

        Conferring with representatives of other agencies which depend upon the county welfare departments for the local operation of their programs, or which serve as resources to the county department.


        The field representative is also responsible for holding local hearings on old age assistance and aid to dependent children appeals and making reports on such hearings to the State Board of Allotments and Appeal. He is also called upon from time to time to make investigations of complaints.

        During the past two years 71 requests for appeal were referred to the field representatives. In conferences with the superintendents and clients 27 of these were disposed of satisfactorily without holding formal hearings. In the other 44 instances hearings were held by the field representatives and written reports were filed with the State Board of Allotments and Appeal for action.

DEVELOPMENTAL SUPERVISION AS A FUNCTION OF
THE FIELD REPRESENTATIVE

        In describing the work of the field representative it was stated that visits are made to the county departments for the purpose of "exercising general developmental supervision." The position of a state field social work representative is a supervisory position and one of the most responsible supervisory positions. Because of this fact and because there is considerable misapprehension in regard to its meaning and its use in public welfare administration, a brief discussion of the subject is most appropriate here. Much has been written on the subject as a social work process but only recently has it been discussed as an administrative process which both implements the smooth flow of agency work and contributes to staff development; or, we might say which contributes to staff development thus implementing a smooth flow of agency work. Our understanding of the subject will be increased if we stop to analyze the terms, developmental, supervision, and process.

        Process has been defined as a systematic series of actions directed to some end; supervision, as the act of overseeing a process during performance or merely superintending, having oversight and direction of; and developmental, having the nature of bringing out latent capacities, or of bringing capacities to a more mature state, or fostering growth. Thus we might say that a developmental supervisory process is any systematic or planned series of actions performed by a worker under the oversight or direction of another person in a manner which brings out latent capacities or brings them to a more mature state in


Page 25

the worker, and directed to the end that the work in hand may be done more effectively and that from the present experience the worker will be better able to meet future situations and problems with a more effectively organized personal strength.

        Dictionary definitions, however, frequently do not adequately describe terms which have come to have special meaning through usage. "Supervision," for instance, with usage has become a technical term in social work which connotes the function of teaching or training as well as that of overseeing. Therefore, supervision, as an administrative process in public welfare or social work, in addition to having the derivative meaning, "to have general oversight of," must in its application be directed toward the development and use of knowledge and skills by the agency staff in the performance of the job. The adjective "developmental" is being used now to give additional emphasis to the meaning which supervision has come to have with usage. The supervisory process, therefore, is not limited to case work practice, and it is not overstating the case to say it is indispensable in the performance of the functions of every person who serves in an administrative, executive, or supervisory capacity. Exercising supervision does not mean merely giving approval or disapproval, checking forms and procedures to see that rules are followed, assigning work or keeping a check on expenditures, but the more important responsibility of giving help in such a manner that the individual worker is left free, not to do as he pleases, but to exercise and develop initiative and skills which enable him to perform effectively the work which is assigned.

        In analyzing the work done by the field social work representatives during the past two years the most essential things to know are not that a time study made during the month of March, 1940, indicated that they spent approximately 53 per cent of their time conferring with county superintendents and local boards on problems of administering old age assistance and aid to dependent children, 22 per cent on WPA referral problems and so through the various items covered by the study; that the state office received from each field representative a report on each of his counties at least once a quarter, that he visited each county at least once a month or that he filed his work reports and expense accounts regularly and in accordance with requirements. Important as these may be it is much more important to know how and wherein he measured up to his responsibilities as representative of the state agency and as professional helper to the county departments of public welfare. It is well to remember in this connection that giving supervision is not superimposing, and that supervision is a two-way


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process in which there is opportunity for both parties to learn and grow. For instance, an evaluation of an individual's performance is practically worthless so long as it is merely the thinking of the supervisor, and it becomes worth while only when the supervisor and the individual whose performance is being evaluated can sit down together and share their thinking. In this situation the supervisor will have an opportunity to consider critically his own performance, learn the wisdom of always reserving judgment, and of being objective in the sense of not permitting personal feelings to affect one's sense of justice. It is frequently difficult to accept this sort of help because it is difficult for one to admit and to face his weaknesses although it is an important part of developmental supervision.

SOME FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE EFFECTIVENESS OF
FIELD SUPERVISION

        There are, of course, numerous factors which influence the effectiveness of developmental supervision. If the field representative is to use successfully his leadership function, he must have "a belief in people as individuals; patience and sympathy with the shortcomings of human nature; a conviction that scrupulously fair, honest, and direct dealing with individuals is the one method which will best serve them; an open mind and an unemotional approach to the individual problem."1

        1 Gardner, Mary L., Some Factors in State Supervision for a Public Assistance Agency, Social Security Bulletin, vol. 2, no. 8.


The field representative must also have acquired a breadth of knowledge and skills in working with people, tact and resourcefulness in meeting situations; an understanding of public welfare laws, and resources and services available through public and private channels and their use in case work practice and public welfare administration; and an understanding of social case work, public welfare administration, and field supervision.

        However, it makes no difference how well-equipped a field representative may be, effective help cannot be given unless his help is wanted, or unless there is a recognition of a need for help and willingness to ask for the sort of help that is needed. Therefore, it appears that the superintendent of public welfare may be using the field service to the best advantage when he presents directly and frankly agency problems not with the expectation that the field representative will make decisions for him, but that out of the objectivity which he should be able to bring to the problem plus his understanding of the limitations under which the local department works and his knowledge of policies and procedures, and an understanding of similar problems


Page 27

presented in other counties and how they are met there, the superintendent will be able to make his own decisions in a more effective manner.

        Another factor which influences the effectiveness of the state field service is the size of the territories to be covered. With only eight field representatives, 100 counties to be covered, and contacts with state office to be maintained, it is obvious that the amount of time a field representative can give to one county is limited. Careful study of the situation reveals that with 12 or 13 counties each, a field representative is able to give only 45 or 50 per cent of his time to actual work with county staffs, which means that on the average he is able to give each county only six hours a month. If emergency situations arise in a few counties, the few must of necessity receive more of his time, leaving very little for regular work with the other counties. Office work, such as reading mail, bulletins and other material received from the state office, planning work, writing letters; and writing reports requires from 15 to 20 per cent of his time. Travel which consumes on the average 20 to 30 per cent of the field representative's time must frequently be done before and after office hours. Conferences in the state office and conferences with representative of other agencies require 15 to 18 per cent of his time.

        A staff of twelve field representatives with eight or nine counties each would make it possible for each field representative to cut down the amount of time consumed in travel, thereby making it possible to give each county more of his time. It should be possible for a field representative to spend one day twice a month in each county instead of only about six hours.

        The field social work service has served to bring the state and county departments of public welfare closer together and to keep the main objectives of the public welfare program in the foreground.

        These objectives may be summed up in the statement that whatever assistance or service the public welfare agencies give to people it should be given in such a manner as to conserve and develop rather than to diminish the individual's own ability and right to help himself.


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DIVISIONS

  • Child Welfare
  • Public Assistance
  • Case Work Training and Family Rehabilitation
  • Mental Hygiene
  • Institutions and Corrections


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DIVISION OF CHILD WELFARE

LILY E. MITCHELL, Director

        In the report for the biennium of 1936-38, the work of this division was defined as "emphasis on responsibility for (1) care of children outside their homes or in substitute or foster homes (2) special case-work service to children who, though living with their families, present personality and behavior problems; (3) improvement and enlargement of facilities for foster care; and (4) joining forces with all agencies in the children's field in a sincere, coöperative effort to determine what group of children in the state are most negleced by both the public and the private children's agencies and how the child welfare program can be adapted to care for their needs."

        During the biennium of 1938-40, the work of the division centered in the above four areas, and this report will summarize or record some results.

        In the state advisory child welfare committee the total program has been discussed and thinking clarified on problematical situations. Through the work of the committee on the child, North Carolina Conference for Social Service, and the legislative committees of the State Association of Clerks of Court and State Association of Superintendents of Public Welfare, the adoption and illegitimacy laws, as well as the law regulating separation of infant from mother, were further strengthened and clarified through amendments. The two legislative committees collaborated in the drafting of blanks used in the adoption and separation procedures.

        Several members of the division staff have served on important departmental committees. The director of the division is the chairman of the committee on filing, the project of which is described in the commissioner's report.

        Two of the case consultants at two different periods have had educational leave of several months each during which they attended schools of social work. Two of the case consultants attended a seminar course in the summer of 1938, the director of the division a seminar course in the summer of 1939, and the supervisor of the special child welfare services area in June 1940.

        All members of the staff attended various social service conferences held within the state during the biennium, and in 1939 several members attended national and regional conferences. Members of the staff


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have also attended a few sessions of the annual institute for orphanage workers conducted each summer by Duke University under the auspices of the Tri-State Orphanage Conference. This institute is an outstanding service to the private agencies in the state.

        The division as a whole compiled a Manual of Procedure and Statewide Resources in Casework for use by county departments of public welfare and private children's agencies in the state.

SERVICE TO PRIVATE AGENCIES

Orphanages and Other Child-Caring Institutions

        The work of the consultant for children's institutions and agencies during the biennium indicates a changing emphasis in type of service sought by and given to children's agencies. In the past the emphasis has been on adequate physical care and protection of children, but as the standards of group care attained by all but a few institutions have been developed beyond the safe minimum, more attention is being given to the individual child's problems and the relationship of the institution's staff to the child. Therefore, the chief help now being requested of the consultant is in the nature of casework guidance and plan on the basis of the total child welfare program in the state. Conferences with various superintendents have resulted in a pooling of ideas on such typical problems as the following:

        1. Behavior problems. A great many of these are presented by children of limited intelligence who have gone as far in school as they are able and are beginning to seek attention in anti-social ways. These children need to be trained in manual arts but neither the public school nor many of the orphanages are equipped to give this type child the training he is able to accept. This child requires a great deal of skillful understanding in order that he may not feel inadequate and resentful because he is not able to compete with the group mentally. Resources available to give this child a feeling of success in other fields are discussed.

        2. A number of superintendents are beginning to find that not all children profit by group care and show by various behavior difficulties that they need more individual attention. The entire child welfare program is discussed and frequently other plans are made for this type of child.

        3. More and more the orphanage executives are evaluating more carefully the type of cases for which they should be responsible and those that the counties should retain, helping through aid to dependent children fund. The child's needs are becoming the deciding factor as to the type of care planned for him.

        4. Guidance is often sought from the consultant on matters of making physical improvements and in planning new, more modern cottages. The superintendents are aware of the value of making these changes in order to give the children in the cottages more modern equipment such as individual


Page 33

lockers, different wall paper and furnishings for each room, and more homelike living rooms and dining rooms.

        5. Discussions are frequently held concerning the value of selecting cottage mothers who can best understand the individual child and his limitations which are due to lack of opportunities in his early environment. Staff education is suggested through more interesting staff meetings and attendance at conferences on child welfare.

        6. Various administrative functions are brought up from time to time. Some of these include (a) means of financing various projects, (b) relationships between superintendent and staff, superintendent and children, staff and children, and superintendent and county departments of public welfare throughout the state.

        7. The consultant rarely has a conference with any superintendent without touching on the subject of teaching children to grow up through gradually giving them more responsibility; teaching them to handle money and making it possible for them to have sufficient outside contacts to make good placement possible when the time comes for them to leave the institution.

        In the winter of 1939 a conference for caseworkers of orphanages and members of the staff of the division of child welfare was held in Raleigh for the purpose of clarifying relationships and more completely coördinating respective services of the public and private agencies.

        For each year of the biennium the superintendents of the maternity homes of the state have held a conference in Greensboro, a central location, in order to discuss mutual problems and relationship to the child-placing and casework agencies. In these conferences the director of the division and the consultant on children's agencies participated.

        During the winter of 1939, the director of the division collaborated with the director of the division of adult education, State Department of Public Instruction (since nursery schools which are laboratories for parent education are located in this division) in the development of a committee on standards and supervision in pre-school education. The State Department of Public Instruction is interested in the work of such a committee because of the nursery school program and the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare because of the day nursery program. In April 1939, through this committee a statewide conference on standards was held. This conference was attended by representatives of kindergartens, nursery schools and day nurseries. This group decided it was interested in the general supervision of all pre-school education in the state through the department of public instruction. Therefore if an enabling bill is enacted by the General Assembly of North Carolina giving the State Department of Public Instruction responsibility for supervision of pre-school education, this


Page 34

department will have the same relationship to the educational program of day nurseries that it has to the educational program of orphanages. The State Board of Charities and Public Welfare will continue of course to have its former relationship to the day nursery on the basis of child care.

CLASSIFICATION OF INSTITUTIONS ACCORDING TO LICENSE
STATUS

        The following tables give license status of instutitons for the year 1939-40:

TABLE A. ORPHANAGES OWNED BY RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS EXEMPT FROM LICENSE BECAUSE OF PROPERTY VALUATION OF $60,000.00 OR OVER

        
INSTITUTIONS Chief Executive Officer Location Date Founded Capacity
Alexander Home Mrs. W. R. Loving Charlotte 1894 40
Alexander Schools, Inc W. E. Sweatt Union Mills 1925 231
Appalachian School Rev. P. W. Lambert Penland 1925 60
Baptist Orphanage:        
a. Mills Home I. G. Greer Thomasville 1885 429
b. Kennedy Home R. H. Hough Kinston 1914 136
Catholic Orphanage Father J. A. Beshel Nazareth 1899 100
*Children's Home, Inc O. V. Woosley Winston-Salem 1909 415
Christian Orphanage Rev. Chas. D. Johnson Elon College 1904 150
Falcon Orphanage J. A. Culbreth Falcon 1909 50
Free Will Baptist Orphanage Rev. James A. Evans Middlesex 1920 75
Grandfather Orphan's Home Miss Jane Russell Banner Elk 1914 86
*Methodist Orphanage Rev. A. S. Barnes Raleigh 1899 300
*Methodist Protestant Children's Home Rev. A. G. Dixon High Point 1910 120
Mountain Orphanage Rev. J. H. Gruver Black Mountain 1904 65
Nazareth Orphans' Home Ray P. Lyerly Rockwell 1906 60
Presbyterian Orphanage Jos. B. Johnston Barium Springs 1891 320
Thompson Orphanage M. D. Whisnant Charlotte 1887 112

        * Negotiations are being made for the transference of the children in the Methodist Protestant Home at High Point to the Children's Home at Winston-Salem and the Methodist Orphanage at Raleigh, such transference depending upon the area from which the children came. The merging of the population of the Methodist Protestant Children's Home with those of the other two institutions is incident to the union or merging of all branches of the Methodist Church.



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TABLE B. ORPHANAGES OWNED BY FRATERNAL ORDERS EXEMPT FROM LICENSE BECAUSE OF PROPERTY VALUATION OF $60,000.00 OR OVER

        
INSTITUTIONS Chief Executive Officer Location Date Founded Capacity
Colored Orphanage of N. C. T. K. Borders Oxford 1883 200
I. O. O. F. Home W. C. Beaman Goldsboro 1892 150
*Children's Home of N. C. J. O. U. A. M W. M. Shuford Lexington 1926 250
Oxford Orphanage Rev. C. K. Proctor Oxford 1872 330
Pythian Home D. W. Huggins Clayton 1910 60

        * On February 1, 1940, the National Orphans' Home of the Junior Order United American Mechanics became the Children's Home of the North Carolina Junior Order United American Mechanics. Prior to that time the home was owned and operated by the National Council of the Junior Order United American Mechanics serving a national area, but when the state council of the Junior Order United American Mechanics, which is subordinate to the national council assumed ownership and control of the home, the policy was changed to serve North Carolina children only.


TABLE C. ORPHANAGES OWNED AND CONDUCTED BY AN INDIVIDUAL SUBJECT TO LICENSE BUT FAILING TO QUALIFY AND OPERATING ON PROBATION

        
INSTITUTION Chief Executive Officer Location Date Founded Capacity
Eliada Orphanage Rev. L. B. Compton Asheville 1904 115

TABLE D. CHILD-CARING INSTITUTIONS OPERATED LOCALLY FOR CHILDREN OF COMMUNITY (COUNTY) SUBJECT TO LICENSE

        

1. Orphanages Licensed

INSTITUTIONS Chief Executive Officer Location Date Founded Capacity
Memorial Industrial School (Negro) E. R. Garrett Winston-Salem 1900 90

2. Orphanages Licensed--On Probation

South Mountain Institute C. L. Stoney Nebo 1919 54

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3. Institutions for Temporary Care--Licensed

Juvenile Relief Home Mrs. M. F. Britz Winston-Salem 1923 18
Wright Refuge Mrs. Octavia Evans Durham 1922 45

4. Day Nurseries--Licensed

Bethlehem House (Negro) Miss Marion Brincefield Winston-Salem 1927 45
Charlotte Day Nursery Miss Annie Ferguson Charlotte 1929 45
Scarborough Day Nursery (Negro) Mrs. J. C. Scarborough Durham 1925 24

5. County Children's Homes for Temporary Care--Licensed

Buncombe County Children's Home Mrs. Emma Sams Asheville 1891 28

6. County Children's Homes for Temporary Care--Failing to Qualify for License

Wake County Detention Home Mrs. W. E. Robbins Raleigh 1922 16

TABLE E. CONVALESCENT CRIPPLED CHILDREN'S HOME OPERATED LOCALLY FOR CHILDREN OF WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA SUBJECT TO LICENSE

        
INSTITUTION Chief Executive Officer Location Date Founded Capacity
Asheville Orthopedic Home Miss Annie F. Mercer Asheville 1939 20

POPULATION TABLES

        The tables on population of institutions caring for dependent children, shown below, are based on the annual reports of the respective institutions for the years 1938 and 1939.


Page 37

TABLE a. CHILDREN CARED FOR IN NORTH CAROLINA ORPHANAGES DURING THE YEAR 1938

        
INSTITUTIONS Total Boys Girls Orphans Half Orphans Parents Living
Mother Dead Father Dead
Alexander Home 47 14 33 6 7 10 24
Alexander Schools, Inc 214 134 80 17 46 68 83
Appalachian School (The) 57 41 16 4 4 7 42
Baptist Orphanage of N. C 587 275 312 195 107 223 62
Buncombe County Children's Home 36 19 17 3 11 7 15
Catholic Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Children's Home, Inc 402 208 194 108 141 115 38
Children's Home of N. C. J. O. U. A. M 227 98 129 30 0 197 0
Christian Orphanage 87 44 43 20 10 41 16
Colored Orphanage of N. C 153 109 44 74 27 45 7
Falcon Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Free Will Baptist Orphanage 90 44 46 19 3 65 3
Grandfather Orphans' Home 80 32 48 15 25 30 10
I. O. O. F. Home 57 28 29 6 0 51 0
Juvenile Relief Association, Inc 12 9 3 2 3 2 5
Memorial Industrial School (Negro) 77 37 40 24 21 19 13
Methodist Orphanage 295 147 148 47 42 203 3
Methodist Protestant Children's Home 115 58 57 26 24 63 2
Mountain Orphanage 61 28 23 11 18 30 2
*Nazareth Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Oxford Orphanage 351 171 180 60 43 242 6
Presbyterian Orphans' Home 313 157 156 50 110 122 31
Pythian Orphanage 36 24 12 7 0 28 1
South Mountain Industrial Institute 59 21 38 5 11 24 19
Thompson Orphanage 107 53 54 14 30 40 23
Wright Refuge 26 12 14 2 0 5 19
Total 3,489 1,763 1,716 745 683 1,637 424

        * Report received too late for figures to be included.



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Table b. CHILDREN CARED FOR IN NORTH CAROLINA ORPHANAGES DURING THE YEAR 1939

        
INSTITUTIONS Total Boys Girls OrphansHalf Orphans Parents Living
Mother Dead Father Dead
Alexander Home 40 13 27 4 7 5 24
Alexander Schools, Inc 221 127 94 23 49 54 95
Appalachian School (The) 49 33 16 3 0 10 36
Baptist Orphanage of N. C 583 277 306 186 124 212 61
Buncombe County Children's Home 22 9 13 1 8 3 10
Catholic Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Children's Home, Inc 415 214 201 111 153 115 36
Children's Home of N. C. J. O. U. A. M 204 100 104 23 0 181 0
Christian Orphanage 78 42 36 18 11 33 16
Colored Orphanage of N. C 150 113 37 71 27 47 5
Falcon Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Free Will Baptist Orphanage 91 44 47 18 5 68 0
Grandfather Orphans' Home 80 34 46 11 21 40 8
I. O. O. F. Home 47 26 21 6 0 41 0
Juvenile Relief Association, Inc 13 8 5 2 2 3 6
Memorial Industrial School (Negro) 80 36 44 22 30 18 10
Methodist Orphanage 308 153 155 39 51 211 7
Methodist Protestant Orphanage 120 59 61 27 27 64 2
Mountain Orphanage 60 29 31 11 21 25 3
*Nazareth Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Oxford Orphanage 350 170 180 51 41 250 8
Presbyterian Orphans' Home 316 157 159 50 114 116 36
Pythian Orphanage 47 26 21 7 9 28 3
South Mountain Industrial Institute 52 17 35 4 11 26 11
Thompson Orphanage 100 44 56 15 29 34 22
Wright Refuge 35 19 16 1 2 1 31
Total 3,461 1,750 1,711 704 742 1,585 430

        * Report received too late for figures to be included.



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TABLE c. AGES OF CHILDREN UNDER CARE

        
INSTITUTIONS Year Ending December 31, 1938 Year Ending December 31, 1939
Total Under 1 Year Between 1 and 2 Years Between 2 and 6 Years Between 6 and 12 Years Over 12 Years Over 21 Years Total Under 1 Year Between 1 and 2 Years Between 2 and 6 Years Between 6 and 12 Years Over 12 Years Over 21 Years
Alexander Home 52 0 0 14 34 4 0 49 0 0 9 31 9 0
Alexander Schools, Inc 344 0 0 3 83 244 14 360 0 0 7 89 251 13
Appalachian School (The) 80 0 0 3 75 2 0 81 0 0 2 78 1 0
Baptist Orphanage of N. C 650 0 0 12 291 347 0 648 0 0 17 203 427 1
Buncombe County Children's Home 77 0 0 5 37 35 0 59 0 1 7 23 28 0
Catholic Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Children's Home, Inc 451 0 0 47 188 216 0 464 0 1 35 178 246 4
Children's Home of N. C. J. O. U. A. M 241 0 0 3 81 157 0 209 0 0 3 54 152 0
Christian Orphanage 96 0 0 2 42 52 0 97 0 0 2 34 61 0
Colored Orphanage of N. C 165 0 0 2 64 97 1 174 0 0 5 57 112 0
Falcon Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Free Will Baptist Orphanage 105 0 0 4 52 49 0 92 0 0 3 29 60 0
Grandfather Orphans' Home 93 0 1 8 42 42 0 97 0 0 6 44 46 1
I. O. O. F. Home 59 0 0 0 17 42 0 60 0 0 2 19 39 0
Juvenile Relief Association, Inc 34 8 9 17 0 0 0 36 12 7 16 1 0 0
Memorial Industrial School (Negro) 91 0 0 10 35 44 2 91 0 0 9 38 43 1
Methodist Orphanage 340 0 0 15 145 177 3 338 0 0 10 117 203 8
Methodist Protestant Orphanage 126 0 0 5 45 76 0 132 0 0 8 40 84 0
Mountain Orphanage 73 0 0 0 28 45 0 72 0 0 0 18 54 0
*Nazareth Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Oxford Orphanage 382 0 0 7 137 238 0 388 0 0 7 140 241 0
Presbyterian Orphans' Home 342 0 0 15 112 211 4 359 0 0 18 110 231 0
Pythian Orphanage 37 0 0 0 14 23 0 47 0 0 2 12 33 0
South Mountain Industrial Institute 86 0 0 2 27 53 4 78 0 1 6 35 36 0
Thompson Orphanage 119 0 0 10 37 72 0 102 0 0 4 36 62 0
Wright Refuge 113 18 8 27 57 3 0 130 21 10 35 61 3 0

        * Report received too late for figures to be included.



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TABLE d. POPULATION MOVEMENT

        
INSTITUTIONSYear Ending December 31, 1938 Year Ending December 31, 1939
Children in Institution Jan. 1, 1938 Admissions During Year Children Cared for During Yr. Discharge Children in Institution Dec. 31, 1938 Children in Institution Jan. 1, 1939 Admissions During During Yr. Children Cared for During Yr. Discharge Children in Institution Dec. 31, 1939
Alexander Home 47 5 52 14 38 40 9 49 12 37
Alexander Schools, Inc 214 130 344 123 221 221 139 360 122 238
Appalachian School (The) 57 23 80 31 49 49 32 81 26 55
Baptist Orphanage of N. C 587 63 650 67 583 583 65 648 77 571
Buncombe County Children's Home 36 41 77 55 22 22 37 59 41 18
Catholic Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Children's Home, Inc 402 49 451 36 415 415 49 464 61 403
Children's Home of N. C. J. O. U. A. M 227 14 241 37 204 204 5 209 52 157
Christian Orphanage 87 9 96 18 78 78 18 96 17 79
Colored Orphanage of N. C 153 12 165 15 150 150 24 174 19 155
Falcon Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Free Will Baptist Orphanage 90 15 105 14 91 91 1 92 10 82
Grandfather Orphans' Home 80 13 93 13 80 80 17 97 14 83
I. O. O. F. Home 57 2 59 12 47 47 13 60 10 50
Juvenile Relief Association, Inc 12 22 34 21 13 13 23 36 23 13
Memorial Industrial School (Negro) 77 14 91 11 80 80 11 91 6 85
Methodist Orphanage 295 45 340 32 308 308 30 338 46 292
Methodist Protestant Orphanage 115 11 126 6 120 120 12 132 10 122
Mountain Orphanage 61 12 73 13 60 60 12 72 15 57
*Nazareth Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Oxford Orphanage 351 31 382 32 350 350 38 388 56 332
Presbyterian Orphans' Home 313 29 342 26 316 316 43 359 43 316
Pythian Orphanage 36 1 37 5 32 32 15 47 2 42
South Mountain Industrial Institute 59 27 86 34 52 52 26 78 30 48
Thompson Orphanage 107 12 119 19 100 100 2 102 19 83
Wright Refuge 26 87 113 78 35 35 95 130 97 33

        *Report received too late for figures to be included.



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TABLE e. DISPOSITION OF CHILDREN DISCHARGED FROM INSTITUTIONS--YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1938

        
INSTITUTIONS Placed in Homes Relatives or Parents Colleges and Schools To Work Institutions for Delinquents Caswell Training School Ran Away Died Hospitals or Sanatoriums Other Orphanages Otherwise
Alexander Home 2 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Alexander Schools, Inc 0 84 1 2 0 0 4 0 0 0 32
Appalachian School (The) 1 28 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 31
Baptist Orphanage of N. C 7 40 6 10 0 0 4 0 0 0 0
*Buncombe County Children's Home 11 30 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Catholic Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Children's Home, Inc 0 25 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 6
Children's Home of N. C. J. O. U. A. M 0 35 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Christian Orphanage 0 11 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Colored Orphanage of N. C 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5
Falcon Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Free Will Baptist Orphanage 1 11 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Grandfather Orphans' Home 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6
I. O. O. F. Home 0 7 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Juvenile Relief Association, Inc ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Memorial Industrial School (Negro). 2 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Methodist Orphanage 0 17 0 14 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Methodist Protestant Children's Home 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mountain Orphanage 0 7 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
**Nazareth Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Oxford Orphanage 2 17 3 5 0 0 1 1 0 0 3
Presbyterian Orphans' Home 0 10 7 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Pythian Orphanage 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Mountain Industrial Institute 0 25 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 4
Thompson Orphanage 0 13 1 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Wright Refuge 0 62 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16
Total 27 469 42 55 0 0 15 4 0 0 110

        *Placements made by Buncombe County juvenile court.


        **Report received too late for figures to be included.



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TABLE f. DISPOSITION OF CHILDREN DISCHARGED FROM INSTITUTIONS--YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1939

        
INSTITUTIONS Placed in Homes Relatives or Parents Colleges and Schools To Work Institutions for Delinquents Caswell Training School Ran Away Died Hospitals or Sanatoriums Other Orphanages Otherwise
Alexander Home 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6
Alexander Schools, Inc 0 79 2 4 0 0 8 0 0 0 29
Appalachian School (The) 0 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Baptist Orphanage of N. C 7 34 15 11 0 0 5 2 0 0 3
*Buncombe County Children's Home. 20 11 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0
Catholic Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Children's Home, Inc 0 29 13 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Children's Home of N. C. J. O. U. A. M 0 37 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15
Christian Orphanage 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9
Colored Orphanage of N. C 0 11 1 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Falcon Orphanage ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Free Will Baptist Orphanage 1 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Grandfather Orphans' Home 0 7 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
I. O. O. F. Home 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Juvenile Relief Association, Inc ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Memorial Industrial School (Negro) 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Methodist Orphanage 0 14 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 29
Methodist Protestant Children's Home 0 1 0 8 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Mountain Orphanage 0 8 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
**Nazareth Orphanage . . . . ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Oxford Orphanage 0 25 7 17 0 0 1 0 0 0 6
Presbyterian Orphans' Home 0 12 4 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Pythian Orphanage 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Mountain Industrial Institute 0 22 0 1 0 1 6 0 0 0 0
Thompson Orphanage 1 8 2 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 2
Wright Refuge 0 77 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20
Total 30 438 57 97 1 1 24 5 0 3 132

        *Placements made by Buncombe County juvenile court.


        **Report received too late for figures to be included.



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New Institutions

        The Asheville Orthopedic Home was licensed on July 14, 1939, to care for crippled children and has at present a maximum capacity of 20. In addition to meeting minimum requirements for a child-caring institution set up by the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare, this institution must also comply with regulations of the State Board of Health relative to facilities for care of crippled children. The institution is the first of its type in the state, is well-equipped and is operated according to excellent standards.

Proposed Institutions

        Inquiries: During the biennium a total of 16 inquiries relative to establishment of children's agencies were received. Two inquiries were re-activated from the previous biennium. The 16 inquiries were classified as follows: 2 maternity homes; 1 day nursery; 2 homes for crippled children; 3 homes for temporary care of children; 8 orphanages; total, 16.

Out of State Agencies Soliciting in North Carolina

        Six substandard agencies from other states attempted to solicit funds in North Carolina during the past two years. Two of these agencies are located in Kentucky, one in Georgia, one in Tennessee, one in South Carolina and one in Virginia. When advised of the provisions of the North Carolina act regulating the soliciting of public aid by "charitable organizations, institutions or associations formed outside the State of North Carolina," none of these agencies filed the necessary application for a license or otherwise attempted to comply with the law, and apparently left the state. Two other out-of-state and standard agencies were licensed to solicit memberships in this state. The purpose of the act is protection of North Carolina agencies and citizens.

CHILD-PLACING AGENCIES

Intra-state

        In North Carolina child-placing is done by both public and private agencies. The juvenile court of each county is designated by law as the public child-placing agency. The superintendent of public welfare, who is the chief probation officer for the juvenile court, is usually requested by the court to make necessary placements. The actual placements may be made by a qualified case worker or a child welfare worker, a person with special training in this field, under direction of superintendent of public welfare. The private agencies must meet


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certain standards and are required by law to have a license from the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare in order to operate.

Licensed Child-placing Agencies

        There are two private children's agencies in the state licensed by the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare to do child-placing. They are:

CHILD PLACING AGENCIES LICENSED

        
AGENCY Chief Executive Location Date Founded
Children's Service Bureau (Mecklenburg County) Miss Helen Taylor Charlotte 1934
N. C. Children's Home Society (State-wide) J. J. Phoenix Greensboro 1903


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TABLES SHOWING ACTIVITIES OF CHILD-PLACING AGENCIES

1. Children Serviced--Year Ending December 31, 1938

        
  Foster Homes Own Homes Receiving Home Total
AGENCY Children Under Supervision January 1, 1938 Children Placed During Year Children Discharged from Care During Year Children Under Supervision December 31, 1938 Children Under Supervision January 1, 1938 Children Accepted for Supervision During Year Children Discharged from Supervision During Year Children Under Supervision December 31, 1938 Children in Home January 1, 1938 Children Admitted During Year Children Discharged During Year Children Under Supervision December 31, 1938 Children Under Care During Year
Children's Home Society of North Carolina 265 97 104 258 0 0 0 0 6 105 104 7 473
Children's Service Bureau 43 58 34 67 56 64 73 47 0 0 0 0 370
2. Children Serviced--Year Ending December 31, 1939
Children's Home Society of North Carolina 258 96 86 268 0 0 0 0 7 93 97 3 454
Children's Service Bureau 67 36 54 49 47 65 100 12 0 0 0 0 385


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3. Caseload of Foster Homes--Year Ending December 31,1938

        
AGENCY Active Foster Homes Foster Home Applications
Homes Under Supervision Jan. 1, 1938 Homes Placed Under Supervision During Year Homes WithDrawn from Supervision During Year Homes Under Supervision Dec. 31, 1938 Applications Pending Jan. 1, 1938 Applications Received During Year Applications Approved During Year Applications Rejected or Withdrawn During Year Applications Pending Dec. 31, 1938
Children's Home Society of North Carolina. . 12 107 10 17 12 130 107 8 17
Children's Service Bureau 36 14 4 44 40 25 14 2 3
4. Caseload of Foster Homes--Year Ending December 31, 1939
Children's Home Society of North Carolina. . 17 126 14 24 17 156 126 9 24
Children's Service Bureau 44 21 25 35 3 31 21 5 2

5. Disposition of Children Discharged by Agencies--Year Ending December 31, 1938

        
AGENCY Children Returned to Relatives Legally Adopted Attained Majority Married Referred to Another Agency Died Otherwise
Children's Home Society of North Carolina. . . 0 88 5 1 0 1 9
Children's Service Bureau 20 6 2 0 29 0 97
6. Disposition of Children Discharged by Agencies--Year Ending December 31, 1939
Children's Home Society of North Carolina. . . 1 68 10 0 0 1 6
Children's Service Bureau 28 4 0 0 52 0 145


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Inter-state

        It is a growing conviction among both public and private child-placing agencies that an agency should place its wards for adoption only in territory where it can give direct supervision. There are many instances of course where an agency might place wards in the homes of kin in another state in an effort to strengthen ties of the child's own or natural family. But placements in homes of non-kin in other states are much less frequent than formerly.

        On the other hand, the trend to place dependent children in need of foster care in homes of eligible kin, whether within or without the state or agency's boundaries, has gained momentum with the advent of the aid to dependent children fund.

        The following tables include placement referrals in homes of kin, as well as in adoptive homes, for all requests for interstate placement of children are referred to and through this division. The referrals for placement in homes of kin totaled 84 and in homes of non-kin 51. Most of the homes of kin investigated as possible placements for the 84 children were found not suitable.

        
NUMBER CASES Bringing Children Into State Taking Children Out of State Total
Approved 18 11 29
Disapproved by North Carolina 46 4 50
Disapproved by agency in other state 1 2 3
No jurisdiction 8 9 17
Request withdrawn 4 2 6
Pending 27 3 30
Totals 104 31 135

        The number of proposed importations were about 3 1/3 times as many as the number of proposed deportations, as the above figures indicate.


Placement of Refugee Children from European War Areas in
North Carolina Homes

        About two weeks before the close of the biennium, considerable interest was evidenced in several localities of the state in offering homes to European children, particularly those from the British Isles, for the period of the duration of the war between Germany and England. Part of the interest resulted from direct contact between citizens of England and their friends in the state for care for particular children; part was the result of activity of local committees for care of European children. Any foster placement of a dependent child in


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North Carolina involves the state laws regulating child-placing and the importation of children, therefore tentative plans were made to investigate all aspects of the situation with due consideration for the total child welfare program in the state as well as for special work in behalf of refugee children.

MATERNITY HOMES

        The function and program of the four maternity homes in the state are described in the report of the last biennium.

        The following tables list maternity homes, capacity and license status for 1939-40 and statistics on population movements for the years 1938-39 and 1939-40:

        
INSTITUTIONS Superintendent Location Date Founded Capacity License Status
Crittenton Home Mrs. F. W. McGinnis Charlotte 1903 28 Probational
Faith Cottage Miss Christine Pratt Asheville 1902 17 ----
Greensboro Rest Cottage Miss Elizabeth Andrews Greensboro 1903 15 Probational
Salvation Army Maternity Home Miss Myrtle Marshall Durham 1925 31 Full License

        License withheld from Faith Cottage because there is no registered nurse on staff.

STATISTICS FROM MONTHLY REPORTS OF INSTITUTIONS

Year Ending June 30, 1939

        
INSTITUTIONS Total No. Girls Listed by MonthTotal No. Babies Listed by Month Average No. Girls Cared for Per month Average No. Babies Cared for Per Month Total No. Girls Dying Total No. Babies Dying*
Crittenton Home 227 143 20-plus 13 0 2
Faith Cottage 61 42 5 3-plus 0 0
Rest Cottage 147 93 12-plus 8-minus 0 0
Salvation Army Maternity Home 370 199 31 16-plus 0 6

        * Causes of death listed are: "stillborn," "premature," "premature-hydrocephalus," "cause unknown."



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[STATISTICS FROM MONTHLY REPORTS OF INSTITUTIONS-continued.]

Year Ending June 30, 1939

        
INSTITUTIONSTotal No. Girls Listed by Month Total No. Babies Listed by Month Average No. Girls Cared for Per month Average No. Babies Cared for Per Month Total No. Girls Dying Total No. Babies Dying*
Crittenton Home 254 165 23 15 0 3
Faith Cottage 51 30 4-plus 2-plus 0 0
Rest Cottage 126 61 10-plus 5 0 5
Salvation Army Maternity Home 333 197 29-plus 16-plus 0 1

        * Causes of death listed are: "premature," "stillborn," "hard delivery forceps," "marasmus and pyloric spasm" "stillborn-anencephalia monster," "bronchial pneumonia."


SERVICE TO COUNTY DEPARTMENTS OF PUBLIC WELFARE,
JUVENILE COURTS AND COURTS OF ADOPTION
(CLERKS OF SUPERIOR COURT)

Casework Service

        The nature of the procedure in the handling of cases between the state and county agencies is referral and advisory. In the interstate placements of dependent children, however, the state board makes the final decision. The figures given in the table below show the type and number of cases referred by the county departments of public welfare, other state agencies, citizens or agencies in other states to the division of child welfare.

TABLE OF CASES

New or Re-opened During Biennium

        
Type Number
Adoptions and Child-placing (inquiries, registrations, pending) 1,042
Applications for Assistance from State Boarding Home Fund 52
Boarding Homes (applications for license, information, etc.) 137
Children referred as  
Crippled 22
Dependent and Neglected 379
Delinquent (including unmarried mothers) 339
With Health Problem 32
With Problem of Mixed Race 15
Impostors and Solicitors 21
Inquiries regarding proposed institutions 16
Interstate (placement of children, requests for investigations and information) 650


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Type Number
Legal Settlement 154
Miscellaneous 74
Total new cases referred 2,933

        During the biennium of 1936-38, a total of 2,640 cases were referred. Therefore, the increase of new cases in the biennium of 1938-40 was 11-plus per cent over the number of the previous biennium.

        In addition to service on the 2,933 new referrals, service was continued on an estimated 1,000 old cases active on July 1, 1938.

REGISTRATION OF ADOPTIONS

        During the biennium a total of 730 new adoption proceedings were received by the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare from the clerks of court for registration and filing. The following table shows number and nature of registrations.

        
Registration of Final Orders Only (Original Action in Previous Biennium) Full Registrations (Petition Through Final Orders) July 1, 1938 July 1, 1940 Registrations Through Interlocutory Order July 1, 1938 July 1, 1940 Revocations Pending (for Additional Registration Data)
392 201 472 14 57

        An analysis of these 730 adoptions on the basis of persons or agencies responsible for the placement shows the following:

        

FOR THE YEAR JULY 1, 1938 TO JULY 1, 1939

Number Children Placed by Children's Home Society of North Carolina Number Children Placed by Children's Service Bureau, Charlotte, N. C. Number Childred Placed by Parent (or Guardian) Number Children Placed by Juvenile Court or Department Public Welfare Consents Doubtful Adoptions Consented to by Out-of-State Agencies
66 8 133 15 0 2


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FOR THE YEAR JULY 1, 1939 TO JULY 1, 1940

Number Children Placed by Children's Home Society of North Carolina Number Children Placed by Children's Service Bureau, Charlotte, N. C. Number Childred Placed by Parent (or Guardian) Number Children Placed by Juvenile Court or Department Public Welfare Consents Doubtful Adoptions Consented to by Out-of-State Agencies
83 3 156 21 2 0

ADMINISTRATION OF THE STATE BOARDING HOME FUND

        The administration of the state boarding home fund involves the acceptance of applications for aid for individual children from county welfare departments and juvenile courts on the basis of need and on the condition of placement in licensed boarding homes.

        The fund of only $7,500 per annum is inadequate to meet all the requests for this aid received from the counties, but an effort is made to distribute the grants among the counties making application as widely and evenly as possible without upsetting plans for children already receiving aid. In the late winter of 1938 a survey was made of the number of children in care of county departments of public welfare and juvenile courts who were in need of this type of foster care. Forty-three counties of the total 100 answered the questionnaire, listing 392 children and estimating approximately $44,000.00 as the sum--state and county funds combined--needed to care for them at a boarding rate of less than $10.00 per month. On a 50-50 basis the state's share of such a sum would be $22,000.00, but an appropriation of $15,000.00 only was requested of the General Assembly of 1939, believing that the full $22,000.00 could not be absorbed. The appropriation of $7,500.00, however, was not increased

Children Aided, 1938-39

        During the year 1938-39 juvenile courts in 45 counties were assisted in caring for a total of 88 children through county funds and the state boarding home fund. This number was 23 more children than could be helped in the year 1937-38. Forty-six of the 88 children received this aid for the full year. Thirty-three children were accepted for care during this period and 23 were transferred to other types of care. Seven of the 88 children are state wards and six of these wards received full maintenance from the state fund.


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        The total number of boarding months was 806. The average rate of board paid per month per child was $16.17. The average number of months care per child was 9.15 months.

        The following table shows expenditure from both state and county funds for the year 1938-39:

BOARDING HOME CARE

STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS

Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939

        
COUNTY PARTICIPATING STATE FUND COUNTY FUND
*Alamance $ 305.32 $ 70.00
Anson 138.75 138.75
*Ashe 239.35 00.00
Avery 275.00 55.00
Burke 168.00 168.00
Caldwell 60.00 60.00
Caswell 111.00 111.00
Chatham 150.00 150.00
Cherokee 231.00 231.00
Chowan 100.50 60.00
Cumberland 47.25 47.25
Davidson 180.00 180.00
Durham 133.88 133.88
*Edgecombe 380.42 148.00
Forsyth 260.63 260.63
*Gaston 293.72 120.00
Greene 13.63 13.63
Guilford 144.00 144.00
Haywood 135.00 135.00
Johnston 120.00 120.00
Lincoln 135.63 135.63
*Macon 704.41 225.00
*Madison 274.02 00.00
Martin 171.00 171.00
McDowell 120.00 120.00
Mecklenburg 297.00 297.00
*Moore 180.00 00.00
Nash 106.34 106.34
New Hanover 111.00 111.00
Northampton 55.00 55.00
Orange 211.00 211.00
Pamlico 84.00 84.00
Pasquotank 60.00 60.00
Perquimans 240.00 240.00

        * Difference between the amount paid from state fund and amount paid from county fund in these counties is due to fact that a state ward, resident of county, is receiving full or part maintenance from the state fund in addition to amount paid from state fund to match county fund in care of other children.



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[BOARDING HOME CARE, Continued]

COUNTY PARTICIPATING STATE FUND COUNTY FUND
Pitt $ 105.00 $ 105.00
Randolph 67.50 67.50
Rockingham 60.00 60.00
Rowan 87.00 87.00
Rutherford 111.00 111.00
Surry 91.20 91.20
Transylvania 180.00 180.00
*Wake 210.00 180.00
Wayne 34.46 34.46
Wilkes 67.50 67.50
Wilson 241.01 241.01
Totals $7,491.52 $5,269.93

        * Difference between the amount paid from state fund and amount paid from county fund in these counties is due to fact that a state ward, resident of county, is receiving full or part maintenance from the state fund in addition to amount paid from state fund to match county fund in care of other children.


Children Aided 1939-40

        During the year 1939-40 with the juvenile courts of 40 counties participating, a total of 84 children were cared for in licensed boarding homes through state and county funds. Forty-seven of these children received this aid for the entire period. Nineteen of the 84 children were transferred to other types of care during the year and 15 children were accepted for care. Seven of the total number of children are state wards and six wards received full maintenance from the state fund.

        The number of boarding months totaled 779, an average of 9.27 months care per child. The average rate of board paid per month per child was $16.11.

        The following table shows expenditures from both state and county funds for the year 1939-40.

BOARDING HOME CARE

STATEMENT OF DISBURSEMENTS

Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1940

        
COUNTY PARTICIPATING STATE FUND COUNTY FUND
*Alamance $ 282.00 $ 60.00
Anson 117.09 117.09
*Ashe 222.00 00.00
Buncombe 57.75 57.75
Burke 290.75 290.75
Caldwell 90.00 90.00
Caswell 111.00 111.00
Chatham 150.00 150.00
Cherokee 231.00 231.00

        * Difference between the amount paid from state fund and amount paid from county fund in these counties is due to fact that a state ward, resident of county, is receiving full or part maintenance from the state fund in addition to amount paid from state fund to match county fund in care of other children.



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[Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1940, Continued]

COUNTY PARTICIPATING STATE FUND COUNTY FUND
Chowan $ 120.00 $ 60.00
Cumberland 62.75 62.75
Davidson 60.00 60.00
Durham 111.00 111.00
*Edgecombe 222.00 00.00
Forsyth 235.97 235.97
*Gaston 332.36 120.00
Guilford 240.00 240.00
Haywood 180.00 180.00
Johnston 40.00 40.00
*Macon 690.00 225.00
*Madison 240.00 00.00
Martin 110.13 110.13
McDowell 111.00 111.00
*Mecklenburg 535.97 360.00
*Moore 326.47 92.00
Nash 13.67 13.67
New Hanover 124.43 124.43
Orange 25.00 25.00
Pamlico 84.00 84.00
Perquimans 192.50 192.50
Pitt 70.00 70.00
Randolph 276.75 276.75
Rockingham 315.75 315.75
Rowan 105.00 105.00
Rutherford 111.00 111.00
Surry 112.17 112.17
Transylvania 180.00 180.00
*Wake 180.55 156.00
Wayne 32.60 32.60
Wilkes 78.75 78.75
Wilson 240.00 240.00
Totals $7,311.36 $5,233.06

        * Difference between the amount paid from state fund and amount paid from county fund in these counties is due to fact that a state ward, resident of county, is receiving full or part maintenance from the state fund in addition to amount paid from state fund to match county fund in care of other children.


SELECTION AND LICENSING OF BOARDING HOMES

        An important part of the function of the division of child welfare is the licensing of all boarding homes for children used by public agencies and private children's agencies. Standards for these homes have been set up by the state board and must be met before license can be issued. These standards deal largely with the physical aspects of the home leaving the emotional factors to be evaluated on an individual basis according to the needs of the child or children to be placed in the


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home. Detailed information regarding these standards have been furnished county officials and also heads of private agencies.

        Application for license to board children is made by the family to the local agency, either public or private, which is responsible for children's work in the area in which the home is located. If the study made of the home by the local agency indicates that it is a suitable one in which to board children, the application and study are then forwarded to the state office. Before license can be issued, the home must be visited by a representative of the state board and his or her recommendations received. If it is not possible for a consultant from the division of child welfare to make this visit, the field supervisor for the county in which the home is located does it. A re-evaluation of the homes is made each year and new licenses issued to those homes continuing to meet the boarding home standards.

Boarding Home Statistics

        There was an increase during the biennial period in the use of boarding home care for dependent, neglected and pre-delinquent children who either had no homes or whose homes were improper places for them to live. There is a growing recognition of the value of this type care as is shown by the increased number of licensed boarding homes in a larger number of counties. The Biennial Report 1936-38 shows that there were 57 approved homes in twenty-nine counties at the end of the period covered. The table given below shows that there were 71 approved homes in 32 counties and 32 additional homes in 12 counties whose applications are being considered at the end of this period covered. There is a great need for additional approved homes as is shown by the study made of the county home population on January 31, 1939, in which it was ascertained there were 97 children under 16 years of age among the 2,801 inmates. It is hoped that before the next biennium there will be no need to use this archaic type of care for our youth.


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LICENSED BOARDING HOMES

        
COUNTY Number Homes Licensed 1938-39 Total Capacity 1938-39 Number Homes Pending 1938-39 Number Homes Licensed 1939-40 Total Capacity 1939-40 Number Homes Pending 1939-40
New Old New Old
Alamance 2 6 ---- ---- 2 6 ---- ----
Anson ---- ---- ---- ---- 1 2 ---- ----
Buncombe 3 6 ---- ---- 2 5 ---- ----
Burke 1 2 ---- ---- 2 4 ---- ----
Caldwell 1 1 ---- ---- 1 1 ---- ----
Chatham 1 2 ---- ---- 1 2 ---- ----
Cherokee 1 2 ---- ---- 1 2 ---- ----
Cleveland 1 1 ---- ---- 1 1 ---- ----
Cumberland 1 4 ---- ---- 1 2 2 ----
Currituck ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 2 ----
Davidson 1 4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 1
Duplin 1 4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Durham 5 2 ---- ---- 6 15 1 ----
Edgecombe ---- ---- ---- ---- 1 2 ---- ----
Forsyth 4 11 6 ---- 6 18 4 3
Gaston 1 2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 1
Guilford 2 6 1 2 2 6 2 ----
Haywood 3 9 ---- ---- 2 8 2 1
Iredell ---- ---- ---- ---- 2 8 5 ----
Johnston 1 3 ---- ---- 1 4 ---- ----
Lee ---- ---- 2 ---- ---- ---- ---- 2
Lenoir 1 1 ---- ---- 1 1 ---- ----
Martin ---- ---- ---- 1 ---- ---- ---- ----
McDowell 1 3 ---- ---- ---- 3 ---- 1
Moore ---- ---- ---- ---- 1 4 ---- ----
Mecklenburg 10 27 1 2 12 27 3 3
New Hanover 1 2 ---- ---- 1 2 ---- ----
Northampton 1 3 ---- 2 2 7 ---- ----
Orange 1 4 ---- ---- 2 6 ---- ----
Pamlico 1 3 ---- ---- 1 3 ---- ----
Randolph 1 4 ---- ---- 1 4 ---- ----
Rockingham 1 4 ---- ---- 1 4 ---- ----
Rutherford 1 4 ---- ---- 1 4 ---- ----
Sampson 1 2 ---- ---- 1 2 ---- ----
Stanly ---- ---- ---- ---- 1 2 ---- ----
Surry ---- ---- ---- ---- 2 4 1 ----
Transylvania ---- ---- ---- ---- 1 2 ---- ----
Wake 7 20 ---- ---- 10 29 ---- ----
Wilkes 1 2 1 ---- 1 2 ---- ----
Yadkin ---- ---- 1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Total 57 144 12 7 71 192 22 12


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CHILD WELFARE SERVICES

        Child welfare services incorporated within the division of child welfare has continued for the past biennium on the premises as outlined for the program in its earliest beginnings. It has continued to function under the supervision of the federal children's bureau from whence the major portion of funds comes. Within the biennium there has been an annual decrease of approximately $900 in the allotment of money from this source due to allocation of funds for setting up the child welfare services program in Puerto Rico. The counties benefiting from workers have been coöperative in assuming some financial participation in the work. It is expected that there will be further gradual participation as time goes on.

        The scope of work covered for the past biennium has been:

        A. Supervision of the county child welfare assistants through three case consultants on the state staff and consultant service given to a selected number of counties not having child welfare assistants.

        B. Maintenance of a special area of three counties--Orange, Chatham and Durham--to provide case work services to children and to give field work placement to students in coöperation with the University of North Carolina.

        C. Provision for educational leaves and in-service training.

        D. Continuation of the social case worker in Morrison Training School.

        E. Expansion of the mental hygiene services in the state board which provided psychiatric services for children.

        F. Provision for a substitute worker placed in counties having vacancies while the child welfare assistant was away on educational leave.

        G. Continuation of state advisory committee as a state-wide interpretive group with meetings held on a semiannual basis.

        H. Continuation of local or county unit service through the work of county children's workers in coöperation with selected counties with increased emphasis on interpretation, integration and local participation.

Supervision and Consultation Service

        The case consultants have continued to offer supervision to the child welfare assistants placed in rural county units for case work services to dependent and neglected children through periodic visits to the counties. Experience has proven consultation services to counties prior to the acceptance of a child welfare worker to be of inestimable value. For this reason consultation in counties without child welfare workers has been emphasized in the last biennium and has been made a prerequisite to the placement of a worker. This has given the consultant the opportunity to interpret the types of cases that make up a child welfare worker's load, and philosophies with regard to handling of children's cases, before the worker goes into the county. The consultant


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has also found it advantageous to identify with the local staff before the special worker comes to the agency. It is not expected that all counties requesting consultant service will be later provided with a child welfare worker, but that this type of service alone will meet the need of some counties.

Special Area

        There has been a continuation of the three-county unit in the vicinity of the University of North Carolina which met a two-fold need--that of serving underprivileged children in the several communities, and that of offering a training center in children's work for students in the division of social work and public welfare of the university. Even though trainees accepting field placements in child welfare services do not definitely identify with the child welfare services program when they accept positions, they will gain insight into a field that will react positively in handling children's cases that fall in their loads in the general field. It is believed that the state at large will be diffused with workers with broadened insight into children's problems by the maintenance of the training centers for children's work in coöperation between the University of North Carolina and the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare.

CHILDREN'S UNIT--DIVISION OF MENTAL HYGIENE

        There has been an expansion of mental hygiene services within the last biennium to the extent that there is now a children's unit within the division of mental hygiene of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare. The children's unit consists of a psychiatrist and a psychologist who give their full time to children's work; the time of the psychiatrist has been divided between the child welfare services program and two mental hygiene clinics, one in Winston-Salem and the other in Charlotte. At least half of his time has been devoted to child welfare services. The service to children has been through consultation with the case consultants and the child welfare assistants, and it has been possible to carry a few extreme cases on a treatment basis. In some instances children were brought to the psychiatrist during his office hours in Raleigh; others have been seen at the two clinics. The psychiatrist attended staff meetings and lent his assistance in shaping the child welfare services program.

        The work of the psychologist has continued much as in former years. Her services have been available only to children within the child welfare assistants' case loads or to children in the case loads of workers


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in counties where consultation service was being given but not served by child welfare services workers.

EDUCATIONAL LEAVES AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING

        The number of educational leaves decreased during this biennium from four to three a year, the reason being that with the return of a number of workers from leaves to the staff, the demand for trained people was less emergent and a smaller amount of money should, therefore, be allocated for this purpose. The worker on leave was privileged to stay nine months instead of six as formerly, the stipend being the same, which meant that those workers taking nine months' leave rather than six would supplement from their own resources. It is expected that workers taking leave from their work to study will finance their own way more and more as time goes on. Educational leaves have been supplemented by an in-service training program by means of which once a year outstanding people in the field of child welfare have come to the state to conduct a two-day institute for the workers. Case work techniques and philosophies have been stressed in these institutes which have left a definite imprint on the workers.

        The case consultants in coöperation with the psychiatrist from the children's unit have held occasional institutes in their separate districts. These have been of value in educating the workers in the use of a psychiatrist.

        The case consultants have coöperated with the director of the division of case work and family rehabilitation in district institutes by giving talks and leading discussion groups which were intended to give insight into the handling of children's cases.

SERVICES TO TRAINING SCHOOLS

        During the biennium workers were discontinued in the state training schools with the exception of Morrison Training School for delinquent Negro boys at Hoffman. Because of the lack of a sufficient number of Negro caseworkers over the state, it was deemed wise to retain the worker in Morrison to supplement a case work service to Negro children in the counties. The worker was originally placed in Morrison to make an intensive study of intake and discharge with a view to assisting the institution in these areas. Within the time that the worker has been in the institution, policies with regard to intake and discharge have shaped themselves fairly satisfactorily and she has been able to expand her services. She has acted in a consultative capacity to workers on the staff and has helped them to individualize the child, thus more


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adequately meeting his needs. She has been of assistance to the superintendent in guiding staff conferences and committees within the institution which have resulted in great benefit in the way of staff developmet and ultimately in a better service to children. She has kept development records on particular cases and has done research within the population and among parolees to determine whether or not a maximum benefit is being derived for the child from the efforts of the staff. Coöperating with the localities from which the child comes, the worker has been of assistance in planning programs to meet his needs and to help him find the best possible placement when he leaves the institution.

        With the discontinuance of the workers from the other training schools in the state the consultant on intake and discharge was discontinued on the state staff. Supervision of the social worker in Morrison Training School thereby reverted to the assistant director for child welfare services.

Substitute Worker

        For the last year of the biennium, a substitute worker was employed in child welfare services to be available to selected counties having vacancies while child welfare assistants were away on educational leave. Leaves were arranged so that the substitute worker could be employed full time as a temporary person. It had been planned that she would be available to other counties in emergency situations, but her time was completely absorbed in substitution for workers on leave so that it was not possible for her to function as an emergency worker. This worker served a short time in Caswell County and for about ten months in Surry County, having made a definite contribution to those counties in the absence of their regular workers.

ADVISORY COMMITTEE

        The state advisory committee representing organizations interested in child welfare has continued to function as an advisory group to the state staff. The evaluation of the program from the standpoint of the agencies represented on the committee has proved most worth while in its implications and in directing the trends in the child welfare program. A part of the time semiannual meetings have been held rather than quarterly meetings as heretofore. Membership on this committee includes a representative from each of the following organizations:

        North Carolina Orphanage Association; State Association of Superintendents of Public Welfare; Children's Home Society, Greensboro, North Carolina; State Child Welfare Committee, American


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Legion and Auxiliary; State Parent-Teachers' Association; Committee on The Child, North Carolina Conference for Social Work; State Association of Clerks of Superior Courts; State Association of County Commissioners; State Federation of Women's Clubs; Division of Social Work and Public Welfare, School of Public Administration, University of North Carolina; North Carolina Chapter, American Association of Social Workers.

COUNTY SERVICES

        The division of child welfare has worked in coöperation with the general field staff of the state department in evaluating a county unit before it was accepted for consultation service or for the placement of a child welfare assistant. The child welfare services staff held itself responsible in great part for interpretation of the program to the superintendents of public welfare, but matters of administration were delegated largely to the general field staff while efforts to attain the integration of the child welfare assistant in the local staff was carried jointly by the case consultant and the field representative. A concerted effort has been made to stimulate the counties to become aware of their own resources in finances and their part in the utilization of other less tangible aids in developing better programs for social case work with children. During the last year of the biennium increased financial participation over previous years was assumed by county units in that all mileage incident to case work in the care of children was borne by the local department.

        Child welfare workers have been placed in counties as a means of attempting a demonstration of good child care in rural areas and of promoting community understanding of problems of child welfare as well as a means of stimulating interest in adequate programs for children particularly emphasizing preventive service. They have attempted to demonstrate good case work practices in the care of dependent and neglected children and as much as possible have tried to carry on their work on a treatment basis. Workers have not found it possible to carry the entire load of children's cases within their counties, but have instead taken a cross-section of children's problems, whenever possible trying to be of service to other workers on the staff in the realm of children's cases. Although it has been the aim to keep the case loads as low as 50, the number of cases carried has gone beyond this in instances.

        Counties given service within the biennium were:


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  • Anson
  • Buncombe
  • Burke
  • Caldwell
  • Caswell
  • Chatham
  • Cherokee
  • Cumberland*
  • Durham
  • Durham (Negro)*
  • Edgecombe*
  • Martin*
  • Nash
  • Northampton
  • Orange
  • Pitt
  • Randolph*
  • Robeson
  • Sampson
  • Surry

        * Counties discontinued during biennium.


        Qualifications for child welfare assistants during the biennium were:

        A. At least two quarters social work training in a school of social work if the worker plans to complete at least six months additional social work training in an accredited school of social work not later than January 1943. and earlier if possible.**

        ** Quoted from the North Carolina Manual of Public Assistance which sets forth qualifications for all members of the generalized staffs of the county departments of public welfare This was the training requirement for caseworkers.


        AND

        B. At least twelve months' successful experience in supervised social work.

        II

        A. Two years' social work training in a professional school of social work.

        OR

        B. At least one year of social work training in an accredited school of social work with special emphasis in child welfare.

        The close of the present biennium marks the end of four years of the child welfare services program. County departments of public welfare have been coöperative in use of the service. Requests for child welfare workers have continued to come in as well as requests for consultation services to counties without child welfare workers. It has been particularly gratifying that urban areas, though not eligible for child welfare workers, have shown a desire for better service to children and have asked for periodic visits from the case consultants. It has been particularly gratifying, too, that one densely populated county, Mecklenburg, though ineligible for a federal child welfare services worker, has shown keen enough interest in the welfare of its children to delegate a worker from its staff to carry children's cases altogether. This worker receives the same supervision from the case consultant as workers on whole or part federal pay. Another county, Buncombe, has put on a part-time worker at local expense to supplement the work done by the worker paid from federal funds. It is expected that this sort of expansion will materialize more in other urban areas.


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RECOMMENDATIONS

        1. That the sum of $15,000 be appropriated for the state boarding home fund for each year of the biennium of 1941-43.

        2. That provision be made in the annual budget or appropriation to the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare for the division of child welfare for the salary of an administrative assistant in the division of child welfare whose chief duty will be to carry on the correspondence incident to information regarding the licensing of boarding homes, to register data on compilation of boarding homes, and institutions, and to assist in correspondence relative to child-placing.

        3. That provision be made in the annual budget or appropriation to the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare for the division of child welfare to absorb at least ten per cent of the cost of the state staff of the child welfare services unit of the division which has been financed in full by a grant or allotment of the social security fund for child welfare services by the children's bureau, U. S. Department of Labor, since April 1936. This program is regarded as a demonstration program and one to be absorbed gradually by state as well as county departments.


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DIVISION OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE

NATHAN H. YELTON, Director

        Steady progress in the achievement of a sound administration of public funds for the needy aged and dependent children in North Carolina has been accomplished in the biennium 1938-1940. The division of public assistance auditing and statistical reports with respect to the disbursement of funds and data concerning public assistance recipients account to the citizens of the state for the funds appropriated for old age assistance and aid to dependent children. The figures represent the work of 100 North Carolina county boards of commissioners and 100 North Carolina boards of public welfare, of the North Carolina State Board of Charities and Public Welfare and the federal Social Security Board--local state and federal bodies engaged in administering the old age assistance and aid to dependent children titles of the Social Security Act, passed by Congress in August 1935 and the old age assistance and dependent children act enacted by the North Carolina General Assembly in March 1937.

OLD AGE ASSISTANCE:

Eligibility

        An applicant must apply to the county department of public welfare in the county in which he resides and an investigation of his situation must prove that:

  • (1) He is sixty-five years of age and over;
  • (2) He is a citizen of the United States or has been residing in the United States for ten years and has legally declared his intention to become a citizen;
  • (3) He has not sufficient income, or other resources including relatives, to provide a reasonable subsistence compatible with decency and health;
  • (4) He is not an inmate of any public institution at the time of receiving assistance;
  • (5) He has not made an assignment or transfer of property for the purpose of rendering himself eligible for assistance;
  • (6) He has been a resident of the state for two years out of the five years preceding his application, or for five years out of the nine years preceding his application, and for one year immediately preceding the same.

Number of Recipients and Average Grants:

        In June 1938 there were 33,060 recipients of old age assistance.

        In June 1940 there were 35,694 recipients of old age assistance.

        In May, 1940, North Carolina reported payment to 255 recipients per 1,000 estimated population 65 years and over. This number is larger by eight than


Page 65

the number of recipients per 1,000 estimated population 65 years and over in the nation.

        The average grant has increased monthly during the biennial period. In June 1938 the average old age assistant grant was $9.51. In June 1940 the average grant had increased to $10.10. The national average grant per aged recipient is $19.96. North Carolina is ninth from the bottom in average grant paid to old age assistance recipients in the United States and territories.

AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN:

Eligibility

        An applicant for aid to dependent children must apply to the county department of public welfare and an investigation must prove that:

  • (1) The applicant is a relative nearer than a cousin and that the child is living in the home maintained by the applicant;
  • (2) The child has resided in North Carolina for one year immediately preceding the application;
  • (3) The child has been deprived of parental support or care by reason of the death, physical or mental incapacity or continued absence from the home of a parent, and who has no adequate means of support. In cases of desertion every effort shall be made to apprehend the parent and charge him with the support of the child, but this provision does not affect the eligibility of the dependent child or the right of the county welfare board to make an award therefor;
  • (4) The applicant maintains a safe and proper home for himself and the child.

Number of Recipients and Average Grants:

        In June 1938, a total of 7,375 families with 20,605 children received aid to dependent children. In June 1940 there were 9,352 families with 23,291 children receiving aid to dependent children. Whereas, in the nation 27 children per 1,000 estimated population under 16 years of age receive aid to dependent children grants, in North Carolina only 18 children per 1,000 estimated population under 16 years are recipients of this fund.

        In June 1938 the average grant per family of children receiving aid to dependent children was $16.17. In June 1940 the average grant paid was $16.64. The national average grant paid in aid to dependent children is $32.19 per family. North Carolina is fifth from the bottom in average grant paid to aid to dependent children recipients in the United States and territories.

APPEALS TO THE STATE BOARD OF ALLOTMENT AND APPEAL:

        As a condition for receiving federal old age assistance and aid to dependent children funds, state plans for administration must provide


Page 66

for granting fair hearings to persons dissatisfied by failure to act, or with the action of, the county welfare board with respect to their application. The evidence presented by the applicant or recipient and the county welfare department before the field social work representative in a scheduled fair hearing is submitted to the State Board of Allotments and Appeal. During the biennium 44 appeals were acted upon by the state board. Although the decision of the county authorities was upheld in the 44 appeals formally presented to the state board, the 28 appeals which were satisfactorily adjusted without completing the formal presentation represent reversed decisions of the county authorities or successful interpretation to the appellant regarding the local decision.

ESTABLISHED QUOTAS AND ALLOTMENTS TO COUNTIES:

        The State Board of Allotments and Appeal found it necessary, during the first year of operation, to limit the allotment of funds to each county and to establish a quota of number of recipients in each county in order to keep within the limitation of the state legislative appropriation. In poorer counties the county government has not been able to raise local funds to participate adequately in the administration of old age assistance and aid to dependent children. The state equalization fund has been distributed to aid these counties and the establishment of quotas and allotments per county has been the chief method of achieving an equitable distribution of funds to the needy aged and dependent children of the state.

SUMMARY OF PROGRESS DURING 1938-1940:

        1. The second year of operation which began the biennium found the organization of the new division well established. The time and effort of the staff have been given to improving the necessary mechanics of recording and reporting.

        2. The division of public assistance has maintained a correspondence service and during the biennium 13,931 letters have been received and disposed of with replies and explanation regarding the administration of public assistance.

        3. A forwarding-center service has been maintained for referral of out of state inquiries to county departments. During the biennium 4,629 letters of inquiries have been acknowledged and referred to the counties.


Page 67

        4. Improved working relationships with other state and federal agencies have resulted from an exchange of bulletins and information with regard to the functions of the respective state and federal agencies.

        5. The director and staff members of the division of public assistance have participated in district, state and national public welfare and social work conferences, receiving through this medium practical knowledge to be applied to improvement of the services of the division.

        6. As a public agency, functioning within the legal structure of the state, the division of public assistance has received liberal and conservative interpretation of the public assistance laws from the office of the attorney general.

        7. A merit system of personnel selection for those engaged in the administration of old age assistance and aid to dependent children has been established for state and county employees.

CURRENT PROBLEMS AT CLOSE OF BIENNIUM 1938-1940

        1. A serious handicap in achieving a sound administration of old age assistance and aid to dependent children is the absence of a statewide provision for needy persons who are not eligible for these types of assistance.

        2. The inability of poorer counties to meet the financial responsibility of levying taxes for public assistance presents a major problem to the State Board of Allotments and Appeal in assisting, through the equalization fund, to meet the needs of the aged and dependent children equitably throughout the state.

        3. Differences in costs of living in sections of the state present a difficulty in establishing a standard budget for state-wide use in determining need for public assistance.

        4. The problem of securing relatives' support of the needy aged and dependent children is increased by the prevalent conception of public assistance as a "pension."

        5. Need for greater emphasis upon remedial and preventive service to help the needy live by their own effort without recourse to public assistance is a recognized problem which is increased by limited administrative funds which restrict the work of the staff to the original and recurrent verification of eligibility.


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STATE APPROPRIATION FOR OLD AGE ASSISTANCE, AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN, AND ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS FOR THE PERIOD JULY 1, 1938 TO JUNE 30, 1940

        

Old Age Assistance

  Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939 Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1940
Total assistance payments $3,569,188.37 $4,179,207.43
State appropriation 1,000,000.00 1,500,000.00
State's proportion of payments for assistance 894,532.92 1,094,524.70
Equalizing Fund payments 15,953.33 84,237.90
Unexpended balance 89,513.75 321,237.40*

        * At the time allotments were made for old age assistance for the year 1939-40 it was estimated that $300,000.00 of the appropriation of $1,500,000.00 would be required to pay pensions to those Confederate widows who were not transferred to old age assistance.


Aid to Dependent Children

Total payments for aid $1,421,849.89 $1,608,981.35
State appropriation 500,000.00 525,000.00
State's proportion of payments for aid 475,030.32 463,348.78
Equalizing Fund payments 6,846.84 36,756.95
Unexpended balance 18,122.84 24,894.27

Aid to County Administration

Total payments, State and Federal $ 293,670.64 $ 331,296.54
State appropriation 150,000.00 150,000.00
Payments to counties--State funds 145,460.46 148,430.25
Unexpended balance 4,539.54 1,569.75


Page 69

        

TOTAL CASES AND OBLIGATIONS INCURRED FOR ASSISTANCE AND RELIEF--JULY 1938 THROUGH JUNE 1939

YEAR AND MONTH Total Old Age Assistance* Aid to Dependent Children* General Relief**
Cases Expenditures Cases Expenditures Cases Child'n Expenditures Cases Expendit's
1938:                  
July 46,439 $ 470,627.78 29,942 $ 277,106.59 7,240 20,179 $ 110,971.27 6,185 $33,134.53
August 46,464 473,843.74 30,146 277,978.09 7,308 20,265 111,087.77 5,695 31,109.79
Sept. 46,703 479,971.07 30,698 283,976.09 7,402 20,359 112,506.27 5,422 29,758.59
Oct. 46,737 484,396.99 31,193 288,806.11 7,471 20,445 113,520.77 4,825 26,332.73
Nov 47,412 493,179.35 31,664 294,332.11 7,624 20,836 115,911.22 4,918 27,593.78
Dec 48,961 506,817.82 31,964 298,924.41 7,719 21,053 117,685.52 6,111 34,926.18
1939:                  
Jan. 49,082 510,065.91 31,972 301,717.61 7,760 21,053 118,784.07 6,041 34,070.46
Feb. 50,031 515,674.48 32,274 306,473.66 7,913 21,361 121,996.82 6,681 36,245.05
March 50,312 524,194.80 32,291 307,962.66 8,006 21,547 123,986.42 6,774 37,812.20
April 49,697 522,781.00 32,383 309,347.48 8,075 21,534 125,324.92 6,123 34,799.80
May 49,754 527,763.94 32,497 311,028.48 8,139 21,556 125,643.87 5,971 35,698.36
June 49,849 532,309.05 32,580 312,535.48 8,157 21,514 125,415.92 5,932 38,141.02
Total ---- $ 6,041,625.93 ---- $ 3,570,188.77 ---- ---- $ 1,422,834.84 ---- $399,622.49
Ave. per Mo. . 48,424 ---- 31,610 ---- 7,729 20,964 ---- 5,890 ----

        * Not corrected through June by deleting cancellations.


        ** Includes private agency funds.


        
YEAR AND MONTH Blind Assistance* Hospitalization Pauper Burials Boarding Home Care All Other
Cases Expenditures Per. Expenditures Per. Expendit's Per. Expendit's Per. Expendit's
1938:                    
July 1,954 $ 28,172.64 702 $ 15,670.90 134 $ 2,187.25 188 $ 2,259.17 94 $ 1,125.43
August 2,032 30,369.74 858 17,704.78 113 1,738.80 205 2,485.40 107 1,369.37
Sept. 1,982 29,077.76 794 19,148.10 104 1,655.06 208 2,549.80 93 1,299.40
Oct. 1,983 29,201.92 829 20,850.95 113 1,844.64 194 2,263.43 129 1,576.44
Nov. 1,961 28,627.98 782 20,414.32 136 2,108.80 210 2,835.60 117 1,355.54
Dec. 1,962 28,627.46 779 20,386.79 128 1,857.05 200 2,992.07 98 1,418.34
1939:                    
Jan. 1,953 28,554.68 868 20,688.74 147 2,498.20 177 2,337.65 164 1,414.50
Feb. 1,953 28,639.34 778 16,860.65 114 1,764.50 209 2,696.51 109 997.95
March 1,940 28,438.34 833 20,084.52 122 1,745.50 197 2,698.47 149 1,466.69
April 1,933 28,298.18 741 18,668.84 136 2,227.00 208 2,827.61 98 1,287.17
May 1,931 28,232.08 804 21,477.87 122 1,980.55 212 2,840.99 78 861.74
June. 1,906 27,812.34 879 22,891.24 88 1,430.31 213 2,951.07 94 1,131.67
Total ---- $344,052.46 ---- $234,847.70 ---- $23,037.66 ---- $31,737.77 ---- $15,304.24
Ave. per Mo. 1,958 ---- 804 ---- 121 ---- 202 ---- 111 ----

        * Furnished by North Carolina Commission for the Blind.



Page 70

TOTAL CASES AND OBLIGATIONS INCURRED FOR ASSISTANCE AND RELIEF--JULY 1939 THROUGH JUNE 1940

        
YEAR AND MONTH Total Old Age Assistance* Aid to Dependent Children* General Relief**
Cases Expenditures Cases Expenditures Cases Child'n Expenditures Cases Expendit's
1939:                  
July 49,901 $ 543,319.09 33,580 $ 332,175.21 8,132 21,318 $ 125,137.92 4,985 $30,821.77
August 51,350 553,941.07 34,090 337,189.71 8,129 21,162 124,050.62 5,796 35,226.21
Sept. 51,505 555,045.88 34,431 340,822.11 8,078 20,946 122,775.62 5,727 35,762.22
Oct. 51,882 559,122.01 34,650 343,306.31 8,072 20,869 122,572.02 5,840 38,050.13
Nov. 52,084 563,063.84 34,859 346,250.61 8,063 20,789 122,860.97 5,911 37,297.82
Dec. 52,741 568,181.47 35,010 349,761.51 8,128 20,847 124,223.92 6,414 39,552.93
1940:                  
Jan. 54,631 588,477.60 35,010 350,689.11 8,380 21,459 131,531.57 7,855 47,022.16
Feb. 54,324 591,846.69 34,986 351,118.56 8,581 21,856 136,777.27 7,355 45,029.44
March 54,608 604,801.93 35,210 354,643.84 8,854 22,504 144,057.02 7,112 43,431.60
April 54,741 608,374.58 35,340 356,626.84 9,028 22,774 148,294.97 6,811 41,234.56
May 55,056 618,370.20 35,566 359,004.89 9,210 23,087 153,087.00 6,705 44,076.47
June 54,035 612,275.63 35,694 361,820.48 9,352 23,291 155,646.55 5,465 32,825.65
Total ---- $ 6,966,819.99 ---- $ 4,183,409.18 ---- ---- $ 1,611,015.45 ---- $470,330.96
Ave. per Mo. 53,075 ---- 34,848 ---- 8,431 21,728 ---- 6,330 ----

        * Not corrected through June by deleting cancellations.


        ** Includes private agency funds.


        
YEAR AND MONTH Blind Assistance* Hospitalization Pauper Burials Boarding Home Care All Other
Cases Expenditures Per. Expenditures Per. Expendit's Per. Expendit's Per. Expendit's
1939:                    
July 1,953 $ 28,365.08 844 $ 21,121.77 104 $ 1,696.50 232 $ 3,037.91 71 $ 962.93
August 2,030 31,380.54 882 20,451.96 99 1,569.25 241 3,126.07 83 946.71
Sept. 1,976 29,613.60 868 20,575.19 87 1,237.75 236 2,940.54 102 1,318.85
Oct. 1,941 28,757.98 932 20,356.61 107 1,796.02 234 3,029.21 106 1,253.73
Nov. 1,958 29,075.92 823 21,425.88 127 1,857.59 229 2,902.06 114 1,392.99
Dec. 1,972 29,380.32 747 18,793.68 140 2,214.75 231 2,947.72 99 1,306.64
1940:                    
Jan 1,985 29,586.88 890 22,563.86 155 2,448.18 242 3,157.78 114 1,478.06
Feb 1,988 29,749.10 914 22,435.48 156 2,362.28 238 3,191.11 106 1,183.45
March 1,988 29,675.58 975 26,273.11 147 2,319.75 240 3,323.03 82 1,078.00
April 2,010 30,329.16 965 24,378.56 140 2,402.91 276 3,523.94 171 1,583.64
May 1,987 29,813.80 1,052 23,348.02 132 2,181.25 286 3,766.04 118 1,092.73
June 1,947 29,031.82 1,090 26,760.27 106 1,637.55 286 3,606.83 95 946.48
Total ---- $354,759.78 ---- $270,484.39 ---- $23,723.78 ---- $38,552.24 ---- $14,544.21
Ave. per Mo. 1,978 ---- 926 ---- 144 ---- 257 ---- 119 ----

        * Furnished by North Carolina Commission for the Blind.



Page 72

AVERAGE MONTHLY NUMBER OF CASES AIDED AND TOTAL ANNUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR ALL PUBLIC ASSISTANCE
BY TYPE AND COUNTIES, JULY 1, 1938-JUNE 30, 1939
J. S. KIRK, Statistician

        
COUNTIES Total Including Duplications Old Age Assistance Aid to Dependent Children
Cases Obligations Cases Obligations* Cases Children Obligations*
1. Alamance 637 $ 90,147.50 455 $ 62,695.00 116 308 $ 20,100.00
2. Alexander 285 25,603.66 215 18,253.00 46 118 6,129.00
3. Alleghany 138 12,219.51 104 8,785.50 25 58 2,880.00
4. Anson 404 42,801.89 295 28,836.00 61 162 9,589.50
5. Ashe 274 26,035.00 229 20,159.00 44 115 5,816.00
6. Avery 197 20,782.16 140 14,587.00 39 102 5,281.00
7. Beaufort 388 35,573.88 275 23,415.00 66 149 8,684.20
8. Bertie 381 38,244.83 270 25,111.50 72 183 10,512.00
9. Bladen 323 35,812.94 230 23,631.50 63 161 9,606.00
10. Brunswick 205 20,599.00 164 13,917.00 39 115 6,569.00
11. Buncombe 1,481 238,177.44 829 124,857.50 255 640 54,933.00
12. Burke 379 46,161.33 235 26,204.00 52 154 11,347.00
13. Cabarrus 567 74,944.73 368 49,311.00 85 239 20,232.00
14. Caldwell 461 45,261.90 301 26,118.00 70 220 12,394.00
15. Camden 86 7,574.50 60 4,754.00 17 36 2,430.50
16. Carteret 278 26,686.38 214 19,422.00 35 98 5,484.00
17. Caswell 279 30,244.11 215 20,610.00 50 167 8,348.00
18. Catawba 634 72,222.85 409 44,424.00 95 267 17,829.00
19. Chatham 273 25,432.96 198 17,933.00 45 111 6,178.75
20. Cherokee 243 28,541.96 177 18,940.60 47 132 6,995.50
21. Chowan 136 14,844.24 105 9,751.00 18 36 2,990.00
22. Clay 96 9,310.50 71 6,206.00 19 52 2,697.50
23. Cleveland 593 71,093.27 457 51,200.50 86 250 15,510.00
24. Columbus 547 50,077.21 393 33,704.00 113 286 14,782.00
25. Craven 559 57,160.50 391 35,265.00 84 206 14,511.50
26. Cumberland 622 86,047.17 406 50,429.60 112 312 20,615.60
27. Currituck 139 14,595.56 88 8,604.00 28 71 4,015.00
28. Dare 198 18,439.55 144 13,477.50 35 59 3,015.00
29. Davidson 658 86,829.20 485 58,178.00 118 331 22,440.00
30. Davie 287 26,793.96 186 17,216.00 52 121 7,048.00
31. Duplin 353 45,769.00 291 32,472.00 62 169 13,297.00
32. Durham 926 154,241.10 551 92,689.50 186 491 43,097.00
33. Edgecombe 778 91,968.98 573 62,370.50 126 352 21,810.00
34. Forsyth 1,325 245,094.11 972 153,146.50 204 599 62,731.00
35. Franklin 345 36,091.49 257 24,803.00 59 152 8,480.00
36. Gaston 1,383 182,237.36 1,020 117,218.00 192 520 44,771.00
37 Gates 163 16,151.05 128 11,693.00 25 57 3,841.50
38. Graham 147 16,454.25 112 12,230.50 19 54 2,814.00
39. Granville 348 39,277.01 268 28,331.00 58 158 9,734.00
40. Greene 262 28,879.90 177 17,038.50 55 128 7,751.00
41. Guilford 1,694 326,388.67 1,108 189,513.50 282 755 78,543.50
42. Halifax 709 85,635.53 480 47,688.00 108 244 20,917.25
43. Harnett 537 54,782.91 421 37,912.50 94 275 13,934.00
44. Haywood 559 73,683.66 398 51,395.30 86 269 15,021.10
45. Henderson 376 43,661.90 272 3,951.50 79 229 11,943.00
46. Hertford 234 24,295.00 191 17,680.00 31 66 5,909.00
47. Hoke 239 25,169.08 176 17,951.00 42 100 4,613.00
48. Hyde 125 11,399.55 99 8,408.00 21 46 2,336.50
49. Iredell 663 81,407.25 448 52,891.00 112 317 19,314.80
50. Jackson 285 32,037.50 233 22,606.00 52 180 9,431.50
51. Johnston 873 92,542.44 621 58,677.00 149 360 23,861.75
52. Jones 160 17,085.96 111 11,327.06 34 99 4,734.00
53. Lee 211 24,311.25 163 17,051.00 45 122 7,020.00

        * Corrected through June, 1939.



Page 73

[AVERAGE MONTHLY NUMBER OF CASES AIDED AND TOTAL ANNUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR ALL PUBLIC ASSISTANCE
BY TYPE AND COUNTIES, JULY 1, 1938-JUNE 30, 1939
J. S. KIRK, Statistician--Continued]

        
General Relief Hospitalization* Pauper Burials Boarding Home Care All Other* COUNTIES
Cases Obligations Persons Obligations Persons Obligations Persons Obligations Persons Obligations
46 $ 3,072.28 10 $ 3,213.86 1 $ 148.50 4 378.17 5 $ 539.69 1. Alamance
21 1,043.16 1 45.50 1 64.50 ---- ---- 1 68.50 2. Alexander
7 396.01 1 58.00 1 100.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 3. Alleghany
35 1,470.53 9 2,396.36 2 274.50 1 232.00 1 3.00 4. Anson
1 60.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 5. Ashe
15 700.66 1 105.50 1 45.00 1 63.00 ---- ---- 6. Avery
34 1,500.97 10 1,798.17 1 129.24 1 40.00 1 6.30 7. Beaufort
31 1,230.26 7 1,388.57 1 2.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- 8. Bertie
24 1,151.22 5 1,172.41 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1 251.81 9. Bladen
1 38.00 1 75.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 10. Brunswick
314 35,110.06 64 17,895.73 14 3,912.50 4 1,199.00 1 209.65 11. Buncombe
75 4,768.58 7 2,103.79 1 80.00 3 506.05 6 1,151.91 12. Burke
111 4,726.70 2 522.53 1 152.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- 13. Cabarrus
81 4,566.16 6 1,553.18 2 510.56 1 120.00 ---- ---- 14. Caldwell
7 269.00 1 21.00 1 100.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 15. Camden
27 1,450.55 1 234.83 1 95.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 16. Carteret
8 265.40 2 733.53 ---- ---- 1 222.00 3 65.18 17. Caswell
116 6,482.18 9 2,689.47 1 282.50 3 488.20 1 27.50 18. Catawba
26 857.58 1 153.63 1 10.00 2 300.00 ---- ---- 19. Chatham
13 1,307.61 1 513.00 2 303.25 2 462.00 1 20.00 20. Cherokee
7 613.74 3 1,139.40 1 170.50 1 75.00 1 104.60 21. Chowan
4 294.00 ---- ---- 1 43.00 1 70.00 ---- ---- 22. Clay
42 2,851.12 3 606.62 1 88.75 ---- ---- 4 836.28 23. Cleveland
36 1,287.63 ---- ---- 2 220.00 ---- ---- 3 83.58 24. Columbus
74 4,835.64 9 2,365.86 1 182.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- 25. Craven
60 2,908.99 34 10,444.58 4 900.50 4 560.70 2 187.20 26. Cumberland
19 1,326.20 3 638.36 1 12.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 27. Currituck
14 798.96 4 1,098.93 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1 49.16 28. Dare
40 1,744.66 13 3,911.54 1 195.00 1 360.00 ---- ---- 29. Davidson
46 1,977.30 2 485.66 1 67.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 30. Davie
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 31. Duplin
151 12,205.87 1 35.00 ---- ---- 20 3,405.49 17 2,808.24 32. Durham
59 2,840.38 13 4,120.85 1 113.00 4 466.00 2 248.25 33. Edgecombe
96 9,968.38 30 14,660.25 8 2,390.00 14 2,087.98 1 110.00 34. Forsyth
21 760.11 6 2,029.88 1 8.50 ---- ---- 1 10.00 35. Franklin
160 15,540.56 6 3,798.80 2 478.00 2 304.50 1 126.50 36. Gaston
8 487.00 1 106.55 1 23.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 37 Gates
14 1,200.75 1 11.00 1 198.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 38. Graham
12 655.08 7 455.92 1 23.80 ---- ---- 2 77.21 39. Granville
19 1,701.17 9 2,355.98 1 6.00 1 27.25 ---- ---- 40. Greene
193 22,673.80 78 30,749.42 5 1,525.00 16 1,967.72 12 1,415.73 41. Guilford
84 6,179.10 34 10,603.18 3 248.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 42. Halifax
14 740.94 7 2,099.47 1 96.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 43. Harnett
61 4,426.88 5 1,140.10 4 1,066.78 3 411.00 2 222.50 44. Haywood
23 679.42 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1 32.00 1 55.98 45. Henderson
12 706.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 46. Hertford
13 424.54 6 1,950.83 1 69.50 ---- ---- 1 160.21 47. Hoke
2 143.50 2 411.55 1 100.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 48. Hyde
78 4,437.36 16 3,449.39 3 573.45 5 698.50 1 42.75 49. Iredell
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 50. Jackson
74 3,691.19 25 5,637.05 1 163.95 3 511.50 ---- ---- 51. Johnston
11 672.00 1 47.00 1 82.00 1 20.00 1 203.90 52. Jones
2 192.00 ---- ---- 1 48.25 ---- ---- ---- ---- 53. Lee

        * Does not include lump sum payments to hospitals nor cases aided thereby.


        * Does not include Aid to the Blind.



Page 74

AVERAGE MONTHLY NUMBER OF CASES AIDED AND TOTAL ANNUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR ALL PUBLIC ASSISTANCE
BY TYPE AND COUNTIES, JULY 1, 1938-JUNE 30, 1939--Continued
J. S. KIRK, Statistician

        
COUNTIES Total Including Duplications Old Age AssistanceAid to Dependent Children
Cases Obligations Cases Obligations* Cases Children Obligations*
54. Lenoir 472 $ 54,915.08 310 $ 36,655.00 120 248 $ 15,091.00
55. Lincoln 317 37,287.08 236 25,604.00 50 141 9,193.50
56. Macon 234 23,829.00 177 16,331.50 40 116 5,996.00
57. Madison 405 38,692.50 317 26,846.50 88 219 11,846.00
58. Martin 269 32,906.98 166 18,073.00 41 143 8,022.00
59. McDowell 371 43,586.03 269 27,563.00 41 100 8,082.00
60. Mecklenburg 2,038 318,254.97 1,045 175,913.00 275 790 73,634.50
61. Mitchell 236 25,653.00 184 18,654.00 52 133 6,999.00
62. Montgomery 235 24,098.34 166 14,730.00 43 115 6,874.00
63. Moore 429 44,917.47 288 29,765.50 75 221 11,649.50
64. Nash 806 93,016.37 591 59,405.50 123 334 18,563.50
65. New Hanover 561 91,904.00 442 63,138.00 119 324 28,766.00
66. Northampton 418 47,689.37 287 27,888.50 82 168 12,111.50
67. Onslow 176 18,774.30 128 11,361.00 40 117 5,655.00
68. Orange 334 44,438.94 222 26,484.00 65 191 12,931.50
69. Pamlico 114 12,317.50 88 9,038.50 26 68 3,279.00
70. Pasquotank 338 35,816.33 178 19,420.00 43 133 8,342.00
71. Pender 246 22,534.30 165 14,764.00 43 111 6,266.50
72. Perquimans 128 13,923.52 93 7,833.50 24 74 4,214.00
73. Person 345 38,600.59 244 25,784.00 70 185 10,680.00
74. Pitt 735 85,916.60 487 51,562.00 137 345 23,081.50
75. Polk 112 16,271.30 91 10,947.30 21 69 5,324.00
76. Randolph 432 45,586.62 318 31,707.62 96 240 12,796.50
77. Richmond 743 63,886.82 374 36,844.00 87 236 13,714.50
78. Robeson 792 94,676.35 530 55,019.00 148 440 25,006.60
79. Rockingham 612 77,083.79 475 51,929.50 76 223 17,979.00
80. Rowan 768 93,470.09 530 58,886.00 124 302 24,443.80
81. Rutherford 686 72,797.03 529 50,283.50 109 335 17,732.00
82. Sampson 484 52,016.53 346 33,344.00 90 251 14,867.00
83. Scotland 298 25,045.50 191 15,799.50 46 117 6,191.50
84. Stanly 377 43,535.46 272 28,695.20 76 199 12,091.00
85. Stokes 341 41,119.31 268 28,539.00 55 151 10,564.50
86. Surry 607 76,670.73 447 50,412.00 101 274 17,091.00
87. Swain 272 27,795.69 189 18,989.00 50 119 6,248.00
88. Transylvania 212 20,149.87 145 14,037.00 34 93 4,641.15
89. Tyrrell 105 11,481.17 68 6,623.00 21 51 3,387.00
90. Union 501 64,598.91 345 40,327.00 79 243 15,949.00
91. Vance 407 44,328.50 213 22,504.25 48 154 8,902.80
92. Wake 1,084 135,700.41 579 71,074.44 265 753 52,581.04
93. Warren 356 36,290.48 253 26,004.00 44 120 7,612.00
94. Washington 141 14,694.97 95 8,291.00 29 87 4,711.00
95. Watauga 213 22,118.87 159 14,079.00 34 127 6,718.00
96. Wayne 655 81,683.03 465 55,571.50 110 275 21,640.00
97. Wilkes 585 62,600.09 455 44,944.00 101 299 16,369.00
98. Wilson 843 89,800.76 647 61,360.00 87 262 14,490.00
99. Yadkin 257 24,959.46 191 15,675.00 48 145 7,935.00
100. Yancey 243 24,426.24 188 16,777.00 47 125 6,629.00
Total 46,467 $5,693.899.07 31,610 $3,567,517.87 7,729 20,964 $1,421,821.34
Wilmington Asso. Char. 193 $ 10,029.03 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Winston-Salem Assoc. Char. 579 44,175.15 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

        * Corrected through June, 1939.



Page 75

        

[AVERAGE MONTHLY NUMBER OF CASES AIDED AND TOTAL ANNUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR ALL PUBLIC ASSISTANCE
BY TYPE AND COUNTIES, JULY 1, 1938-JUNE 30, 1939
J. S. KIRK, Statistician--Continued]

General Relief Hospitalization* Pauper Burials Boarding Home Care All Other* COUNTIES
Cases Obligations Persons Obligations Persons Obligations Persons Obligations Persons Obligations
38 $ 2,594.94 ---- $ ---- 2 $ 228.00 ---- $ ---- 2 $ 346.14 54. Lenoir
24 1,490.09 1 114.19 1 301.50 3 350.50 2 233.30 55. Lincoln
10 377.50 ---- ---- 1 200.00 5 900.00 1 24.00 56. Macon
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 57. Madison
41 2,236.82 17 3,823.66 1 148.00 2 598.50 1 5.00 58. Martin
46 4,383.10 11 2,503.63 2 473.00 1 240.00 1 341.30 59. McDowell
650 58,523.39 2 305.30 13 1,569.00 53 8,309.78 ---- ---- 60. Mecklenburg
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 61. Mitchell
21 1,530.38 2 793.96 1 20.60 ---- ---- 2 149.40 62. Montgomery
62 3,139.86 2 304.11 1 30.00 ---- ---- 1 28.50 63. Moore
47 2,509.93 23 8,455.62 2 206.00 1 240.00 19 3,635.82 64. Nash
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 65. New Hanover
27 1,926.63 17 4,719.14 1 67.00 3 958.60 1 18.00 66. Northampton
4 167.00 3 1,576.30 1 15.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 67. Onslow
31 1,762.26 9 2,202.19 1 75.00 4 693.66 2 290.33 68. Orange
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 69. Pamlico
96 3,270.65 18 4,436.18 2 287.50 1 60.00 ---- ---- 70. Pasquotank
37 1,346.80 1 157.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 71. Pender
5 180.85 2 1,072.17 1 133.00 2 480.00 1 10.00 72. Perquimans
23 885.03 5 1,081.56 ---- ---- 2 140.00 1 30.00 73. Person
72 3,511.82 34 7,255.28 4 296.00 1 210.00 ---- ---- 74. Pitt
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 75. Polk
18 1,082.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 76. Randolph
267 10,644.79 13 2,511.53 2 172.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 77. Richmond
72 3,509.50 42 11,141.25 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 78. Robeson
40 2,564.37 15 4,066.32 1 217.00 4 302.40 1 25.20 79. Rockingham
97 5,776.71 13 3,752.08 1 348.50 2 254.00 1 9.00 80. Rowan
38 2,311.11 5 1,478.42 1 200.00 4 792.00 ---- ---- 81. Rutherford
39 1,381.13 9 3,424.40 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 82. Sampson
61 3,054.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 83. Scotland
20 1,341.45 8 1,376.31 1 31.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- 84. Stanly
12 622.48 4 1,198.83 1 134.50 1 60.00 ---- ---- 85. Stokes
31 2,751.02 25 5,820.28 2 414.25 1 182.18 ---- ---- 86. Surry
29 1,840.24 1 145.75 1 411.70 1 6.00 1 155.00 87. Swain
29 766.21 1 269.61 1 75.90 2 360.00 ---- ---- 88. Transylvania
10 582.62 4 741.05 1 135.00 ---- ---- 1 12.50 89. Tyrrell
55 2,795.88 18 5,225.50 1 105.00 3 196.53 ---- ---- 90. Union
126 9,244.16 13 3,226.89 1 91.75 ---- ---- 6 358.65 91. Vance
238 11,869.98 1 47.95 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1 127.00 92. Wake
55 1,531.06 2 987.33 1 38.00 ---- ---- 1 118.09 93. Warren
12 590.44 2 788.90 2 255.50 1 58.13 ---- ---- 94. Washington
12 816.69 ---- ---- 1 235.00 ---- ---- 7 270.18 95. Watauga
72 3,289.49 5 878.36 2 183.75 1 119.93 ---- ---- 96. Wayne
23 668.83 3 475.56 1 25.00 1 112.50 1 5.20 97. Wilkes
71 5,493.46 27 7,222.30 2 195.00 9 1,040.00 ---- ---- 98. Wilson
16 1,225.96 1 62.00 1 61.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- 99. Yadkin
4 395.50 1 179.56 1 354.18 1 65.00 1 26.00 100. Yancey
5,890 $399,622.49 804 $234,847.70 121 $ 23,037.66 202 $ 31,737.77 111 $ 15,304.24 Total
193 $ 10,029.03 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Wilmington Asso. Char.
579 44,175.15 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Winston-Salem Assoc. Char.

        * Does not include lump sum payments to hospitals nor cases aided thereby.


        * Does not include Aid to the Blind.



Page 76

AVERAGE MONTHLY NUMBER OF CASES AIDED AND TOTAL ANNUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR ALL PUBLIC ASSISTANCE
BY TYPE AND COUNTIES, JULY 1, 1939-JUNE 30, 1940
J. S. KIRK, Statistician

        
COUNTIES Total Including Duplications Old Age Assistance Aid to Dependent Children
Cases Obligations* Cases Obligations* Cases Children Obligations*
1. Alamance 700 $ 105,073.09 532 $ 77,505.00 126 312 $ 22,302.00
2. Alexander 315 30,458.24 240 22,647.00 61 125 7,258.00
3. Alleghany 174 18,149.90 130 13,122.00 36 83 4,378.00
4. Anson 444 51,007.09 329 34,759.00 70 175 11,953.00
5. Ashe 331 35,300.00 275 28,168.00 55 127 7,072.00
6. Avery 259 27,564.65 194 20,300.50 48 107 6,221.00
7. Beaufort 434 41,759.77 294 26,470.00 79 163 10,606.50
8. Bertie 410 47,921.43 302 33,006.00 75 182 12,496.00
9. Bladen 328 37,715.49 227 25,342.50 66 160 9,677.00
10. Brunswick 241 24,048.00 186 16,264.00 42 119 6,837.00
11. Buncombe 1,663 277,420.83 913 152,513.50 256 681 60,603.00
12. Burke 457 61,313.42 315 37,837.00 67 180 14,489.00
13. Cabarrus 616 84,542.21 415 56,087.50 88 238 22,060.00
14. Caldwell 500 55,346.17 326 32,802.00 88 242 15,145.00
15. Camden 103 11,724.50 78 8,646.00 19 37 2,793.00
16. Carteret 298 29,860.16 221 20,758.00 40 104 6,015.00
17. Caswell 294 32,836.30 235 22,994.54 48 154 8,473.50
18. Catawba 666 81,409.23 449 53,630.50 95 253 17,827.00
19. Chatham 283 30,561.88 207 21,101.00 48 121 8,315.50
20. Cherokee 282 36,965.35 212 24,924.40 50 141 9,297.00
21. Chowan 148 16,778.57 111 10,693.00 21 41 3,624.00
22. Clay 113 13,572.00 95 10,520.00 18 55 3,052.00
23. Cleveland 698 86,766.68 511 59,907.00 122 311 21,269.00
24. Columbus 542 55,596.50 398 38,004.00 125 305 16,841.00
25. Craven 633 70,343.32 446 43,393.00 98 236 18,592.00
26. Cumberland 706 101,486.90 470 63,121.50 117 322 22,001.10
27. Currituck 159 19,141.48 101 10,785.00 30 77 4,716.00
28. Dare 189 21,197.79 143 15,962.00 34 57 4,357.00
29. Davidson 705 98,918.30 515 64,562.00 130 327 25,432.00
30. Davie 314 32,613.51 216 22,184.00 53 114 7,782.00
31. Duplin 387 51,050.50 302 35,593.00 74 178 15,009.00
32. Durham 1,021 171,837.68 617 102,550.00 177 451 41,727.00
33. Edgecombe 803 96,354.48 593 64,853.00 137 339 23,278.00
34. Forsyth 1,441 279,325.84 1,032 169,225.00 228 655 73,972.50
35. Franklin 401 43,748.29 301 30,443.00 60 162 9,440.00
36. Gaston 1,474 203,131.39 1,095 127,468.00 223 567 52,405.50
37. Gates 172 19,577.80 130 13,497.50 29 60 4,966.50
38. Graham 153 17,927.00 132 14,821.00 21 55 3,106.00
39. Granville 389 47,346.84 300 32,896.75 61 148 10,395.50
40. Greene 257 32,520.68 173 18,357.50 51 116 8,794.50
41. Guilford 1,800 352,382.45 1,120 194,793.50 304 786 89,010.00
42. Halifax 723 91,841.04 463 49,194.50 109 233 22,005.50
43. Harnett 577 65,385.62 455 46,271.00 96 263 15,400.00
44. Haywood 614 80,626.50 443 57,987.60 92 263 16,055.40
45. Henderson 430 51,110.41 316 36,111.00 90 243 14,208.00
46. Hertford 252 28,513.57 197 19,816.00 38 84 7,566.50
47. Hoke 255 28,056.06 192 20,281.92 44 105 5,611.80
48. Hyde 137 14,478.50 111 10,870.00 21 45 2,909.50
49. Iredell 731 93,203.87 499 62,610.00 114 306 21,133.40
50. Jackson 333 40,119.50 274 28,820.50 59 196 11,299.00
51. Johnston 862 95,737.62 618 61,397.50 155 369 24,516.00
52. Jones 174 19,640.86 124 13,591.86 38 101 5,408.00
53. Lee 239 28,866.25 190 20,881.00 47 107 7,845.25

        * Corrected through June, 1939.



Page 77

        

[AVERAGE MONTHLY NUMBER OF CASES AIDED AND TOTAL ANNUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR ALL PUBLIC ASSISTANCE
BY TYPE AND COUNTIES, JULY 1, 1939-JUNE 30, 1940
J. S. KIRK, Statistician--Continued]

General Relief Hospitalization* Pauper Burials Boarding Home Care All Other* COUNTIES
Cases Obligations Persons Obligations Persons Obligations Persons Obligations Persons Obligations
24 $ 1,809.83 11 $ 2,591.26 1 $ 120.00 4 $ 496.00 2 $ 249.00 1. Alamance
11 452.24 1 40.00 1 49.00 ---- ---- 1 12.00 2. Alexander
6 336.90 1 205.50 1 107.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- 3. Alleghany
34 1,641.46 8 2,121.46 2 280.50 1 251.67 ---- ---- 4. Anson
1 60.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 5. Ashe
15 763.00 1 148.50 1 131.65 ---- ---- ---- ---- 6. Avery
47 2,221.77 10 1,931.35 2 233.50 ---- ---- 2 296.65 7. Beaufort
27 1,080.25 6 1,339.18 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 8. Bertie
29 1,308.40 6 1,387.59 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 9. Bladen
7 325.00 5 592.00 1 30.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 10. Brunswick
425 44,556.61 54 15,289.34 13 3,879.95 2 578.43 ---- ---- 11. Buncombe
54 3,843.90 10 3,030.89 1 162.00 9 1,624.20 1 326.43 12. Burke
107 5,220.42 5 1,115.79 1 58.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- 13. Cabarrus
78 5,094.63 5 1,643.54 2 481.00 1 180.00 ---- ---- 14. Caldwell
4 202.50 1 20.00 1 63.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 15. Camden
31 1,845.99 2 416.01 1 216.50 ---- ---- 3 608.66 16. Carteret
6 195.02 3 895.75 ---- ---- 1 222.00 1 55.49 17. Caswell
110 6,158.38 9 3,189.35 1 345.00 2 259.00 ---- ---- 18. Catawba
24 733.53 1 89.35 1 22.50 2 300.00 ---- ---- 19. Chatham
14 1,507.55 2 366.25 2 408.15 2 462.00 ---- ---- 20. Cherokee
10 946.32 3 1,271.90 1 159.00 1 60.00 1 24.35 21. Chowan
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 22. Clay
55 3,788.92 9 1,751.76 1 50.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 23. Cleveland
16 504.00 ---- ---- 3 247.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- 24. Columbus
76 4,837.07 11 3,267.50 2 253.75 ---- ---- ---- ---- 25. Craven
82 5,517.79 28 9,421.11 3 674.00 5 609.81 1 141.59 26. Cumberland
19 1,594.22 8 2,022.26 1 24.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 27. Currituck
8 499.05 1 264.74 1 37.00 1 31.00 1 47.00 28. Dare
40 2,170.29 18 6,187.01 1 207.00 1 360.00 ---- ---- 29. Davidson
39 1,692.97 4 756.54 1 160.00 ---- ---- 1 38.00 30. Davie
11 448.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 31. Duplin
172 18,600.58 ---- ---- ---- ---- 30 4,168.37 25 4,791.73 32. Durham
52 2,676.98 13 4,831.00 2 152.00 4 338.50 2 225.00 33. Edgecombe
130 14,638.61 26 16,462.59 8 2,416.00 16 2,339.44 1 271.70 34. Forsyth
30 1,088.10 10 2,777.19 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 35. Franklin
135 14,168.50 14 7,947.39 3 562.00 3 514.00 1 66.00 36. Gaston
11 701.55 1 225.25 1 187.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 37. Gates
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 38. Graham
12 515.69 13 3,437.05 1 20.60 1 35.00 1 46.25 39. Granville
23 2,289.44 9 3,062.49 1 16.75 ---- ---- ---- ---- 40. Greene
254 28,505.39 83 33,463.44 5 1,742.75 34 4,867.37 ---- ---- 41. Guilford
107 9,124.59 41 11,326.45 3 190.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 42. Halifax
13 754.24 11 2,736.38 2 224.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 43. Harnett
68 4,605.58 3 645.02 2 681.90 5 540.00 1 111.00 44. Haywood
24 791.41 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 45. Henderson
16 814.00 1 317.07 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 46. Hertford
13 437.20 5 1,610.14 1 115.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 47. Hoke
3 289.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 2 410.00 48. Hyde
101 5,978.52 11 2,558.49 3 623.00 2 192.80 1 107.66 49. Iredell
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 50. Jackson
59 2,648.01 26 6,528.26 1 129.50 3 518.35 ---- ---- 51. Johnston
9 511.00 1 6.00 1 105.00 ---- ---- 1 19.00 52. Jones
2 140.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 53. Lee

        * Does not include lump sum payments to hospitals nor cases aided thereby.


        * Does not include Aid to the Blind.



Page 78

        

AVERAGE MONTHLY NUMBER OF CASES AIDED AND TOTAL ANNUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR ALL PUBLIC ASSISTANCE
BY TYPE AND COUNTIES, JULY 1, 1939-JUNE 30, 1940 --Continued
J. S. KIRK, Statistician

COUNTIES Total Including Duplications Old Age Assistance Aid to Dependent Children
Cases Obligations Cases Obligations* Cases Children Obligations*
54. Lenoir 553 $ 65,171.12 345 $ 42,354.00 129 249 $ 16,623.00
55. Lincoln 363 43,759.08 274 30,662.00 60 153 10,696.50
56. Macon 293 31,642.24 223 23,309.40 44 115 6,145.00
57. Madison 456 48,205.00 350 33,565.00 106 240 14,640.00
58. Martin 298 38,660.71 189 21,494.00 50 161 10,068.00
59. McDowell 426 56,895.73 315 38,716.50 49 99 9,700.00
60. Mecklenburg 2,245 366,899.67 1,197 209,186.06 294 765 81,607.50
61. Mitchell 265 35,348.00 211 26,774.00 54 130 8,574.00
62. Montgomery 271 28,915.42 200 19,750.00 48 118 7,307.00
63. Moore 481 55,747.02 315 36,862.00 79 222 12,492.00
64. Nash 822 100,379.60 614 66,016.50 125 339 21,350.00
65. New Hanover 625 105,211.00 496 73,468.00 129 341 31,743.00
66. Northampton 447 53,823.70 304 30,694.00 93 176 13,950.00
67. Onslow 183 21,336.89 128 11,455.00 45 127 6,701.00
68. Orange 363 49,482.21 242 29,813.00 65 202 14,236.00
69. Pamlico 145 15,759.50 97 10,333.00 35 89 4,563.75
70. Pasquotank 362 40,613.33 200 22,507.00 45 142 9,295.00
71. Pender 270 28,140.70 193 20,201.00 44 114 6,463.00
72. Perquimans 141 15,545.01 100 8,786.00 27 75 4,941.00
73. Person 375 45,019.84 270 30,198.00 77 193 12,682.00
74. Pitt 829 94,756.94 532 56,666.50 159 364 25,172.00
75. Polk 156 22,160.30 128 15,468.90 28 89 6,691.40
76. Randolph 444 46,151.40 323 31,584.60 102 241 12,949.00
77. Richmond 723 72,108.16 446 46,378.00 98 231 15,781.00
78. Robeson 856 106,740.98 537 59,648.00 157 445 26,153.30
79. Rockingham 659 89,041.25 500 58,817.00 87 236 22,140.00
80. Rowan 748 108,508.35 564 70,637.32 62 335 27,353.30
81. Rutherford 739 87,645.43 558 61,423.25 114 319 19,904.50
82. Sampson 524 60,651.76 372 38,915.50 105 276 16,851.50
83. Scotland 312 28,187.74 199 17,405.50 53 136 7,259.50
84. Stanly 413 50,165.76 293 33,129.30 84 210 13,337.00
85. Stokes 381 47,542.41 294 33,061.00 66 177 11,840.00
86. Surry 676 86,092.90 504 58,909.58 111 267 18,846.00
87. Swain 293 33,507.62 217 24,432.00 57 119 7,382.60
88. Transylvania 267 29,990.83 191 21,446.00 36 95 5,724.00
89. Tyrrell 115 13,321.34 74 7,540.00 22 52 3,874.50
90. Union 549 75,502.54 392 49,216.00 88 253 17,253.00
91. Vance 378 49,033.16 256 30,353.00 56 162 11,155.50
92. Wake 1,189 169,248.72 667 92,610.20 285 797 61,111.00
93. Warren 398 42,697.51 290 30,233.50 48 125 8,630.00
94. Washington 161 18,749.13 113 10,814.00 32 84 5,793.00
95. Watauga 230 25,223.54 174 16,677.00 38 127 7,566.00
96. Wayne 726 86,964.58 500 57,889.50 121 283 22,917.15
97. Wilkes 746 81,949.74 568 60,117.50 130 319 19,480.00
98. Wilson 966 108,627.81 691 68,673.50 110 292 17,337.00
99. Yadkin 303 31,839.29 223 21,408.66 62 133 8,663.00
100. Yancey 280 30,363.59 216 21,229.00 49 130 7,059.00
Total 50,075 $6,533,503.46 34,848 $4,181,169.84 8,431 21,728 $1,609,549.45
Wilmington Asso. Char. 248 $ 12,908.18 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Winston-Salem Assoc. Char. 742 61,943.23 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

        * Corrected through June, 1939.



Page 79

        

[AVERAGE MONTHLY NUMBER OF CASES AIDED AND TOTAL ANNUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR ALL PUBLIC ASSISTANCE
BY TYPE AND COUNTIES, JULY 1, 1939-JUNE 30, 1940 --Continued
J. S. KIRK, Statistician]

General Relief Hospitalization* Pauper Burials Boarding Home Care All Other* COUNTIES
Cases Obligations Persons Obligations Persons Obligations Persons Obligations Persons Obligations
74 $ 5,451.12 1 $ 100.00 3 $ 443.00 ---- $ ---- 1 $ 200.00 54. Lenoir
25 1,665.19 1 426.80 1 176.00 1 114.75 1 17.84 55. Lincoln
15 606.34 1 87.50 2 420.00 5 900.00 3 174.00 56. Macon
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 57. Madison
39 2,015.35 17 4,641.36 1 92.00 2 350.00 ---- ---- 58. Martin
46 4,652.53 12 2,843.33 2 651.50 1 225.00 1 106.87 59. McDowell
683 64,819.54 1 120.00 12 1,405.00 58 9,761.57 ---- ---- 60. Mecklenburg
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 61. Mitchell
14 911.38 2 530.22 1 10.00 ---- ---- 6 406.82 62. Montgomery
82 5,294.75 1 593.77 1 30.50 2 420.00 1 54.00 63. Moore
44 2,318.02 22 7,476.12 2 296.50 ---- ---- 15 2,922.46 64. Nash
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 65. New Hanover
26 2,232.14 17 5,795.87 1 83.69 5 1,003.00 1 65.00 66. Northampton
4 166.50 5 2,969.39 1 45.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 67. Onslow
39 1,764.86 12 2,901.35 1 144.50 4 622.50 ---- ---- 68. Orange
11 743.00 ---- ---- 1 63.75 1 56.00 ---- ---- 69. Pamlico
95 3,737.82 20 4,821.51 2 252.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 70. Pasquotank
33 1,476.70 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 71. Pender
9 364.60 2 721.41 1 252.00 2 480.00 ---- ---- 72. Perquimans
21 903.56 5 1,115.50 ---- ---- 1 81.25 1 39.53 73. Person
97 5,025.34 36 7,415.60 4 302.50 1 175.00 ---- ---- 74. Pitt
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 75. Polk
19 1,617.80 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 76. Randolph
163 7,139.77 15 2,680.89 1 128.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- 77. Richmond
80 4,449.60 57 15,149.75 ---- ---- ---- ---- 25 1,340.33 78. Robeson
44 2,461.87 18 4,480.38 1 294.50 7 727.50 2 120.00 79. Rockingham
107 7,088.69 11 2,859.04 2 269.00 2 301.00 ---- ---- 80. Rowan
49 3,033.74 9 1,814.44 2 317.50 7 1,152.00 ---- ---- 81. Rutherford
39 1,541.16 8 3,343.60 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 82. Sampson
60 3,522.14 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 83. Scotland
25 1,770.10 10 1,907.36 1 22.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- 84. Stanly
11 531.70 8 1,967.21 1 82.50 1 60.00 ---- ---- 85. Stokes
32 1,905.32 24 5,432.87 2 223.50 2 330.25 1 445.38 86. Surry
16 993.67 1 395.85 1 288.50 ---- ---- 1 15.00 87. Swain
33 1,475.86 4 790.49 1 194.48 2 360.00 ---- ---- 88. Transylvania
14 951.14 3 695.70 1 225.00 1 35.00 ---- ---- 89. Tyrrell
47 2,628.47 18 6,148.54 2 157.50 2 99.03 ---- ---- 90. Union
50 3,147.14 11 3,887.93 1 67.00 ---- ---- 4 422.59 91. Vance
230 14,683.52 ---- ---- ---- ---- 7 844.00 ---- ---- 92. Wake
52 2,115.16 6 1,691.38 1 19.00 ---- ---- 1 8.47 93. Warren
10 524.08 4 1,484.30 1 100.50 1 33.25 ---- ---- 94. Washington
14 840.54 1 15.00 1 5.00 ---- ---- 2 120.00 95. Watauga
97 5,041.89 5 900.59 2 144.25 1 71.20 ---- ---- 96. Wayne
42 998.00 3 1,164.24 1 20.00 1 165.00 1 5.00 97. Wilkes
92 9,950.79 60 11,029.52 4 435.00 9 1,202.00 ---- ---- 98. Wilson
16 1,422.13 1 183.00 1 162.50 ---- ---- ---- ---- 99. Yadkin
7 861.63 3 612.44 1 333.11 1 35.00 3 233.41 100. Yancey
5,350 $395,479.55 926 $270,484.39 144 $ 23,723.78 257 $ 38,552.24 119 $ 14,544.21 Total
248 $ 12,908.18 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Wilmington Asso. Char.
742 61,943.23 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Winston-Salem Assoc. Char.

        * Does not include lump sum payments to hospitals nor cases aided thereby.


        * Does not include Aid to the Blind.



Page 80

OLD AGE ASSISTANCE: INDIVIDUALS ACCEPTED

During the Period July 1, 1938, Through June 30, 1940

RACE AND MONTHLY PAYMENT

        
Monthly Payment Number of Individuals of Specified Race Accepted for Old Age Assistance
July 1, 1938-June 30, 1939 July 1, 1939-June 30, 1940
All Races White Negro Indian All Races White Negro Indian
Total 8,199 5,821 2,329 49 7,009 4,727 2,252 30
Less than $1.00 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
$1.00-$1.99 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
2.00- 2.99 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
3.00- 3.99 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
4.00- 4.99 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
5.00- 5.99 650 363 282 5 363 214 149 ----
6.00- 6.99 888 436 430 22 632 300 323 9
7.00- 7.99 705 508 194 3 560 308 251 1
8.00- 8.99 2,139 1,448 680 11 1,951 1,276 663 12
9.00- 9.99 184 139 45 ---- 162 126 36 ----
10.00-10.99 1,583 1,223 356 4 1,814 1,357 451 6
11.00-11.99 39 29 10 ---- 32 23 9 ----
12.00-12.99 548 413 135 ---- 562 385 177 ----
13.00-13.99 18 12 6 ---- 12 9 3 ----
14.00-14.99 92 62 30 ---- 101 60 41 ----
15.00-15.99 388 300 87 1 367 292 74 1
16.00-16.99 61 39 22 ---- 56 37 19 ----
17.00-17.99 4 2 2 ---- 6 2 4 ----
18.00-18.99 40 27 13 ---- 38 25 13 ----
19.00-19.99 3 2 1 ---- 2 1 1 ----
20.00-20.99 128 104 24 ---- 166 140 25 1
21.00-21.99 1 1 ---- ---- 5 5 ---- ----
22.00-22.99 2 2 ---- ---- 4 2 2 ----
23.00-23.99 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
24.00-24.99 7 4 3 ---- 8 5 3 ----
25.00-25.99 583 574 6 3 133 129 4 ----
26.00-26.99 1 ---- 1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
27.00-27.99 ---- ---- ---- ---- 1 ---- 1 ----
28.00-28.99 10 10 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
29.00-29.99 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
30.00-30.99 125 123 2 ---- 34 31 3 ----


Page 81

OLD AGE ASSISTANCE: INDIVIDUALS ACCEPTED

During the Period July 1, 1938, Through June 30, 1940

AGE AND SEX

        
AgeNumber of Individuals of Specified Sex Accepted for Old Age Assistance
July 1, 1938-June 30, 1939 July 1, 1939-June 30, 1940
All Races All Races
Total Male Female Total Male Female
Total 8,199 3,693 4,506 7,009 3,465 3,544
60 and under 61 years ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
61 and under 62 years ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
62 and under 63 years ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
63 and under 64 years ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
64 and under 65 years ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
65 and under 66 years 386 156 230 475 216 259
66 and under 67 years 749 342 407 797 372 425
67 and under 68 years 704 354 350 710 360 350
68 and under 69 years 650 314 336 638 315 323
69 and under 70 years 635 324 311 543 305 238
70 and under 71 years 494 271 223 500 264 236
71 and under 72 years 493 239 254 403 225 178
72 and under 73 years 479 221 258 400 214 186
73 and under 74 years 429 194 235 367 186 181
74 and under 75 years 393 182 211 314 156 158
75 and under 76 years 273 134 139 257 130 127
76 and under 77 years 300 131 169 192 102 90
77 and under 78 years 320 150 170 202 94 108
78 and under 79 years 320 126 194 176 75 101
79 and under 80 years 201 88 113 186 86 100
80 and under 81 years 179 68 111 162 74 88
81 and under 82 years 183 80 103 134 58 76
82 and under 83 years 142 56 86 117 49 68
83 and under 84 years 140 54 86 85 36 49
84 and under 85 years 135 39 96 85 34 51
85 and under 86 years 106 31 75 55 27 28
86 and under 87 years 95 34 61 53 22 31
87 and under 88 years 100 34 66 36 20 16
88 and under 89 years 55 12 43 31 14 17
89 and under 90 years 53 22 31 16 5 11
90 and under 91 years 38 9 29 28 13 15
91 and under 92 years 31 9 22 15 6 9
92 and under 93 years 12 3 9 7 3 4
93 and under 94 years 33 2 31 8 1 7
94 and under 95 years 22 4 18 4 ---- 4
95 and under 96 years 14 2 12 5 1 4
96 and under 97 years 9 1 8 1 ---- 1
97 and under 98 years 4 1 3 1 ---- 1
98 and under 99 years 1 ---- 1 2 ---- 2
99 and under 100 years 3 1 2 2 1 1
100 years and over 18 5 13 2 1 1


Page 82

OLD AGE ASSISTANCE: CASES CLOSED

During the Period July 1, 1938, Through June 30, 1940

REASON FOR CLOSING

        
Reason for Closing Number of Individuals Closed for Old Age Assistance
July 1, 1938-June 30, 1939 July 1, 1939-June 30, 1940
Total 4,692 4,949
Death 3,338 4,001
Admitted to public institution 200 223
Admitted to voluntary institution 11 2
Became self-supporting 177 126
Relatives became able to support 413 221
Moved out of county 148 77
Moved out of State 73 83
Transferred to another form of assistance 201 62
Grant combined with that of spouse or transferred to another person in household 41 44
Other 90 110


Page 83

AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN: CASES ACCEPTED

During the Period July 1, 1938, Through June 30, 1940

MONTHLY PAYMENT AND NUMBER OF CASES ACCEPTED FOR AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN

        
Monthly Payment Number of Cases Accepted for Aid to Dependent Children Monthly Payment Number of Cases Accepted for Aid to Dependent Children
July 1, 1938- June 30, 1939 July 1, 1939- June 30, 1940 July 1, 1938- June 30, 1939 July 1, 1939- June 30, 1940
Total 2,524 2,738      
      $26.00-26.99 3 3
Less than $1.00 ---- ---- 27.00-27.99 6 5
$1.00-$1.99 ---- ---- 28.00-28.99 9 7
2.00- 2.99 ---- ---- 29.00-29.99 1 ----
3.00- 3.99 ---- ---- 30.00-30.99 94 162
4.00- 4.99 5 2 31.00-31.99 ---- ----
5.00- 5.99 146 114 32.00-32.99 6 6
6.00- 6.99 68 55 33.00-33.99 4 2
7.00- 7.99 46 45 34.00-34.99 ---- 1
8.00- 8.99 155 112 35.00-35.99 37 26
9.00- 9.99 59 31 36.00-36.99 5 8
10.00-10.99 475 447 37.00-37.99 1 1
11.00-11.99 1 8 38.00-38.99 ---- ----
12.00-12.99 213 257 39.00-39.99 1 ----
13.00-13.99 15 14 40.00-40.99 25 46
14.00-14.99 23 29 41.00-41.99 ---- ----
15.00-15.99 440 473 42.00-42.99 1 6
16.00-16.99 48 52 43.00-43.99 ---- ----
17.00-17.99 10 12 44.00-44.99 ---- ----
18.00-18.99 155 244 45.00-45.99 5 5
19.00-19.99 2 3 46.00-46.99 ---- ----
20.00-20.99 258 315 47.00-47.99 ---- ----
21.00-21.99 30 18 48.00-48.99 1 3
22.00-22.99 14 14 49.00-49.99 ---- ----
23.00-23.99 1 4 50.00 and over 8 17
24.00-24.99 31 26      
25.00-25.99 122 165      


Page 84

AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN: CASES ACCEPTED

During the Period July 1, 1938, Through June 30, 1940

WHEREABOUTS OF CHILD AND WHEREABOUTS OR MARITAL STATUS OF PARENTS

        
WHEREABOUTS OF CHILD AND WHEREABOUTS OR MARITAL STATUS OF PARENTSNumber of Cases Accepted for Aid to Dependent Children
July 1, 1938-June 30, 1939 July 1, 1939-June 30, 1940
Families Children Families Children
Total 2,524 6,214 2,738 6,656
Child living with parents 506 1,337 548 1,435
With both parents 495 1,311 535 1,404
With mother and stepfather 9 20 9 22
With father and stepmother 2 6 4 9
Child living with mother 1,641 4,164 1,834 4,557
Mother unmarried 69 102 80 142
Father dead 1,005 2,561 1,068 2,654
Father deserting 201 544 185 431
Father divorced 36 56 34 72
Father legally separated 5 11 9 24
Father separated without court decree 32 72 11 30
Father in institution 275 770 439 1,189
Father elsewhere 18 48 8 15
Child living with father 39 107 46 112
Mother dead 31 93 35 94
Mother deserting 4 6 4 5
Mother divorced ---- ---- 3 6
Mother legally separated ---- ---- ---- ----
Mother separated without court decree ---- ---- ---- ----
Mother in institution 4 8 4 7
Mother elsewhere ---- ---- ---- ----
Child living elsewhere 338 606 310 552
With relatives within second degree 220 412 209 379
With more distant relatives 118 194 101 173
With unrelated persons ---- ---- ---- ----


Page 85

AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN: CASES ACCEPTED

During the Period July 1, 1938, Through June 30, 1940

REASON FOR DEPENDENCY

        
DEPRIVED OF SUPPORT OR CARE BY REASON OF Number of Cases Accepted for Aid to Dependent Children
July 1, 1938-June 30, 1939 July 1, 1939-June 30, 1940
Families Children Families Children
Total 2,524 6,214 2,738 6,656
Mother 17 43 12 35
Dead 10 28 9 30
Continued absence from home ---- ---- 1 2
Physically incapacitated 5 8 2 3
Mentally incapacitated 2 7 ---- ----
Father 2,048 5,261 2,268 5,744
Dead 969 2,465 1,037 2,588
Continued absence from home 512 1,253 612 1,502
Physically incapacitated 521 1,419 572 1,517
Mentally incapacitated 46 124 47 137
Both parents 459 910 458 877
Dead 121 224 127 250
Continued absence from home 38 66 32 45
Physically incapacitated 36 76 43 101
Mentally incapacitated ---- ---- 1 2
One dead, one absent 115 216 104 168
One dead, one physically incapacitated 73 187 71 155
One dead, one mentally incapacitated 19 25 12 29
One absent, one physically incapacitated 36 75 48 89
One absent, one mentally incapacitated 14 26 11 21
One physically incapacitated, one mentally incapacitated 7 15 9 17
Other ---- ---- ---- ----


Page 86

AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN: CASES ACCEPTED

During the Period July 1, 1938, Through June 30, 1940

RELATIONSHIP TO DEPENDENT CHILD OF PERSON TO WHOM MONTHY PAYMENT WAS APPROVED

        
RELATIONSHIP TO DEPENDENT CHILD OF PERSON TO WHOM PAYMENT WAS APPROVED Number of Cases Accepted for Aid to Dependent Children
July 1, 1938-June 30, 1939 July 1, 1939-June 30, 1940
Total 2,524 2,738
Father 146 122
Mother 2,016 2,262
Grandfather 47 43
Grandmother 121 120
Brother 6 18
Sister 47 42
Adoptive or stepfather 3 2
Adoptive or stepmother 11 20
Half, adoptive, or stepbrother or brother-in-law 4 5
Half, adoptive, or stepsister or sister-in-law 4 5
Uncle 25 24
Aunt 90 69
Other eligible relative 4 4
Other ---- 2
Unknown ---- ----

AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN: CASES CLOSED

During the Period July 1, 1938, Through June 30, 1940

REASON FOR CLOSING

        
REASON FOR CLOSING Number of Cases Closed for Aid to Dependent Children
July 1, 1938-June 30, 1939 July 1, 1939-June 30, 1940
Total 1,703 1,702
Child reached maximum age 115 270
Death of dependent child 9 5
Dependent child or children admitted to institution 29 23
Transferred to another form of assistance 181 56
Relatives became able to support 898 851
Moved to another county 59 61
Moved to another state 49 38
Change of payee 97 59
Other 266 339


Page 87

DIVISION OF CASE WORK TRAINING AND
FAMILY REHABILITATION

ANNA A. CASSATT, Director

        During the biennium the division has served the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare and the University of North Carolina division of public welfare and social work, in the organizing and planning of the annual public welfare institutes of 1938 and 1939.

        The division has had a certain amount of responsibility and leadership in some aspects of staff development, particularly as related to in-service training for the county staffs. Means for carrying forward staff development have included series of one-day institutes, conferences, suggested bibliography for reading and study, the manual on budgeting, supervision of social case work practice in the counties through the work of the field social work representatives, study committees and other devices.

        Included also is work with representatives of the Work Projects Administration on problems, policies, procedures and forms involved in referral, especially as they relate to the establishment of need. This division has served in a liaison capacity between the National Youth Administration and the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare. Applications for surplus commodities for school lunch rooms and certain problems relating to these have been in a small measure the responsibility of the division as related to establishing need.

        In studying the work of the division, it is estimated that approximately 45 per cent of its time has been devoted to social case work training through activities described above. About 40 per cent has been given to referral and certification responsibilities, in connection with the Work Projects Administration, National Youth Administration, and surplus commodities for school lunch rooms. The remaining time was used on assignments related to these two fields.

PUBLIC WELFARE INSTITUTE--1938

        The nineteenth annual Public Welfare Institute included lectures and discussion groups in the forenoon, personal conferences between members of the institute coming from different sections of the state during the afternoon. In the evenings the annual dinner and business meetings of the Association of County Superitendents


Page 88

of Public Welfare was held, and there was entertainment by the Carolina Playmakers, by state high school orchestras, and mountain music by Mr. I. G. Greer, superintendent of the Thomasville Orphanage, and Mrs. Greer. Thursday evening reports were given of findings of the study groups.

        The institute opened with Dr. Roy M. Brown, director, division of public welfare and social work, University of North Carolina, presiding; greetings by Robert B. House, dean of administration, University of North Carolina; address--"The General Outlook in Public Welfare in North Carolina," Mrs. W. T. Bost, commissioner State Board of Charities and Public Welfare, and "New Emphases in Public Social Work," Mr. Kenneth Pray, professor of social planning and administration, Pennsylvania School of Social Work.

Discussion Group Subjects:

  • Group I--Is there a common agreement as to interpretation of the legal settlement laws and procedures?
  • Group II--How much responsibility for getting a patient to the clinic or hospital following diagnosis by a physician should the county department of public welfare assume?
  • Group III--What can the state and county staffs do to secure more adequate medical service? (a) General medical care, including hospitalization; (b) Control and treatment of venereal disease.
  • Group IV--(a) What are our best methods of dealing with the problem of inadequate staffs? (b) For what staff expansion can we hope to pay?
  • Group V--(a) Should there be a state appropriation for relief to supplement county funds? Should this be in the form of further categories or a general relief fund?
  • Group VI--What is the county welfare department's responsibility to a parolee--adult or juvenile?
  • Group A--Better integration of welfare departments, juvenile courts, institutions and other social agencies in dealing effectively with problems of child placement.
  • Group B--(a) What is treatment in terms of social case work? (b) At what point does it begin with a family?
  • Group C--(a) What are the definite responsibilities of the agency toward the client's rights under the law, including appeal and fair hearing? (b) What policy should a special agency follow in expecting

Page 89

        relatives to assume financial and other responsibilities for the care of families?

  • Group D--How can the department of public welfare secure the maximum usefulness of federal agencies as resources?
  • Group E--What is our definition of a safe and proper home?
  • Group F--How can a budget be made for a rural family?

Report of the Institute Committee on Social Work, Trends and Practice, Based on Reports by Groups Discussing the Above Questions:

        "The committee on social work trends and practice feels that the new plan for a Public Welfare Institute served in an unusual manner to meet the needs of the various groups who have participated. The extent to which individuals are able to carry over into their work the social work philosophy and trends indicated in the general and group discussions will be the true measure of the value of the institute. The committee feels that every person attending the institute has recognized the need for, and the values derived from, group thinking on current problems and the formulation of group policies which each one can take into his county with the feeling that the social workers in 99 other counties are finding these procedures best and are working actively to put them into effect.

        "The sustained interest of the groups, the enthusiastic way in which they took hold of the questions and the useful, practical and yet forward-looking reports made by the various groups, all indicate the positive strengths which result both individually and collectively from the opportunity to work together on common problems.

        "The committee feels that in some respects the institute might have been of more value to the members of the institute if, for instance, each person had taken full advantage of the opportunities provided for making appointments for individual conferences, a great deal of the time could have been saved and the time of each person more profitably spent. The committee feels that with such a plan for another annual public welfare institute, members will take full advantage of such opportunities.

        "While it is the function of the committee to concern itself with the trends and practices brought out in the various group reports, we feel that members of the institute wish to show special recognition of the valuable contributions made by Mrs. W. T. Bost, commissioner of public welfare, Mr. Kenneth L. M. Pray, professor of social planning and administration, the Pennsylvania School of Social Work, and Dr. Isabelle Gordon Carter, assistant professor of social research, the Pennsylvania


Page 90

School of Social Work--Mrs. Bost for her forward looking address on 'The General Outlook in Public Welfare in North Carolina,' Professor Pray for his comprehensive address on 'New Emphases in Public Social Work,' and Dr. Carter for the valuable work in the class groups conducted by her each morning of the institute. We suggest, however, that in planning another such institute that smaller class groups for the general morning sessions would provide better opportunities, both for the speaker and the members of the classes.

        "The committee noted certain philosophies that appeared over and over again in the various reports submitted.

        "Unanimously there is a plea for coöperation for the sake of the client from all agencies concerned, federal, state, local, both public and private, hospitals, physicians, lawyers, teachers, public health departments, and social workers.

        "We see definitely, indication of the fact that the individual is being brought to the fore, even to the point of requesting uniformity in legal settlement laws that 'assistance and service can be rendered the client.'

        "Along this same line, we see in one report the statement that 'an intelligently prepared agency budget will itemize categories within the general relief fund and yet allow flexibility to meet individual problems.'

        "And again in this same report 'Family problems are correlated and are of multiple causation, a fact which categorical assistance tends to under emphasize.'

        "The individual was emphasized in many of the reports but time does not permit further mention of this encouraging philosophy. We would like to quote though that 'The rural client is a person.'

        "The case work approach as opposed to law and authority is undoubtedly evident in many of the reports. Law is being recognized as a tool rather than as a limitation. There is, therefore, a growing realization of the need for less emphasis on legal aspects and limitations and a greater emphasis on the needs of clients.

        "We find one group going on record as 'opposing any further legislation for requiring persons to support indigent relations. It believes that the relationship of relatives to each other for their social value, as well as for the fact that they may be sources of financial assistance to the family, should be fostered.'

        "There is a growing philosophy apparently toward encouraging initiative of the clients to do everything possible for themselves. Mention was made of encouraging low income groups to carry hospital insurance.


Page 91

        "The use of the volunteer is receiving consideration. The committee feels that this is a matter that should receive careful consideration as harm can result from unwise use of volunteer services. However simple the service, the volunteer should have some intelligent interpretation of case work practices.

        "We note an encouraging willingness on the part of social workers to accept limitations and to work through these limitations to wider possibilities and better programs of service.

        "The discussions of the institute indicate that present staff limitations have at least one wholesome effect--that of resulting in a more careful understanding of the functions and limitations of the agency and a more careful evaluation of the use of time and the relative value of various services which may be rendered. Also there is a growing trend in the recognition of the skills necessary to function effectively within strengths and limitations.

        "The various reports indicated a definite trend toward a closer co-operation and correlation of all social work agencies and programs and a more complete utilization of available resources. Also, there seems to be a definite recognition of the need for agencies to more clearly define their functions and fields of service so that overlapping of services may be avoided. One of the examples given in group discussion was the need and increasing tendency to clarify the functions of the public health and public welfare departments in providing medical care for the needy, it being felt that the public welfare department should limit its function to the determination of economic need.

        "There was in the group reports a definite trend emphasizing the individual approach and individual treatment of all problems. There was an obvious trend to abandon completely the old conception of social case work as an investigation of the situation of a client resulting in action in behalf of the client and an acceptance of the modern conception of case work treatment as a way of administering agency services to a client who expresses need for the services, in a way which development of his own strength and independence is fostered.

        "The institute discussions emphasized a growing trend in emphasis on community interpretation of the rights and needs of clients and of the programs, functions, and limitations of agencies. The growing interest and understanding of lay citizens in all social work programs was found to present definite challenges to the executives of social agencies to have increasingly well developed programs of interpretation.


Page 92

The discussions indicate an increasing trend to recognize the practicability of budget planning, not only for meeting the needs of the individual client but as an unquestionable proof of the necessity for more adequate funds.

        "Discussions in the various groups seemed to indicate that there is a growing recognition on the part of executives of the need for the organization of themselves and their departments in such a way as to give the best possible service to clients. There was also recognition on the part of the case workers in our public welfare departments that persons assigned to social work jobs must be equipped with professional training, experience, and skill.

        "Over and over again the client-worker relationship was stressed. We conclude with a brief statement of the thinking in this respect. The case worker is a participant in a helping process, in which the worker should know and use positively the function of the agency with both its strengths and limitations; and recognize the client as a person who feels, who seeks and uses help in his own way; thus helping the client to find for himself what he can use within the limits of the 'helper-self' process and the agency function, and to use himself as responsibly as he can."

PUBLIC WELFARE INSTITUTE--1939

        Mornings--

  • Course I. Mental Hygiene--Dr. Richard F. Richie, Assistant Director Division of Mental Hygiene, Children's Unit, State Board of Charities and Public Welfare.
  • Course II. Social Case Work--Miss Florence Day, Associate Professor of Family Case Work, School of Applied Social Sciences, Western Reserve University.Course III.
  • Supervision--Miss Catherine Dunn, Training Consultant, Division of Technical Training, Bureau of Public Assistance, Social Security Board. Course IV. Public Welfare and the Community--Dr. Arthur E. Fink, Head of the Department of Social Work, University of Georgia.

Forums

        Groups discussed the following subjects:

  • A. Shall the social agencies in North Carolina attempt to have a uniform minimum standard budget for relief families?
  • B. Should medical care like schools be free to all? To relief clients only? Is this the responsibility of the county health department
    Page 93

    or the county welfare department--or the joint responsibility of both?

  • C. How should the case worker use the juvenile court in the treatment of dependent, neglected or delinquent children?
  • D. What should be the social agency's policy in regard to nonresidence?
  • E. What does a social agency want to interpret to its public (Its philosophy? Its procedure and skills? Its problems? What?)
  • F. Under what circumstances should a social agency bring pressure on children to support their parents?
  • G. Under what circumstances should an applicant owning property be given an OAA grant or relief in any form?
  • H. Under what circumstances should an applicant owning property be given an ADC grant or relief in any form?
  • Afternoons--Tuesday: General Assembly--Dr. Roy M. Brown, presiding.
    Discussion of the merit systems now in use in the various states--Dr. James W. Fesler, Associate Professor of Political Science, Division of Public Welfare and Social Work, University of North Carolina.
  • Wednesday: Recreation.
    Scheduled Conferences.
  • Thursday: General Assembly--Dr. Wiley B. Sanders, presiding.
    Report of Forums A, B and C.
    Business Meeting--North Carolina Chapter American Association of Social Workers, with Miss Grace Marcus, Assistant Executive Secretary, National Chapter American Association of Social Workers, guest; Miss Anna A. Cassatt, presiding.
  • Friday: General Assembly--Mr. R. Eugene Brown, presiding.
    Report of Forums G and H.
    Report of Committee on Social Work Trends and Practice--gleaned from reports presented by the forums--Dr. Katherine Jocher, Chairman.
  • Evenings--Tuesday: Dinner and business meeting of the Association of County Superintendents of Public Welfare--Mrs. Eloise G. Franks, presiding.
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  • Wednesday: Institute Reception.
  • Thursday: General Assembly--Mrs. W. T. Bost, presiding.
    Presentation of the speaker--Dr. Roy M. Brown.
    Address--Miss Grace Marcus.

Summary of Forum Reports by the Committee on Social Work
Trends and Practice:

        "The present division of the Public Welfare Institute into general sessions, each in charge of an expert in the particular field, supplemented by special discussion forums was initiated in 1938. Since it appeared eminently satisfactory and well adapted to the purposes of the institute, the same general plan was continued in the 1939 institute. Such a set-up provides not only for a detailed discussion and interpretation of philosophies and practice in certain general fields of social work and public welfare, but attempts to help members of the institute work out specific problems and procedures by pooling experiences, through special discussion forums. However, without discussion and participation by all, such a program is valueless, since the recipient gains only in the measure of that which he gives, and only in this way can a high level be reached and maintained.

        "Although the forum reports provide the basic data for this report, it was felt by the committee that a few general trends might well preface the more specific trends as evidenced in the forum discussions. These general institute trends appear to be:

  • a. To revert to the primary institute method of instruction by authorities in special fields, as was the plan of the institute in the early days, rather than the use of the conference method which was in effect during an intervening period.
  • b. To place more emphasis on the counties' conception of their problems and which of these problems they would like to have discussed rather than to prepare and superimpose a more or less general program.
  • c. To secure participation by all members of the institute through discussion during instruction periods as well as in the special forums.
  • d. To put findings into permanent form for reference and use and to have them made available to all members of the institute.

        "The forum reports carried so much excellent material that it was difficult to pick out a few specific trends, particularly since a large part of the discussion by these groups centered around particular problems. It was felt, too, that since the splendid reports of the forums, as appended to this report, will be published in full, a sentence or two


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on each report would be adequate. Specific trends as evidenced from forum discussing follow:

  • a. There is a trend toward attempting to formulate in terms of items, because of the variations in price levels, a uniform minimum standard budget for the state, since it is good procedure for the state to aid counties in the formulation of an agency budget to be used in determining need and amount of grant.
  • b. It is becoming more apparent that the indigent and the marginal groups need more adequate medical attention.
  • c. A knowledge of the trends toward subjecting the juvenile court to more careful scrutiny in order to secure better treatment for the youthful offender; toward providing boarding homes instead of institutional commitment; toward prevention instead of cure; and toward closer cooperation of everyone interested in this problem--police, recreation leaders, etc., more than ever before--is basic to a specific application of the case worker's use of the juvenile court in the treatment of dependent, neglected or delinquent children.
  • d. The administration of residence laws is conditioned by the financial situation of the community and the community mores, and any change for a more liberal attitude will result only from the education of the community.
  • e. The importance of interpretation as a primary function of every social agency is receiving more emphasis, since it is recognized increasingly that the success of the social work program is dependent upon the effectiveness of its interpretation to the community in terms which the general public can understand.
  • f. There is a trend toward getting children to support parents voluntarily through good case work rather than through legal measures, which frequently antagonize.
  • g. In granting old age assistance (OAA), the consensus of the group seems to be that the ceiling of a property qualification be set on a county or community basis rather than on an individual basis, with a definite policy or statement fixed by the county board of welfare.
  • h. There appears to be developing a more liberal attitude toward ownership of property by aid to dependent children (ADC) recipients; toward expansion of the age group of beneficiaries of ADC; toward a keener appreciation of the value of supervision of families receiving ADC through an increased number of case workers.

        "A special work of appreciation is extended to those who planned the program, to those who developed it through the conduct of special discussion groups, and to all those who participated in any way and who thus helped to make the Public Welfare Institute of 1939 one of outstanding excellence."


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GENERAL PLAN FOR ONE DAY INSTITUTES 1939

        
Time    
10:00 a.m. Problems of Supervision
1st Meeting. a. What is supervision?
  b. Does the superintendent of welfare supervise?
2nd Meeting. a. What abilities should a supervisor have?
  b. Must a good executive be a good supervisor?
3rd Meeting. a. The handling of authority in supervision.
  b. The delegation of responsibility.
4th Meeting. a. Growth through supervision.
  b. Self supervision.
5th Meeting. a. What clues indicate a case worker's ability to do a good job, viz., evaluate a case worker's abilities.
  b. Write a first conference with a new case worker.
6th Meeting. a. Discuss indirect supervision.
  b. The philosophy of supervision. (Give a resume.)
11:00 a.m. Interviewing
Assignments may be made as the study progresses.  
12:00 a.m.-1:00. Lunch hour.
1:00 p.m. Case Work Process
1st Meeting--The first interview--Example.  
2nd Meeting--a. Home calls--Example; b. Collaterals--Example.  
3rd Meeting--Diagnosis and Treatment plan -- Example.  
4th Meeting--Case treatment--Example.  
5th Meeting--Case study--Example.  
6th Meeting--Case recording--Example.  
3:00-4:00 p.m. Open Forum for General Questions--Superintendent of Welfare Presiding.  


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COUNTIES INCLUDED IN EACH ONE DAY INSTITUTE

        

Illustration

        I. New Bern

        II. Edenton

        III. Louisburg

        IV. Elizabethtown

        V. Greensboro

        VI. Albemarle

        VII. Lenoir

        VIII. Waynesville


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THE ONE DAY INSTITUTES--1938-39 SERIES

        During the biennium a series of six one-day institutes was held in each of the eight districts for the county superintendents of public welfare. (See attached map.) Attendance at these institutes totaled 563 and averaged 13 superintendents.

        In the open forum the superintendents presided and presented questions which were of greatest interest at the particular time. These questions related to eligibility and referral to the WPA and to NYA, to budgeting, to use of client resources, attitudes of dependency, inadequate facilities for the treatment of venereal disease, to heavy case loads, to interpretation of the job to client and community and to problems concerning professional training and staff development.

        During this series there were approximately 96 short papers and discussions presented by superintendents of welfare on various aspects of supervision and 56 on social case work process.

THE ONE DAY INSTITUTES--1939-40 SERIES

        While the 1938-39 series of institutes emphasized social work theory and practice, the institutes of 1940 were set up with the objective of studying public welfare laws and the social security act and relating these to the function and limitations of the job. Not only the county superintendents, but the case workers also were invited to attend. During the first two hours the institute studied the social security act, the public assistance laws of North Carolina growing out of the act and the policies and procedures being followed.

        The next hour they studied child welfare services as set forth under the social security act, the child welfare laws of North Carolina and policies and procedures in carrying these out.

        Two hours of each institute were devoted to the general public welfare laws of North Carolina and how they define and limit the function of the agency to the application of social case work to the job, and a review of pamphlets and books.

COMMITTEE ON PLANNING FOR STAFF DEVELOPMENT

        At the beginning of this biennium a committee on planning for staff development was appointed from the state staff by the commissioner, the chairman being the director of the division of case work training and family rehabilitation. The work of the committee centered around a study of the use of various in-service training devices for the purpose of encouraging and forwarding staff development in the state and county welfare departments. The first report of the committee


Page 99

pointed out that the basic philosophy for staff development is to provide a more adequate public welfare service by the educational development of the workers who are directly responsible to the tax-payers for rendering efficient service, thus helping them to function with the maximum efficiency. The report encouraged leaves of absence for professional training; that the individual should have freedom of choice as to the school of social work he plans to attend; that plans should be worked out in each county so that the work would not be handicapped; and that the committee would make available information concerning schools of social work, such as special courses and scholarships to the state and county staffs.

        The committee recommended that the staffs meet in groups having the same type of responsibility for professional study and advancement and that committees be organized as needed for the purpose of working on particular aspects of the job such as budgeting, filing and the making of new forms. The committee emphasized the importance of supervision as the main tool in staff development and pointed out the need for a professional library with at least a part-time librarian, also the value of state and national conferences, training institutes, the annual public welfare institute, and special national conferences in particular fields.

REFERRAL TO THE WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION

        During the past biennium the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare through the county welfare departments has served as the referral agency to the Work Projects Administration. (See table, page 105.)

        On October 30, 1939, the following joint working agreement was signed by the Work Projects Administration and the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare.

        "It is agreed between the Work Projects Administration of North Carolina and the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare that the latter shall be the official referral agency for Work Projects Administration employment. "The State Board of Charities and Public Welfare agrees to take full responsibility for the determination of need of persons for employment by the Work Projects Administration pursuant to the provisions of applicable emergency relief appropriation acts and in accordance with the provisions of the rules and regulations of the Work Projects Administration and within the limitations of the referral agency.

        "The Work Projects Administration reserves the right to accept or reject referrals on the basis of the eligibility requirements as set forth in the rules and regulations of the Work Projects Administration.


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        "This agreement may be amended provided such amendments are accepted by both agencies. The agreement shall be subject to termination by either party."


CERTIFICATION TO NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION

        For the past year the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare has been one of the certifying agencies to the National Youth Administration. (See table, page 105.) Prior to that time it served as the referral agency through the Work Projects Administration to the National Youth Administration.

        Since the NYA is essentially a form of guidance through work experience each applicant for employment is interviewed in order to determine his interest, abilities, training, work experience, work performance and vocational needs.

        Certification--Certification of youths to NYA may be made by state and local public welfare agencies, Work Projects Administration, Farm Security Administration or the National Youth Administration.

        The basis for certification is as follows: The youth member of the family whose income is insufficient to provide the basic needs of all members of the family including the youth member, regardless of whether the family is receiving any form of public assistance; or a youth without family connection who is in need is eligible for certification. All youths in families already known to the local welfare departments are eligible for certification. This would include families receiving some form of relief, including surplus commodities. It also includes families investigated and found eligible for relief but not receiving it because of lack of funds. Applications may be accepted of youths whose families have not been subject to an investigation of need, also referrals from public and private agencies. This gives every youth in the community an opportunity to apply for employment on NYA and eliminates the idea that the youth must become a relief client in order to secure training on the National Youth Administration program.*

        (* Early in July 1940 the NYA lowered the age of youths eligible for certification to 17 years for North Carolina. The basis of certification was redefined as follows: The youth shall be eligible for certification if he is in need of employment, work experience and training.)


Department of Public Welfare Guides in Referral to WPA
and Certification to NYA

        Excerpts from the manual on budgeting used in determining need:

        "A subsistence budget compatible with decency and health" is a measuring rod for determining need.


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        Budget--A budget of expenses is a financial statement covering the basic needs of the family. A minimum budget includes food, shelter, clothing, fuel, lights, medical care, household needs, limited insurance, education, recreation, reasonable payment on debts, other items.

        Planning with the family--A plan has the following characteristics: It has objectives. It is voluntary and wanted by the client and the agency. It lays out a course in terms of things to be done and the approximate time of doing them. It is flexible and carries the expectation of performance according to agreement by both agency and client.

        Food--In making plans for the family the case worker should help them discover their own resources and develop them to care for their needs.

        

Yearly Food Requirements per Person

Milk 75 gals. per person.  
    One cow furnishes between 375-450 gals. per year.  
Fats 60 lbs. per person.  
    Butter 20 lbs.
    Lard 20 lbs.
    Fat, pork, bacon, oil, etc 20 lbs.
Lean Meat, Fish, Poultry 85 lbs. per person.  
    Pork 20 lbs.
    Beef, veal, lamb 25 lbs.
    Fish, game 10 lbs.
    Chicken 20 lbs.
Eggs 17 doz. per person.  
Flour, Cereals 261 lbs. per person.  
    Flour 150 lbs.
    Corn meal 85 lbs.
    Bread and Cereals 26 lbs.
Sugars 98 lbs. per person.  
    Sugar 40 lbs.
    Molasses and Sorghum 5 gals.
    Syrup, Jam and Jelly 3 qts.
Dried beans and peas 20 lbs. per person.  
Potatoes 5 bus. per person.  
Tomatoes and citrus fruits 125 lbs. per person.  
Leafy green and yellow vegetables 200 lbs. per person.  


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Other vegetables and fruits 375 lbs. per person.  
    Vegetables 250 lbs.
    Fruits 10 lbs.
    Dried Fruits 12-25 lbs.
Canned Meat 5 qts. per person.  
Canned Vegetables 32 qts. per person.  
Canned Fruit 24 qts. per person.  

        Shelter--Shelter is considered the provision of a house for a family whether owned, rented or included in labor or land agreements. In the event that a family owns the dwelling in which it lives, allowance should be made for reasonable payment on mortgages, the payment of taxes and for repair. These payments might well amount to the equivalent of rent. When ownings are free from mortgage the allowance is reduced since the cost of home ownership amounts to less when taxes, repairs and insurance are the only items to be considered.

        The cost of rent in urban and rural areas varies considerably. Accurate figures for the entire state are not available.

        Housing facilities, the family's own living habits, the community's attitude toward proper housing, all are factors in the rapidity with which the transition can be made from family's present housing conditions to the minimum standard suggested above.

        

Suggested Room Requirements

1 adult 2 adults 2 adults 1 child 2 adults 2 children 2 adults 3 children 2 adults 4 children 2 adults 5 children 2 adults 6 children 2 adults 7 children 2 adults 8 children 2 adults 9 children 2 adults 10 children
1 room 2-3 rooms 3-4 rooms 4-6 rooms 4-6 rooms 5-6 rooms 5-6 rooms 5-7 rooms 5-7 rooms 6-7 rooms 6-7 rooms 7-8 rooms

Some Factors to Consider in Clothing Costs

        The amount of money needed for clothing is a big item in the family budget.

        There are many factors to be considered in planning a clothing budget for a family.

  • 1. The number in the family, and their ages. It takes very little to clothe a baby or small child. The girl or boy of high school or college age usually require more than any other member of the family; the mother next, and then the father.
    Page 103

  • 2. Personal characteristics enter into the cost of clothing. Some people are very hard on clothing, while others can make garments last years.
  • 3. The care of clothing is most important when one has a limited amount to spend. Reinforcing places in garments that receive hardest wear, as elbows to sleeves, seats of pants, backs of shoulders, extends the life of the garment. Mending breaks, snags, or tears at once is also most important.
  • 4. Keeping clothes clean extends their life. Wash garments should be laundered frequently, and not left until so badly soiled that it takes strong soap and vigorous scrubbing to clean. Spots and stains should be removed at once, as many stains will destroy fabrics.
  • 5. Knowing when and how to buy are most important factors to the homemaker. Often there is a saving by buying out of season. Coats, suits, and dresses are usually reduced at the end of seasons. There is no economy in buying a garment though at any time even if it is a bargain unless it is needed.

        Fuel--The size and number of stoves and the amount of fuel consumed should be such as to provide adequate heat for cooking and laundering throughout the year and for warmth during cold weather. Some farm families are able to secure sufficient wood from their own farms and therefore do not have to consider this item of the budget.

        Lights--The amount of light required is determined by the needs of the family. For example, if several children are of school age and study at night, sufficient lighting should be provided so that there is not undue eyestrain. It is expected that families will be reasonably frugal in the use of electricity or oil. If electricity is available it is desirable that it be used instead of oil. In the event that kerosene lamps are used as a means of lighting homes, it is necessary to add the item of kerosene.

        Medical Care--A knowledge of first-aid treatment and the use of simple home remedies approved by a competent physician will lessen the need for trips to the doctor's office and in many instances prevent complications that might develop if a small injury or minor ailment is allowed to go unnoticed.

        Household Needs--There are several items included in the attached list that could be made at home, thus reducing the actual cost, also making the house appear more home-like. Stools, benches, cabinets and dressing tables can be made out of boxes and boards and covered with material of some sort with very little expense. Care in the use of household articles will prolong their life.

        Linens in constant use will probably not wear longer than a year. However, about one-eighth of the total cost may be sufficient to allow for depreciation and replacements per year.


Page 104

        Insurance--An allowance for insurance should be for protective insurance rather than for savings.

        Education--All families need money for advancement. In families having children of school age, money is needed for pencils, tablets, pens and ink. Children deprived of the means of obtaining these small items tend to suffer from the mental anxiety created by the lack of the equipment necessary to get their lessons.

        Recreation--Recreation must be recognized as a necessary element for normal life. In rural areas people tend to socialize by going to parties and entertainments at the school, church, or community center. Where there are children in the family, play equipment, such as home games, toys, dolls, balls, is needed for the individual child. Families should be encouraged to make their own toys and games.

        Payment on Debts--Allowance should be made for reasonable payments on those debts that have been incurred for the absolute necessities of life; food, medical aid and shelter. Credit is very helpful and needed. Even a small amount each week will show the creditor that some effort toward payment is being made.


Page 105

CASES REFERRED BY DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WELFARE AND ACCEPTED BY THE WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION AND NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION

July 1938 - May 1940

        
MONTH WPA NYA MONTH WPA NYA
1940     1939    
May 2,552 632 May 1,020 265
April 3,310 790 April 906 387
March 5,102 792 March 1,303 409
February 6,156 1,458 February 1,375 593
January 7,066 1,279 January 1,217 803
1939     1938    
December 5,538 ---- December 2,481 529
November 4,148 ---- November 6,086 947
October 5,106 ---- October 6,868 744
September 4,932 ---- September 5,584 506
August 1,600 ---- August 5,910 727
July 797 ---- July 4,925 662
June 765 ---- ---- ---- ----

ATTENDANCE--ONE DAY INSTITUTES

1938-1940

        
DISTRICTS I II III IV V VI VII VIII
1939                
1st series 11 13 12 12 14 8 10 11
2nd series 19 10 11 11 12 9 10 17
3rd series 20 6 11 10 13 5 12 14
4th series 25 13 12 13 16 ---- 14 16
5th series 23 11 10 8 13 ---- 11 14
6th series 16 12 11 11 11 ---- 10 12
1940                
1st series 27 21 43 20 30 46 36 47
2nd series 33 31 51 17 40 36 39 60
3rd series 28 23 52 25 46 51 21 52
4th series 33 25 53 25 46 39 37 45


Page 106

DIVISION OF MENTAL HYGIENE

JAMES WATSON, M.D., Director

        After 17 years of efficient service as part-time director of this division Dr. H. W. Crane resigned in September 1938 in order to give the whole of his services to the University of North Carolina. At this time the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare decided to put into effect a plan which had received much consideration. This was to secure as the new director a physician eligible to practice medicine in North Carolina and with extensive training in psychiatry including at least three years practice in mental hospitals and two years in community clinics. In addition he would be required to hold a diploma by examination of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology.

        In close coöperation with the National Committee for Mental Hygiene the training and experience of various psychiatrists were reviewed and the present director, James Watson, M.D., was appointed January 1, 1940. In the interim Dr. J. W. Nygard, who had been associated with Dr. Crane and had also rendered valuable service to the state in other positions, was acting director. Dr. Nygard took charge of the interstate transfer of patients, made many psychological tests, held advisory consultations, helped the division of institutions and corrections check up on 3,000 county home inmates, visited the state mental hospitals, and gave much psychological service to the state correctional institutions.

        In the meantime, through the aid of the federal Children's Bureau, the state board was able to realize another part of its plan and organize a children's unit within the division of mental hygiene. As director of this unit there was appointed June 1, 1939, Dr. R. F. Richie, a physician eligible to practice medicine in North Carolina, with some years experience in general psychiatry and a thorough training in child psychiatry in a Commonwealth Fund fellowship. Miss Mary Scovill, a psychologist holding a graduate degree in clinical psychology and with some years of training and work in institutions for both normal and abnormal children, had been appointed November 1, 1938. In June 1939 she became the psychologist of the children's unit. The following paragraphs from the plan of the child welfare services as approved by the federal authorities indicate the relation of Dr. Richie and Miss Scovill to the division of mental hygiene.


Page 107

        "...The children's unit within the division of mental hygiene was organized early in the fiscal year of 1939-40 and the staff includes a part-time psychiatrist and a full-time psychologist. The psychiatrist serves mental hygiene clinics in two urban areas who reimburse the state board for his services. Approximately one-half of his time is available for child welfare services. His services to mental hygiene clinics has a two-fold purpose; that of offering treatment to children not otherwise having access to a psychiatrist, and that of broadened interpretation that comes through this service. Funds paid in by the two mental hygiene clinics are used in the development of the statewide mental hygiene program. The psychiatrist is available for consultation to the case consultants in the state office and occasionally to the child welfare services cases on a treatment basis in addition to his consultation services.

        "The psychologist gives her full time to child welfare services cases. Upon requests she visits the counties for the purpose of testing children within the case loads of the child welfare workers. She also tests children in case loads of counties given consultation service, requests for which come through the case consultants...."


        The work of Dr. Richie and Miss Scovill is reported by them and appears following the report of the director. The duties of the division as a whole are as follows:

  • (1) Provide psychiatric examination service in so far as possible to institutions, both public and private, schools, courts, county welfare departments, and agencies.
  • (2) Interstate transfer of mental patients.
  • (3) Providing a state clearing house regarding mental patients by filing pertinent data concerning such patients.
  • (4) Development of research and preventive measures along mental hygiene lines.
  • (5) Assemble and interpret statistics on mental health.
  • (6) The inspection of state hospitals and state schools for mental defectives, and the inspection and licensing of all private mental hospitals.
  • (7) Educational service through talks, pamphlets, institutes, etc.
  • (8) Consultant service to all state agencies and institutions.
  • (9) Integrate local welfare departments with state hospital service for supplying from local units of public welfare case histories and financial investigations of patients admitted to state hospitals, and supervision of patients during parole and after discharge from state hospitals.
  • (10) Foster the development of child guidance clinics and mental hygiene clinics in urban communities and traveling mental hygiene clinics for rural areas.

        During the six months he has been in office the activities of the director have been as follows:


Page 108

Inspection of Institutions

        The three state hospitals have been visited at least twice and a complete inspection of each has been made. Extensive reports giving the conditions found in each institution and recommendations for improvements were made to the commissioner of the board of public welfare which sent copies to the respective superintendents of the state hospitals and to the Governor.

        Inspection of state hospitals and reports and recommendations are required from the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare by law, but in addition to this legal requirement there have been emphasized the following principles relative to such inspections:

  • (1) It is a sound psychiatric principle, nationally advocated, that mental hospitals should be periodically inspected by some responsible body not directly concerned with their management.
  • (2) That such inspections tend to make staffs and employees strive for more efficiency.
  • (3) Likewise such inspections tend to prevent abuses which experience shows do at times occur.
  • (4) Again, it is a nationally advocated psychiatric principle that some such state organization as this division of the State Board of Public Welfare should help interpret to the public the work of the state hospitals and make the public aware of the needs of the institutions. Obviously, the division cannot perform this function unless by frequent visits it keeps itself informed as to the conditions prevailing in the state hospitals.

        Believing that the development of a state mental hygiene program concerned with the maintenance of mental health and the adequate care of the mentally disordered can only succeed when the state hospital service is basically sound the following principles have been constantly upheld in all contacts with state hospital superintendents and their staffs:

  • (1) The implication involved in the change of name from "asylums" to "hospitals" should be taken seriously and the institutions concerned should devote themselves to the ideal of treating patients for their mental disorders with a view to getting them well.
  • (2) To this end superintendents should seek to build up staffs of doctors who have the outlook of modern psychiatry and are interested in the practice of it. Doctors who hold to the old idea that the business of state hospitals consists of labeling patients and keeping them locked up for the rest of their lives have no place on the staff of a modern mental hospital.
  • (3) Every state mental hospital should be a center of research. The view of modern psychiatry is that mental diseases in common with other diseases have a cause, a beginning, a course of development and are as susceptible to prevention and treatment. Psychiatry is a comparatively new specialty and on the above points its fund of information is woefully inadequate. It is to the intensive studies carried on by state hospital staffs that the medical profession must look for increased knowledge in this field.
    Page 109

  • (4) All state hospitals should be centers of education. Every staff meeting should be an educational experience. All staff members should be available for addresses to community organizations to acquaint them with the known facts of mental disorder and to solicit their coöperation in obtaining the necessary support to treat and prevent mental breakdowns. Particularly should the staff by addresses and papers at medical meetings keep their fellow physicians acquainted with their problems and informed concerning the advances in their specialty of psychiatry. There should be close coöperation with the medical schools of the state not only in the training of doctors to supply the needed psychiatrists but to give to all medical students a more adequate knowledge of the principles of psychiatry. To this end it has been advocated that all medical students should spend a month of their senior or interne year in one of our mental hospitals.
  • (6) Outpatient clinics should be conducted in connection with all state hospitals to give help to their paroled and discharged patients in their efforts to maintain adjustment and to stay out of the hospital. Such clinics could also give psychiatric consultation service to surrounding communities.

        Obviously in their present understaffed condition and with inadequate appropriations such a program for our state hospitals is an impossibility. To secure adequate support there must be built up an enlightened public opinion. The only sure way to get adequate and permanent support for our state hospitals and similar institutions is to give the people of the state an understanding of their problems and their needs, and confidence in the work they are doing. There has been close coöperation between the superintendents and staffs of the state hospitals with this division. Most of them heartily endorse the above program.

        Four private mental sanatoriums--Appalachian Hall, Broadoaks, Glenwood Park, and Pinebluff have been inspected and recommendations concerning their licenses have been made. These sanatoriums are directed by able doctors; on their staffs they have some of the outstanding physicians of North Carolina; they are regarded highly by their respective communities and the medical profession. It can be said that they are a credit to the state.

        Caswell Training School has been visited but there has not been time thoroughly to inspect this school and no complete report on it has been made as yet. The superintendent and his staff have been very cooperative.


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        Interstate Transfer of Patients has involved much correspondence and a great many problems have arisen which the state hospital superintendents and county superintendents of welfare have coöperated in solving. Pertinent data relative to mental disorder in the state has been filed in the central files of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare.

        Educational Work has consisted of addresses to clubs, lodges, medical organizations, schools, welfare units and 22 hours of lectures in the graduate school of the University. Many news items and articles have been furnished to the newspapers and magazines of the state. The monthly meetings of the Eugenics Board have been regularly attended and interpretations of the place of eugenics in the prevention of mental disorder and mental defect have been made to professional groups.

        Consultation Service has been carried on for all state and community organizations so far as time has permitted. Visits have been made to jails in various counties to examine insane people confined in them in order to facilitate their transfer to state hospitals. Arrangements have been made for psychological examinations for schools, county welfare units and orphanages by psychologists in private practice on a fee basis.

MENTAL HYGIENE CLINIC

        A community mental hygiene clinic has been organized in Raleigh under the Wake County Council of Social Agencies on a demonstration basis. With the exception of the psychiatrist the expense of this clinic is being carried by several community organizations through the Community Chest. The Family Service Society has been doing most of the social service work. When the initial period is completed it is expected that a psychiatrist's services will be secured by community funds. Psychiatric service from this division will then be offered to other communities on the same basis until mental hygiene services are available in many cities of the state. Two very excellent clinics have existed for some years, a mental hygiene clinic in Charlotte and a child guidance clinic in Winston-Salem, which have an adequate and well-trained personnel. These clinics were initiated by and are entirely controlled and financed by their respective communities. They receive and pay for psychiatric services of the child psychiatrist of the children's unit. These clinics are examples of what the division of mental hygiene will endeavor to initiate and foster in many parts of the state. There has been close coöperation with the children's


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unit and the child welfare services unit relative to this type of development.

THE CHILDREN'S UNIT

        The services of the child psychiatrist have been given to the Charlotte Mental Hygiene Clinic and the Winston-Salem Child Guidance Clinic for periods of two days each on alternate weeks. As director of these community organizations, the psychiatrist has participated in activities such as the quarterly program of the Charlotte Mental Hygiene Society. In Winston-Salem a discussion group for teachers was organized with the psychiatrist as leader.

        Talks have been given to the following organizations: N. C. Orphanage Association, Rotary Club, Junior League, county welfare staff, private social agency board, parent education group, Durham Crime Club, N. C. Mental Hygiene Society, N. C. Neuropsychiatric Association, senior class of nurses, group of elementary school principals, Business Club, Y.M.C.A., state board study group, and a graduate class at the University of North Carolina. The psychiatrist was leader of a section on "Child Placement" at the Public Welfare Institute on October 8, 1939, and is serving as chairman of the committee on mental hygiene of the N. C. Conference for Social Service. He has participated in district public welfare institutes, child welfare institutes and home and family-life education institutes.

        The agencies referring children in Winston-Salem included the Forsyth County department of public welfare, city juvenile court, the Associated Charities, Salvation Army, schools and parents. An active bi-weekly consultation service was held for the juvenile court. In Charlotte referrals were more diversified: Mecklenburg County department of public welfare, domestic relations court, Family Welfare Association, Children's Service Bureau, Travelers Aid Society, Crittenton Home, Alexander Home, Thompson Orphanage, physicians (65), departments of public welfare of nearby counties, parents and relatives. Adults are accepted for service in the Charlotte Mental Hygiene Clinic, and frequently make their own application. Even when a child is the individual referred for help, the parent or some other adult may also be treated. This is in accordance with an accepted child guidance concept. One recognizes that the child is in the formative period of personality development; the adult, on the other hand, is able to do more about his own status and that of his offspring. To show the reasons for changes--to get the adult or child to want to change--and to furnish encouragement "to carry on," constitutes the child psychiatrist's objective.


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        The service of the child psychiatrist for the fiscal year included 422 interviews with children and adults. In addition there have been 331 advisory conferences with agency representatives about their clients. Children have been referred from the following counties participating in the child welfare services plan: Anson, Buncombe, Caswell, Cumberland, Durham, Iredell, Nash, Orange, Pitt, Robeson, Surry, Wake, Warren and Wilson. The problems presented by 149 individuals included truancy from home and school, disobedience, stealing, lying, conflicts between parents and children or parents with each other, failure in school, disruption of classroom, sexual delinquency, and difficulties in child placement. The diagnostic and psycho-therapeutic help given by the psychiatrist has made improvement in status possible in most of these situations. Ten individuals with serious nervous or mental disorders have been aided. Six of these have made adjustment in the community so that institutional placement has not been necessary.

        PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES have consisted of examinations of 431 individuals during the 20 months that the psychologist has been with the division of mental hygiene. This number consisted of 418 cases under 18 years of age and 13 cases 18 years of age and over. Adults were included in the service only when they closely affected the welfare of certain children being planned for under the child welfare program. The ages of the children examined ranged from four months to 18 years.

        The Stanford-Binet examination was given to almost every child of two years or older, and special pre-school or infant tests to those under two. School achievement tests and supplementary performance tests, including tests of manual ability, were given to a large percentage of the children examined. The majority of the cases were examined in the counties in which the children resided. Morrison Training School boys were examined at that institution. Psychological service was given to a total of 26 counties. This number included the 18 counties in which the child welfare services program was operating, plus eight counties which were given consultant service by the child welfare case consultants and nine other counties.

        Reports of all examinations were written, one copy of each being filed in the office of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare, and one copy sent to the county by the case consultant through whom the case was referred. Advisory consultations were held with county superintendents of public welfare, child welfare assistants, case workers, teachers, parents, and with the case consultants who guide the case


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work planning for children in the 18 counties in the child welfare services program. An approximate total of 276 conferences were held.

        The purposes for which the examinations were requested were varied, among them the following were most frequent:

        1. To determine the reason for a child's failure in school and to give advice as to educational and vocational planning for the child.

        2. To aid case workers in making more intelligent and effective placement plans for children. Child welfare case workers are constantly confronted by the necessity for placing children either in boarding homes or in homes for adoption. It is essential that they have an understanding of the intellectual development and potentialities of a child for whom placement is being considered in order to provide the best possible adjustment of the child in his new home. Thus such tragedies as might be caused by placing a dull child with a family who expect to give the child a college education or placing a superior child with a family of low cultural status can be avoided.

        3. To determine whether or not a child is eligible for Caswell Training School.

        4. To aid in the study of children's behavior and personality problems. Truancy from school and home, disobedience, defiance of authority, lying, stealing and irregular sex activities are those commonly listed. Many a child presents behavior problems when he is not able to compete successfully with other children of his age or grade. Frustrated in his attempts to "keep up" he finally gives up trying and fights back by means of one or more of the above mentioned types of unacceptable behavior.

        The psychologist has discovered certain children who have been considered complete failures and who have accepted themselves as failures, but who in reality have achieved about as much as could be expected from their intellectual levels. When an interpretation has been made through the case workers to the parents and teachers of such a child's limitations and his exact educational status, and when the child has been made to feel successful, it has been possible to change this attitude from one of indifference to one of enthusiastic interest in getting his work. A child who considers himself of no account in the eyes of others is much more likely to become a delinquent than one who feels that he is accomplishing something worth-while be it ever so small an achievement.

        There is also another type of child who is discovered through the psychological examination--i.e., that child of normal intelligence who, because of some unknown reason, has had extreme difficulty in learning


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to read, and who, after two or three years of failure is so behind in his reading that he is a misfit in any grade. Occasionally these children are labeled feebleminded by teachers or "dumb-bells" by their classmates. Even though the school instruction often cannot be adapted to a child's individual needs because of the large number of pupils assigned to each teacher, an interpretation of his true intellectual potentialities and his educational difficulties to the teacher and parents often makes possible a better adjustment for the child through lessening the mental strain to which he has been subjected.

        5. A few children were referred because of speech difficulties. While it has not been possible for the psychologist to carry on systematic speech correction in these cases because of the transient nature of her service she has given suggestions for the parents to carry out.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. More facilities to care for the feebleminded.

        In the field of mental abnormality this is the outstanding need of the state. The Governor's Commission of 1936 estimated that there are at least 27,734 mentally defective white children in the state. Caswell Training School has an enrollment of 750. This means that approximately twenty-seven thousand white mental defectives are scattered throughout the state making trouble for communities and seriously hampering school programs. Many of these with adequate training opportunities suited to their limited ability, might develop into self-supporting citizens and others to partially self-supporting.

        The state has no facilities for colored mental defectives. Several hundreds are kept in Goldsboro State Hospital for the Insane where there are no training facilities for them and where they handicap the doctors in their attempt to treat the mentally sick people.

2. More adequate personnel for the state hospitals.

        In order to function as hospitals for the treatment and cure of mentally sick people it is essential that more doctors, nurses and other employees be secured. Medical staffs should immediately be increased so that each hospital has in addition to the superintendent an assistant superintendent able to function as clinical director, and nine assistant physicians. Nurses and attendants should be increased to at least 200 in each institution. A long-time program should look towards approximating the national standards of one doctor to every 150 patients and one nurse or attendant for every eight. At least one occupational therapist and one psychiatric social worker should be provided for each hospital. It should also be recognized that standard hospital records


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necessary for the understanding and treatment of patients can only be maintained when there is an adequate clerical force.

3. A psychologist for state-wide service.

        The services of the psychologist of the children's unit are limited to certain counties which receive federal funds. There is much need for a psychologist who can be available for juvenile courts, correctional schools, county boards of public welfare, public schools and other organizations throughout the state which are constantly requesting the mental testing of children and adults who are community problems.


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DIVISION OF INSTITUTIONS AND CORRECTIONS

W. C. EZELL, Director

        The State Board of Charities and Public Welfare is authorized by section 5006 of the North Carolina statutes to, "investigate and supervise through and by its own members or its agents or employees, the whole system of charitable and penal institutions of the state, and to recommend such changes and additional provisions as it may deem needful for their economic and efficient administration." Other duties prescribed in that section include studying the subject of crime and the care and treatment of prisoners. Other sections of the statutes provide that the state board shall have the power to inspect county jails, county homes, and all prisons and prison camps and other institutions of a charitable nature. It is also provided that plans for new county homes and jails shall have the approval of the state board before the beginning of construction.

        The responsibility for executing the above duties are among those assigned to this division. The activity of the division includes inspections; investigations of complaints from, or about, state or county charitable and penal institutions; collecting information relative to populations and population movements; and approval of plans for new and renovated buildings in terms defined jointly by the State Board of Health, the state fire marshall, and the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare. Following the investigations of complaints and inspections of institutions, written reports are submitted to the responsible authorities. Whenever the findings warrant it, recommendations are also submitted in writing and usually in oral conferences. The State Board of Charities and Public Welfare has only supervisory authority.

        Since the board is not administrative and has no executive or administrative power or responsibility over state or county institutions, it has no way of enforcing its recommendations. Thus the relationship is always kept on a counseling and recommendatory basis.

        Supervision is interpreted to include assistance to institutions in planning buildings, programs, and policies. The division acts as a liaison representative between the local community and the institutions, and serves to bring to each some interpretations and plans of the other. Usually those policies of the institutions which concern the local departments of public welfare are formulated by the institution


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and this division in collaboration in an attempt to keep a coördination of effort throughout the whole state and among all agencies working on phases of the same problem. Also when state-wide policies are established for the local departments of public welfare, this division either invites institutional people for consultation or represents their point of view from the knowledge obtained by frequent visits and conferences with the institution officials.

        Table 1, page 130, gives the population and population movement for the state and county institutions for one month.

        The superintendent and location of the state institutions under the supervision of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare are listed below:

        
Institution Superintendent Location
Caswell Training School Dr. W. T. Parrott Kinston
State Hospital, Goldsboro Dr. F. L. Whelpley Goldsboro
State Hospital, Morganton Dr. F. B. Watkins Morganton
State Hospital, Raleigh Dr. J. W. Ashby Raleigh
Orthopedic Hospital Dr. W. M. Roberts, Chief Surgeon Gastonia
N. C. Sanatorium Dr. P. P. McCain Sanatorium
Western Sanatorium Dr. S. M. Bittinger, Asso. Supt. Black Mountain
Confederate Women's Home Mrs. Ina F. Smith Fayetteville
Eastern Carolina Tr. School S. E. Leonard Rocky Mount
Stonewall Jackson Manual Training School Chas. E. Boger Concord
Morrison Training School L. L. Boyd Hoffman
State Home and Industrial School for Girls Miss Grace M. Robson Eagle Springs
Farm Colony for Women Miss Elsa Ernst Kinston
State Highway and Public Works Commission, Prison Dept. R. Grady Johnson Raleigh

Plans Approved for New Structures

        During the biennium new or renovated county jails have been occupied, or plans for construction have been approved, in the counties of Beaufort, Catawba, Craven, Hyde, Jones, Lenoir, Madison, and McDowell. City jails have been built or plans approved in Aurora, Fayetteville, Denton and Chapel Hill. In other instance funds have


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been expended for permanent improvements to a less extensive degree. No new county homes have been built.

Complaints and Inspections

        The division has been without a field agent during the last half of the biennium. The director has made the necessary trips into the field to investigate all complaints which seemed to warrant an investigation on the grounds. During the biennium forty-one such written complaints have been registered against state or local institutions of a penal or charitable nature. Investigations have been made and written and oral reports and interpretations given to those in responsible authority. Twenty-two of the complaints were against county institutions and nineteen against state institutions.

        Routine inspections of county penal and charitable institutions have been practically given up during the last year of the biennium because of lack of legislative appropriation for an inspector. It has been the long-time practice of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare to try to inspect annually every county home, jail, workhouse, and the various units of the state penal, charitable, and correctional institutions. Such a program entails about 325 inspections annually. During the first year of the biennium 249 such inspections were made, but during the last year only 62 were made. Forty-one of the inspections made the last year were of state institutions and almost all of the inspections of county units were made in connection with special purposes--as for approval of new plans or relative to criticisms of the institutions.

        Written reports of the findings are filed with the responsible authorities, except in a few instances where detailed oral reports were given in conferences.

State Training Schools for Delinquents

        The state training schools for white delinquents have sufficient bed capacity to meet the demands made on them. The population has shown a gradual decline, and there are no pending waiting lists.

        On June 30, 1940, Jackson Training School had a population of 437 and a capacity for 500. Eastern Carolina Training School had a population of 119 and a capacity of 150. Samarcand had a population of 167 and a capacity for 200.

        The needs for the delinquent Negroes have not been adequately met. A new dormitory was erected at Morrison Training School during 1938, and the intake has increased to the extent that the waiting list and waiting period have been materially reduced. There is as yet no


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institution for the delinquent Negro girl. Institutional facilities for Negro girls is one of the needs in the state. Such an institution should be planned to operate as a school, but where much of the educational emphasis should be placed on vocational training.

        Another need which is receiving some consideration is to provide more education and vocational training for the younger and more hopeful of those persons sent to the state prison with relatively long terms. Work along this line is a part of the penal program, but what has been done is scarcely enough to insure that they will make successful and well-adjusted citizens when they are free again. A broader and more intensive program of this nature is needed.

SUPERVISION OF DELINQUENT JUVENILES
CONDITIONALLY RELEASED

        During the past several years much has been said relative to the success and failure of the training schools for juvenile delinquents. Many attempts have been made to measure their success by following up the careers of the boys and girls who have been in the training schools.

        It seems probable that the success, or lack of success, of adjustment in life after a period of stay in the training school is no criteria for judgment or adequate measure of the success, or lack of it, of the training school. It seems more probable that there are other factors simultaneously involved which are equally important to the successful adjustment of the child in the home after release from the training school. In the first place, modifications and adjustments need to be made by the members of the family in the home--both as to social adjustments and attitude adjustments. The old home factors did not prevent the child from becoming delinquent before institutional placement, so it seems logical to expect a possible need for their readjustment if the environment is to be helpful when the child returns to it. Another factor concerned is the help the child receives from the family and community when he returns from the institution. The child must experience difficulties and confusion in returning and in feeling that he is being pointed out as one who has been in a training school. He must also feel some sense of confusion with the new liberty outside, as well as some insecurity in that he does not have the institutional supervision and protection.

        It is suspected, then, that the type of adjustment the child makes depends on the amount of help he gets from the family and the community after release, as much as on the training program in the institution. The child and the family can be helped to understand


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some of the problems which must be met when he returns home. If both the child and the family could understand the difficulties and be prepared for them before the actual problems arose, each would be less shocked by them and better able to meet them. It seems that we can definitely help in the post-institutional adjustment and make it more possible for the child to make a success of life after the return home.

        About 1933 the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare undertook to serve as the clearing house and supervising agency for these children. It was believed that helpful supervision and aid could be supplied. The county superintendents of public welfare of the respective counties are by authority of C. S. 5017 the actual supervisors of all such persons.

        The training schools dealing individually with the county units were unsuccessful in keeping accurate and current reports on the behavior and adjustment of such individuals. Since a child sent to the training school remains under its supervision until he is twenty-one, or is discharged by the school, it seemed necessary that the training school be currently informed on the matter of behavior. Such information is the basis on which discharges are issued, if the child is discharged before becoming twenty-one years of age. The statutes state that he shall be discharged when he becomes twenty-one regardless of whether he has succeeded in adjusting.

        The state board and the superintendents of the training schools agreed that the state office would probably be able to get better results if it would act as a clearing house and supervise the collection of reports for all the training schools.

        Keeping current supervision over these minors is made more difficult because they are subject to the control and movement of the parents. The parents frequently move from one county to another, and even out of the state. The supervisors scarcely have the power or the wish to prevent the parents' freedom of movement, nor have they power nor do they wish to prevent the children remaining with the parents. But under any system yet tried by us, many of the children become lost to the supervising agencies. Some of them get lost because of a deliberate effort to avoid supervision, but many through circumstances instead.

        When the child welfare services of the U. S. Children's Bureau made funds available for work with children, a social worker was provided for work with the training schools along the lines of helping with intake, with discharge, and with the point of supervision. Later other social workers were made available to three of the training


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schools with a hope that better services could be arranged between the communities and the institutions. The period of trial was too short to prove conclusively that successful working plans could be found; however, some ideas were developed and are now being tried.

        The plan for supervision now on trial is that the supervising agencies in the counties keep regular contacts with the supervisees by both home and office visits. The home visits are necessary if knowledge of the home conditions is to be had. The home conditions and the family relationships are vital factors involved in whether the child succeeds in making a satisfactory community adjustment. The supervising agency is either the local juvenile court or the county department of public welfare. The local worker who is supervising the case makes written reports to this office each six months on each child under supervision. The state office keeps cards of all active supervisees and a minimum of information on each. Information for the cards is taken from the written reports and the original reports are sent directly to the school which conditionally released the child. In this manner the schools are informed of the progress of their supervisees to the extent the local workers supply the information. Children are issued final discharges from supervision by the respective schools on recommendations of the local workers.

        The plan is working, but not perfectly. The quality and quantity of supervision given the boys and girls has vastly improved since the plan was inaugurated. The major improvements, according to the statements of the superintendents of the training schools, is in the quality of the work.

        A few local agencies have considered this phase of their work less important than other pressing duties, and have not kept in touch with and reported on the cases under supervision. The quantity of written reports has increased as the plan develops. About 915 such reports were submitted during the first year of the biennium and 1,166 during the second year. If written reports were submitted each six months on all children under supervision there would be from 1,300 to 1,400 reports annually to cover the fluctuating size of the case load.

YOUTHS AND THE COURTS

        The number of children confined in the county jails of the state has steadily dropped. The problem of children in jail has received much attention from county and state officials, as well as from the lay public and the press, since October 1933, when the attorney general ruled:


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        "C. S. 5048 relating to this matter may be interpreted as meaning that children may not be confined in jail, such place being designated in the statute as one where they may come in contact with hardened criminals; and in that view it would not be in compliance with the statute to provide quarters for them in the jail, and undertake thereby to see that they did not come in contact with such criminals."


        Considerable publicity was given this ruling, and a new emphasis was placed on detaining juveniles. However, community customs and usage change slowly, and it was some time before the philosophy and practice moved to action in harmony with the new concept.

        There is excellent evidence that the practice now is away from using the common jail as the place to detain children. The figures for jail commitments for the past four years clearly demonstrate this. In the calendar year 1936, a total of 1,231 children were confined in county jails of the state. The number was reduced by 15 per cent to 1,070 for 1937. There was a further reduction by 17.5 per cent to 883 for 1938. During 1939, there was a further reduction to 784, or an additional reduction of 12.6 per cent below the preceding year. Thus in 1939, there were confined in jail 447 less children than in 1936, or 36.3 per cent below that year. We may expect to reach a point of diminishing returns at some early date. For the past few years, it seems that more children have been permitted to go to their own homes or homes of others pending disposition of their cases.

        Confining children in jail pending a disposition of them has always appeared illogical in light of the fact that 42 per cent of them are released on probation when the case is finally heard. Less than half that number are sent to training schools or prison. Only 11.2 per cent of the 1937 children in jail were reported as sent to training schools or prison. In 1938, in a more careful follow-up, 19.4 per cent of those in jail were found to have been sent to training schools. Correspondence was had between the county and the training school in an additional 7.4 per cent of the total incarcerations, but so far as is known, in the remaining 73.2 per cent of the cases final disposition was made without resort to confinement following the hearing. The average period of jail incarceration is about ten days.

        Too often young children who are only dependent or neglected are confined in the jail because no other resource seems available. Of the children held in jail in 1937, 6.1 per cent were ten years of age or under, and in 1938, 4.6 per cent were ten or under. It is the common knowledge of those who visit jails that very small children are occasionally carried along to jail when the mother is incarcerated.


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        Children are violators against property rights in from 48 to 50 per cent of the instances. They are charged with violations of the liquor laws in from five to six per cent of the instances. Twelve per cent of the children in jails during 1938 were held in jails two or more times during the year.

        In order to have the information relative to the quantity of work done by the juvenile courts up to date, the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare is making a state-wide survey of the activities of these courts during the past five years. Such surveys for the period from 1919, when the present juvenile courts were established, through 1934 have been made and the findings published. The present survey covers the number of cases heard by the several courts of the state during the period from July 1, 1934, through June 30, 1939. The breakdown will show the race, age, sex, type of misbehavior, and disposition by court and by year, as have the previous surveys. It is hoped that the survey will add other information as to what the youths of today are doing, and what is being done to them. The findings of the survey will be available for distribution about the first of the year.

        All is not dark. There are facts in the figures which indicate that progress is being made. The trend of delinquency appears to be downward, not upward. As noted above, there are fewer children incarcerated in county jails than heretofore. The same is true of the especially provided juvenile detention quarters of a few centers over the state. The number of commitments to these quarters fell from 1,221 in 1937 to 1,168 in 1938 and down to 1,040 in 1939. This represents a reduction of 14.8 per cent. The training schools for delinquents are receiving fewer applications and are experiencing a falling population. The aggregate population of the training schools for delinquents has descended from 1,061 on July 1, 1933, to 894 on July 1, 1940. This represents a 15.7 per cent reduction.

        It is not the post-adolescent and young adult who are the chief contributors to the criminal population of the state, regardless of the many statements to the contrary. Those persons 25 years of age and over made up more than three-fifths of the prison admissions in 1938, and more than two-thirds of the county jail admissions during the four months from last November through February.

        In 1933 the 7,328 persons under 25 years admitted to the state prison made up 50.1 per cent of the total 14,617 prison admissions. This group under 25 has contributed a progressively smaller percentage each year, and has shown an increase in actual numbers of only 124. The group of prison admissions aged 25 and over has shown a


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phenomenal increase by comparison. The actual numbers in the older group increased from 7,289 in 1933 to 11,421 in 1938, an increase of 4,132. Although the older group made up only 49.9 per cent of the total 14,617 admissions in 1933, they made up 60.5 per cent of the total of 18,873 admissions in 1938. See table 2, page 131, for a detailed break-down.

        A sampling of the ages of persons incarcerated in county jails was made to determine the age groupings of that series of law violators. See table 3, page 131. The study showed that 33.9 per cent of them were under 25 years of age and two-thirds were 25 or older. The ratio of older persons was higher among the jail admissions than among the prison admissions. The statistics throughout indicate that the increase of crime among the younger people is little or none. The increase in prison admissions during the period from July 1, 1932, through June 30, 1938, was more than 33 times greater among the prisoners 25 years and over than it was among those under 25 years.

        It is suggested that the considerable interest shown in, and the expenditures made toward helping the younger part of our population is beginning to demonstrate successful results in the prevention of antisocial behavior. The CCC, NYA, aid to dependent children and child welfare services programs are all directed toward helping some group of the younger part of the population. Within the state, full time departments of public welfare--made up of staffs who have some professional training for their jobs--have been organized in all the counties and have been active in many phases of work which are helpful, directly or indirectly, in reducing crime and delinquency. There are many other agencies and movements which can justly claim an equally important role in producing a more desirable society and the resultant decrease in maladjusted individuals living within it. Large sums of money and much time have been spent in efforts toward social amelioration. It seems that a tangible proof of effective results is to be found in the above figures.

COUNTY JAIL POPULATION

        Although sections 5008 and 5013 of the North Carolina code give authority for the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare to require population reports of the county jails, the board has always proceeded on a plan of trying to interpret the reason why such reports are needed and get the reports voluntarily submitted. The results are only slightly more than 80 per cent successful. Even those 80 per cent of the total reports give a good indication of the number, race, sex, and age of the jail commitments.


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        There is an unexplained inconsistency in the difference between the racial ratios of jail admissions and prison admissions in the state. The white group consistently furnishes about 58 per cent of the jail admissions while the Negro group consistently furnishes about 58 per cent of the prison admissions. The Negro group makes up about the same percentage of the workhouse populations and of those in jails at any stated time. Table 4, page 132, offers some figures for comparison of the racial composition of prison and jail admissions.

        Two conclusions may be drawn from the facts presented in the tables. In the first place it appears that the white group is contributing a gradually increasing percentage of the criminals arrested and convicted. In the second place it appears that the Negro, once arrested and placed in jail, remains there longer before coming to trial, and serves a sentence for his offense considerably more frequently than does the white.

        The composition of the 1939 jail admissions was broken down to show the percentage of women in the total commitments. The white women made up 7.8 per cent of the total whites, while the Negro women made up 16.2 per cent of the total Negroes. The women of both races constituted 10 per cent of the total incarcerations.

        Table 5, page 132, give a summary of the jail population for one month. The figures have been adjusted upward to represent all county jails as reporting.

The Fee System for Jailers

        The jailers in 75 counties still depend on fees for their principle income. The fee system allows the jailer a specified amount for each prisoner daily for feeding and guarding. The system presupposes, in effect, that the jailer's income will consist in the difference between what he is allowed for feeding and what it actually costs him to feed the prisoners. Free living quarters are usually granted the jailer's family, and turnkey fees are sometimes allowed to supplement the income.

        The system almost puts a premium on a cheap and monotonous diet. The mere continued existence of the system expresses an unconcern of the local bodies which may be expected to express itself in other indications of indifference and callousness. It is not surprising that the U. S. Department of Justice has 70 of the county jails in the state on their unapproved list, and allow the use of an additional 15 for restricted purposes only. Many of our jails are unapproved because of bad administration and supervisory practices, and not because of weak physical plants.


Page 126

CITY JAILS*

        * Assistance in the preparation of the material on the city jails was furnished by personnel of WPA, Official Project No. 465-32-3-356.


        A survey of jail facilities in 113 North Carolina municipalities revealed a variety of practices in the handling of municipal prisoners. Sixty-eight of the 113 cities and towns studied operated their own jails. The remaining 45 municipalities depend upon the county for jail facilities.

        The jails in 15 of the 68 cities consist of more than one room. Of the 53 jails having only one room 42 have two or more cells which will accommodate from one to four prisoners.

        All but six of the jails have toilet facilities available at all times. Three jails have toilets available on request of prisoner, one permits use of toilet every four hours, and two jails make toilet facilities available three times daily.

        A large number of jails surveyed have no bathing facilities. Only nine have baths which are accessible to the prisoners at all times. Twenty-two jails have lavatories in the cells or in the cell blocks where they can be used at any time by the prisoners. Lavatories are available upon request in three jails. Forty-three of the 68 jails studied have no lavatory facilities.

        Separate quarters for women are provided in 33 jails. All of these jails have separate toilet facilities for women and all but nine have separate lavatories. Only ten of these jails have separate bathing facilities for both sexes.

        Information on jail commitments, length of sentence and the jail population is not available due to the fact that only 17 of the cities and towns surveyed maintain sufficient records on these pertinent questions.

COUNTY HOMES

        The programs and problems of the county homes have received a great deal of attention during the period covered by this report. With the advent of the public assistance program these institutions have been materially affected. It has seemed wise and necessary to give enough time and effort to a study of these changes to be able to draw some conclusions as to the probable future developments in this field.

        Since the passage of the federal social security act, and directly accountable to the operation of the act in the state, eleven of the counties have closed their county homes. Mitchell County closed in April 1937, but in anticipation of the coming of the old age assistance program.


Page 127

gram. Two others closed before the beginning of the present biennium: Cherokee and Chowan, each on June 30, 1938. During this biennial period seven others have closed: Greene on September 30, 1938; Yancy, November 30, 1938; Swain, May 30, 1939; Transylvania, July 31, 1939; Cumberland, August 31, 1939; Polk, January 1, 1940; and Madison, February 5, 1940.

        There are prospects of others closing some time in the near future. Camden County now has no one in its home, but it has been retained for meeting any needs which might arise. An additional nine homes had a population of less than ten persons on June 30, 1940.

Population Trends

        The total population of the county homes has shown a slow but steady decline since the beginning of the period of definitely anticipated public assistance in the state. In December 1936 there were 3,164 persons in the homes, and almost every month has shown a slight reduction. On June 30, 1940, there was a total of 2,650 persons in the 75 homes. Up to June 30, 1939, as many as 293 persons had moved out and received old age assistance alone. If the number moving out to receive blind assistance and aid to dependent children be added, it is seen that the public assistance program has been the major factor in the population reduction. It is interesting to note that of the 293 moving out for old age assistance, sixteen finally gave up the grants and returned to the county homes.

        The population turnover in the county homes is quite high. During a twelve-months period studied there were 578 deaths out of a total of 1,797 separations. The deaths make up about one-third of the total separations, and the annual separations are about two-thirds of the average daily population.

        A study was made of the amounts granted to the 171 persons leaving the county homes and getting old age assistance grants during the twelve months February 1, 1938, to February 1, 1939. Twenty-one received a total grant of $30 per month, and a total of 55 received as much or more than the $16.90 average per capita monthly costs of the county home care for 1939. An additional 55 received monthly grants of $10 a month or less. The average grant was $15.32 or $1.58 less than it cost on an average to keep persons in a county home.

        Table 6, page 133, shows a county by county tabulation of average populations and costs of county homes for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1939.

        The practice of allowing the keeper of the county home a monthly fee for his service is still practiced in fourteen counties. The fees


Page 128

allowed range from $17.50 to a low of $5.50 a person monthly. The average of the fees allowed is $11.02. The salaries paid to county home superintendents vary from $165.00 a month to a low of $50.00. The average of the salaries is $88.58.

Medical and Nursing Care

        A physician is available on call to all of the county homes in the state. In a very few the physician visits daily or regularly, regardless of whether called. Medical examinations are made of the patient at the time of admission in forty-eight of the homes.

        Nursing care for the numerous ailing patients has never been adequate. Only nine of the county homes have trained nurses on the staff. In twenty other instances practical nurses are on duty. This service needs to be materially improved.

Consolidation of County Homes

        From the study of the types of persons in the county homes, it seems that because of mental and physical infirmities which make it necessary that they have the care of a personal attendant, many of them must be institutionalized for the remainder of their lives. We find that 45.5 per cent of the total population are either bedridden or else in need of considerable care from others. Many more of them are of such a mental status as to be unable to assume the responsibility of looking after themselves, even though they are physically able to be up and wait on themselves. Over half of the entire population are classed as feeble-minded or badly deteriorated, though harmless.

        The county homes have been from their origin a sort of "catch-all" for the mentally and physically unfit of all ages. With the gradual emergence and development of specialized care for many groups--as the tuberculars, the mental defectives, mentally ill, orthopedic, and the recipients of public assistance, the residual is the more or less chronically ill. Adequate medical and nursing care cannot be economically supplied where there are less than fifty beds for each unit, and it is preferable that the units not be smaller than 100 beds. The average population of the county homes now in operation is thirty-five. Only thirteen have a population of fifty or more, while only five have a population of as many as 100 at present. It is evident that adequate care cannot be economically supplied under the present arrangements. During fiscal 1938 it cost an average of $213.12 to maintain a person in a county home, while the average state hospital cost was $191.98 or 11 per cent less.


Page 129

        Many people are going to continue to need institutional care. The care in those institutions, if it is to approach adequacy, must include more medical and nursing care than is now supplied. These more adequate services can best be supplied when the plants are so planned and the units are sufficiently large to warrant the employment of adequate and competent personnel. The consolidation of smaller county units seems the inevitable answer. Chapter 129 of the Public Laws of 1931 gives the necessary legal authority. Circumstances will eventually develop the practice.

Tubercular Care

        There are not yet enough beds for the tubercular patients to meet the needs, but encouraging progress has been made during the past several years, and more facilities are soon to be made available. When the report of this activity was compiled two years ago, beds were available for about 1,200 patients. At present there are beds available for about 1,800. In addition Wilson County is building a forty-bed sanatorium, and the state has under way a new sanatorium in the eastern part of the state. When both are completed, there will be beds for well over 2,000 patients.

Interpretation of the Program

        Consistent effort has been made to keep information before the public, in the belief that public action and public support will not go far beyond the general understanding of the people at large. This information has been presented through news releases to the press, special articles in Public Welfare News, and by talks before various and varied groups.

        The director has served on numerous committees of from two to twenty and attended fifty-one committee meetings during the biennium on matters which were pertinent to and related to the job. He has had 1,006 individual conferences with people relative to phases of the job being done. In addition he has made thirty-four public talks before an estimated audience of 2,483 people.

        The director attended the annual meetings of the American Prison Association in St. Paul and in New York. He was elected a member of the board of directors of the National Jail Association. He served as a member of the committee on standards and procedures in parole selection and release of the U. S. Attorney General's National Parole Conference, held in Washington, D. C.


Page 130

STAFF REDUCTIONS

        Since the last report a drastic reduction has been made in the personnel of the division staff. At the beginning of the biennium the staff consisted of a director, field agent, four social workers for services to the correctional schools, and five secretary-stenographers, or a total of eleven. The social workers and their secretaries were paid through child welfare service funds, and six of them were discontinued on August 31, 1938. The field agent was released for lack of state appropriation on June 30, 1939. At present the staff consists of a director, secretary, and a social worker at Morrison Training School. The latter is paid jointly by the school and child welfare service funds. The division is trying to execute all the duties it was carrying when the staff was largest.

TABLE 1

        
  Admitted DismissedIn Institution on Last Day of June, 1940
White Negro Total
Men Women Men Women
STATE INSTITUTIONS:              
Caswell Training School 0 0 348 387 ---- ---- 735
State Hospital, Goldsboro 75* 54* ---- ---- 1,091 1,288 2,379
State Hospital, Morganton 85* 70* 1,129 1,271 ---- ---- 2,400
State Hospital, Raleigh 134* 116* 1,232 1,150 ---- ---- 2,382
Orthopedic Hospital 40 37 61 52 31 17 161
Sanatorium 85 89 184 157 150 143 634
Western Sanatorium 25 25 136 166 ---- ---- 302
Confederate Women's Home 0 0 ---- 42 ---- ---- 42
Eastern Carolina Training School 11 8 122 ---- ---- ---- 122
Jackson Training School 17 8 446 ---- ---- ---- 446
Samarcand 12 5 ---- 174 ---- ---- 174
Morrison Training School 12 36 ---- ---- 152 ---- 152
Farm Colony for Women 5 11 ---- 49 ---- ---- 49
State Highway Prison Camps 1,677 1,866 3,949 49 5,551 135 9,684
Totals 2,178 2,325 7,607 3,497 6,975 1,583 19,662
COUNTY INSTITUTIONS:              
100 county jails (approximated) 6,992 7,018 508 73 561 194 1,336
75 county homes 126 164 965 866 467 352 2,650
29 workhouses and farms 285 264 162 80 213 162 617
7 juvenile detention quarters 75 70 23 4 38 3 68
Totals 7,478 7,516 1,658 1,023 1,279 711 4,671
GRAND TOTAL 9,656 9,841 9,265 4,520 8,254 2,294 24,333

        * Many of these were away on, or returned from, short home visits.



Page 131

TABLE 2

AGE GROUPINGS OF PRISON ADMISSIONS BY YEARS

        
Fiscal Year Total Prison Admissions   Under 16 Years 16 and 17 Years 18 and 20 Years 21 and 24 Years 25 and Over
1933 14,617 Number 59 1,020 2,723 3,526 7,289
    Per Cent 0.403 6.978 18.628 24.122 49.866
1934 16,861 Number 60 996 2,820 3,863 9,122
    Per Cent 0.355 5.907 16.724 22.910 54.101
1935 17,525 Number 49 959 2,762 3,973 9,782
    Per Cent 0.279 5,472 15.760 22.670 55.817
1936 17,851 Number 79 895 2,457 3,976 10,444
    Per Cent 0.442 5.013 13.763 22.273 58.506
1937 19,014 Number 80 970 2,543 3,946 11,475
    Per Cent 0.420 5.101 13.374 20.753 60.350
1938 18,873 Number 90 1,009 2,362 3,991 11,421
    Per Cent 0.476 5.346 12.515 21.146 60.515

         "Unknown age" group included in total admissions, but considered as over 25 years in calculations.


TABLE 3

AGE GROUPINGS OF COUNTY JAIL ADMISSIONS

         (15,000 admissions chosen as a sample of some 28,000 total admissions to county jails during November, December 1939, and January and February 1940.)

        
AGE GROUPS Number Per Cent AGE GROUPS Number Per Cent
Under 16 years 168 1.2 35 and 39 1,700 11.4
16 and 17 660 4.4 40 and 44 1,083 7.3
18 and 20 1,618 10.8 45 and 49 790 5.3
21 and 24 2,627 17.5 50 and 59 700 4.7
25 and 29 3,044 20.3 60 and 69 230 1.6
30 and 34 2,327 15.5 70 and over 5 ----


Page 132

TABLE 4

        
  Percentages in Prison Admissions Percentages in Jail Admissions
White Negro White Negro
1932 38.6 61.4 ---- ----
1933 38.5 61.5 ---- ----
1934 40.7 59.3 ---- ----
1935 40.5 59.5 ---- ----
1936 42.4 57.6 57.7 42.3
1937 45.6 54.4 58.3 41.7
1938 46.0 54.0 56.8 43.2
1939 ---- ---- 59.4 40.6

TABLE 5

COUNTY JAIL POPULATION* JUNE 1940

        * Figures in these groups are approximations.


        
ADMISSIONS State Federal Total
White men 3,612 201 3,813
White women 228 10 238
Negro men 2,395 115 2,510
Negro women 420 11 431
Totals 6,655 337 6,992

NUMBER REMAINING IN JAILS ON JUNE 30, 1940

        
  Awaiting Disposition Serving Sentence Total
State Federal State Federal
White men 320 88 93 7 508
White women 25 ---- 47 1 73
Negro men 379 40 124 18 561
Negro women 46 3 141 4 194
Totals 770 131 405 30 1,336


Page 133

TABLE 6

        
COUNTY HOMES FISCAL REPORTS Net Expenditure for Maintenance Year Ending June 30, 1939 Average Daily Population Monthly Per Capita Cost Value of Farm and Garden Produce Value of Property Permanent Improvements
Used Sold
Alamance $ 9,324.67 34 $ 22.85 $ 4,000.00 $ 0 $ 25,000.00 $ 500.00
Alexander 3,343.90 21 13.27 250.00 0 16,189.57 ----
Anson 2,720.74 14 16.20 1,302.65 877.01 42,000.00 ----
Ashe 1,244.31 14 10.84 700.00 827.77 20,000.00 576.56
Beaufort 6,195.38 19 27.17 250.00 0 11,800.00 ----
Bertie b 3,639.61a 24c 7.22c 2,500.00 3,676.59a 61,141.00b 808.97
Brunswick 3,136.38 22 11.88 1,000.00 254.18 17,591.10 ----
Buncombe 21,000.00 95 18.42 9,081.60 220.00 90,000.00 2,500.00
Burke 6,387.86 30 17.73 d 0 35,000.00 ----
Cabarrus 10,766.28 40 22.43 1,200.00 0 60,000.00 ----
Caldwell 4,776.15 20 19.90 d 0 15,000.00 ----
Camden 258.00 2 10.75 60.00 0 1,500.00 ----
Carteret 4,658.88 12 28.19 300.00 0 10,000.00 600.00
Caswell 2,317.94 12 16.10 1,000.00 468.53 30,000.00 ----
Catawba 4,043.03 28 11.58 6,000.00 150.00 15,500.00 ----
Chatham 7,220.67 35 17.19 1,000.00 0 45,000.00 ----
Chowan* 272.81e 8 17.05 0 0 7,000.00 ----
Cleveland 7,549.98 44 14.30 3,500.00 256.25 40,000.00 ----
Columbus 6,305.84 31 16.95 1,200.00 0 50,000.00 583.78
Craven 7,312.48 19 32.06 0 0 35,000.00 ----
Cumberland 7,591.68 49 12.91 Unknown 0 15,000.00 668.35
Davidson 5,239.40 23 18.98 1,530.00 134.10 15,000.00 ----
Davie 3,157.14 16 16.45 1,200.00 317.79 13,550.89 ----
Duplin 2,757.46 17 13.52 400.00 0 10,000.00 ----
Durham f 40,847.65 200 17.02 24,261.92 2,387.43 386,982.55 3,379.63
Edgecombe 11,203.38 40 23.34 1,000.00 0 175,000.00 ----
Forsyth g 49,099.24 172 23.79 0 4,253.62 250,000.00 925.50
Franklin 6,512.17 34 15.96 1,200.00 0 30,000.00 ----
Gaston 13,571.48 62 18.24 3,500.00 317.25 45,000.00 1,881.39
Gates 480.00 5 8.00 d d 3,000.00 ----
Granville 5,135.30 42 10.19 3,000.00 149.06 30,000.00 ----
Greene* 477.36h 4 39.78 0 0 5,000.00 ----
Guilford i 23,345.11 183 10.63 0 0 241,957.45 ----
Halifax 5,752.90 34 14.10 Unknown 1,768.02 67,709.22 ----
Harnett 7,558.15 40 15.75 1,000.00 493.78 60,000.00 ----
Haywood 4,062.46 45 13.08 2,857.79 242.21 45,000.00 3,000
Henderson 2,901.21 16 15.11 d 0 28,000.00 ----
Hertford 1,533.17 12 10.65 50.00 0 6,000.00 ----
Iredell 11,525.80 50 19.21 600.00 450.63 101,902.45 ----
Jackson 2,890.18 20 12.04 500.00 0 30,000.00 ----
Johnston 12,106.31 54 18.58 1,000.00 0 48,000.00 ----
Lee 4,414.20 19 19.36 900.00 0 26,506.00 ----

        a This represents the net expenditure of tax money. The amount of money received from sale of farm produce has been deducted. The amount of produce raised on the farm and received from the Surplus Commodity Corporation, WPA sewing rooms, etc., and used in the home has not been included.


        b The Bertie figures represent the combined expenditures of the county jail, county home, and county farm, which is worked by county prisoners. All are located on adjacent property.


        c Average: County home inmates 24; prisoners 18; total 42; in calculating per capita cost.


        d In many instances the county home farm is given rent free to the superintendent as part of his remuneration and no reports are made to the county auditor as to amount of produce raised.


        e Operated only two months of the period.


        f Annual operating expense and population for the Durham county home include the infirmary, work-house and county farm.


        g Forsyth operates a hospital as part of the county home and all are operated on an undifferentiated budget. The revenue is from the laundry operated by the prisoners there.


        h Operated only three months of the period.


        i Population and expense include women prisoners who are kept and worked at county home.


        * Closed during the fiscal year The operating costs cover the varying period of operation.



Page 134

        

TABLE 6--Continued

Lenoir $ 4,013.04 17 $ 19.67 $ 550.00 $ 0 $ 10,000.00 $ ----
Lincoln 3,580.18 20 14.92 d 0 25,000.00 ----
Macon 528.00 8 5.50 d 0 5,000.00 ----
Madison 4,300.00 20 17.92 0 0 5,000.00 ----
Martin 4,583.21 21 18.18 502.00 0 25,000.00 ----
Mecklenburg 43,914.75 133 27.52 5,896.03 14,706.88 168,045.35 ----
Montgomery 2,750.61 16 14.33 Unknown 138.18 11,464.96 ----
Moore 5,883.66 25 19.61 500.00 0 10,000.00 1,000.00
Nash 16,250.56 57 23.76 3,200.00 530.76 50,000.00 ----
New Hanover j 19,696.19 58 11.97 7,191.11 67.90 87,155.51 ----
Northampton 5,181.19 30 13.42 1,000.00 350.00 50,000.00 ----
Onslow 3,281.25 11 24.86 0 0 20,000.00 434.07
Orange 3,818.67 14 22.73 Unknown 0 5,000.00 ----
Pasquotank 3,264.81 16 17.00 Unknown 0 15,000.00 ----
Perquimans 1,348.10 7 16.04 0 0 10,000.00 93.06
Person 3,779.33 24 13.12 2,250.00 0 40,000.00 ----
Pitt 5,288.49 23 19.16 2,475.00 1,835.74 45,000.00 ----
Polk 2,654.87 13 17.02 Unknown 0 7,500.00 ----
Randolph 5,421.48 30 15.05 125.00 0 53,057.00 ----
Richmond 5,428.46 34 13.31 1,000.00 0 30,000.00 ----
Robeson 25,479.69 99 21.45 10,100.00 249.49 204,881.58 ----
Rockingham 8,636.00 60 12.00 5,200.00 0 77,000.00 ----
Rowan 17,329.59 69 20.93 6,970.00 1,151.83 150,000.00 1,000.00
Rutherford 9,841.50 42 19.53 2,500.00 108.72 25,000.00 ----
Sampson 8,501.71 50 14.17 2,545.00 275.00 25,000.00 1,022.05
Stanly 6,737.64 33 17.01 Unknown 479.07 100,000.00 ----
Stokes 5,831.26 34 14.29 d 0 23,931.00 600.00
Surry k 1,367.66 35 3.26k 1,650.00 1,639.86 30,000.00 7,430.93
Swain* 2,288.27m 12 17.33 d 0 10,000.00 ----

        d In many instances the county home farm is given rent free to the superintendent as part of his remuneration and no reports are made to the county auditor as to amount of produce raised.


        j County farm and prison are operated in connection with county home. The per capita cost is calculated on a basis of including the prisoners also.


        k Surry county spent $7,430.93 for "permanent improvements" some of which might be charged to "general maintenance" Also prison labor was used to raise the $3,289.86 produce used and sold. County auditor reports the monthly per capita cost of maintenance as $15.00.


        m Swain County was closed after eleven months' operation.


        * Closed during the fiscal year The operating costs cover the varying period of operation.



Page 135

        

TABLE 6--Continued

Transylvania $ 900.97 7 $ 10.73 $ 420.00 $ 407.93 $ 12,000.00 $ ----
Union 6,762.92 45 12.52 4,385.25 313.48 100,000.00 ----
Vance 5,689.14 16 29.63 0 0 40,000.00 ----
Wake 29,647.03 147 16.81 1,500.00 0 100,000.00 2,759.35
Warren 7,501.19 27 17.60 500.00 0 15,000.00 1,133.35
Washington 5,137.82 20 21.41 1,725.00 578.83 12,000.00 ----
Watauga 1,275.40 11 9.66 0 0 24,000.00 ----
Wayne 8,421.18 45 15.59 0 0 25,000.00 ----
Wilkes 3,796.74 25 12.65 Unknown 911.03 Unknown ----
Wilson 10,912.28 46 19.77 1,215.00 0 40,000.00 ----
Yadkin 1,782.24 12 12.38 d 0 7,300.00 ----
Yancey* 500.00n 5 20.00 100.00 0 1,000.00 ----
Totals $647,943.74 3,078* Av. $16.90 $139,843.35 $ 40,988.92 $955,665.63 ----

        d In many instances the county home farm is given rent free to the superintendent as part of his remuneration and no reports are made to the county auditor as to amount of produce raised.


        n Operated only five months of the period.


        * Closed during the fiscal year The operating costs cover the varying period of operation.


        * The average daily population here furnished is high since prisoners used for janitorial service are included.


        This tabluation is based on reports submitted to the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare by the county auditors. Some interpolations have been necessary.
Average annual per capita cost for fiscal year ending June 30, 1939 $202.80
Average monthly per capita cost for fiscal year ending June 30, 1939 16.90


Page 137

SERVICE UNITS

  • County Organization
  • Surplus Commodity Distribution
  • Work Among Negroes
  • Selection and Certification of Applicants for Civilian Conservation Corps


Page 139

COUNTY ORGANIZATION

MRS. W. B. AYCOCK, Director

        Since the completion of the organization of the one hundred county welfare departments in July 1937 the emphasis in the work of county organization has been placed on securing adequate qualified personnel on county welfare staffs, promoting understanding of state and county board relationships, securing the active interest and participation of county boards in interpreting and promoting the public welfare program in the counties, and in enlisting the coöperation and support of county officials, social and civic groups through county councils of social agencies and the six district welfare conferences.

        In evaluating the steady progress which has been made during the past two years three factors must be considered: (1) the faithful services and skilled guidance of the field social work representatives, who have carried on the work under the functional supervision of the director; (2) the excellent coöperation at all times of county superintendents of public welfare; (3) the continued interest, understanding and support of county boards.

PROGRAM OF WORK

        The responsibilities of county organization are as follows:

  • 1. To direct the central personnel application service.
  • 2. To direct the procedures prescribed by law for the organization of county welfare boards and to formulate policies and procedures for the state board's appointee on the county welfare boards.
  • 3. To promote an understanding of state and county board relationships.
  • 4. To plan and organize district welfare conferences in coöperation with district conference officers.
  • 5. To assist in the stimulation and organization of county councils of social agencies.

        In the interest of the work the field representatives have visited the county welfare departments each month and have been available for meetings with the county boards of public welfare, county commissioners and county councils of social agencies. When requested the director and field representatives have appeared on the programs of county councils of social agencies.


Page 140

        The director has attended the annual meetings of the North Carolina Conference for Social Service in 1939 and 1940, the annual meetings of the North Carolina Council of Youth Serving Agencies, the southern regional conference on guidance and personnel held in Raleigh in January 1940, and the fourth round table conference of the American Public Welfare Association, Washington, D. C., December 1939.

        The director has served on the following departmental committees: office management, filing, staff development and classification.

Personnel

        The volume of work in personnel has almost doubled during the past two years. In addition to directing and maintaining the central application personnel service the responsibilities have been increased by the following developments: the biennial election of county superintendents of public welfare was held in June 1939, with sixteen new appointments and eighty-four reappointments; in August 1938 ninety-two qualified workers were located and placed on county staffs for a temporary period of work, and were paid through special WPA intake funds; job descriptions for all state and county welfare workers were drafted and compiled in the fall of 1939; while the last two months of the biennial period have been devoted to participation in the classification plan in connection with the merit system.

        The importance of employing adequate qualified personnel on county staffs has been stressed at all times. While the personal selection of county staffs is the responsibility of the county superintendents of public welfare in consultation with the field representatives, applications have been classified by the director in the state office according to the state personnel standards and the references checked. All placements have been reported to the director by the field staff and cleared. Around eight hundred applications have been received and classifid and the references checked on all social work applications before the records have been referred to the county departments for consideration in filling vacancies. Over 325 of the applicants have been interviewed by the director and referred to the county departments, or to the North Carolina Employment Service for work. Two hundred and fifty-eight placements have been cleared and reported. A complete and accurate county personnel file has been kept in the director's office and a directory of county case work staffs has been made available to the members of the state department and field staff.

        While the state board found it necessary to extend the time limit from 1941 to 1943 for securing the required social work training, a


Page 141

larger number of workers each year have taken additional training. This is shown by the number of junior case workers who have qualified for case workers. In June 1939, there were 144 junior case workers, fifty-eight case workers, nine case work supervisors, seventeen child welfare assistants, eighty-two case aides, and in June 1940 there were 121 junior case workers, ninety-one case workers, seven case work supervisors, fifteen child welfare assistants, seventy-nine case aides. The local boards have been responsible for determining the time and length for educational leaves in order that the work of the department would not be curtailed or handicapped.

County Board of Public Welfare

        The county welfare board in each of the hundred counties is composed of three interested socially-minded citizens. One member is appointed by the state board, one member by the county commissioners and a third member selected by these two previously appointed members. The term of office for one member expires each year and after the first appointments, all members are appointed for a term of three years. These boards are required by law to meet at least once a month. The county superintendent is the executive officer of the board and serves as secretary. As soon as the boards are organized they meet and elect a chairman who serves until his term of office on the board expires. The members serve without compensation.

        The county boards of public welfare in joint session with the boards of county commissioners select the county superintendents of public welfare in every county with the exception of Wake and Wilkes. In Wake and Wilkes counties the welfare board selects the superintendent of public welfare. The county welfare board acts in a joint advisory capacity to the county and municipal authorities in developing policies and plans in dealing with problems of dependency and delinquency, distribution of the poor funds, and social conditions generally including coöperation with other agencies in placing indigent persons in gainful enterprises. They have such other powers and duties as are prescribed by law, and particularly those set out in the laws pertaining to social security, old age assistance, and aid to dependent children.

        The director has kept a current directory of the county board members and chairmen and it has been encouraging to note the few resignations and changes which have occurred since the organization of the boards in 1937. In May 1938 the state board appointed a member on the one hundred county boards for a term of three years; the same month of 1939 the commissioners appointed a member for a similar


Page 142

term, while in May 1940 the two previously appointed members selected the third member for a three-year term.

        The director is responsible for submitting recommendations to the state board for consideration in naming its appointees to the county boards and for seeing that the procedures prescribed by law for the appointment of the other two members of each county board are carried out. Board members are furnished copies of pertinent laws and letters outlining their duties and responsibilities and their relationship with other boards in the county. Through the field staff and through participation in the forums for board members at district welfare conferences, a better understanding of state and county board relationships has been attained. The boards have made a valuble contribution to the public welfare program in the state in the formulation of local policies, interpreting the welfare program to the community, and in interpreting the community to the local welfare department.

DISTRICT WELFARE CONFERENCES

        Under the direction of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare the six annual district welfare conferences held throughout the state in the fall have become an effective means of stimulating interest in the public welfare program and of interpreting its service and needs to the public. The state is divided into six districts, with a president and a secretary elected by the conference from the county superintendents of public welfare in the district.

        In planning the programs of the six conferences the director is assisted by the district conference officers, and open forums and discussions are developed around the individual needs and problems of each district. The contributions and participation of county officials, members of the legislature, welfare board members, and civic leaders in the community have made the forums an important feature of the programs. Through the field social work representative the director has assisted in planning and coördinating the local arrangements. In the fall of 1938 "Public Welfare--a Democratic Process," was the theme of the six conferences, and open forums on state and county relationships in the public welfare program, the working relationship between county officials and the county welfare department, and public assistance, were held during the morning sessions, with an address by the commissioner of public welfare, and a message from the president of the state association of county superintendents of public welfare. The luncheon sessions were devoted to the theme, with the following speakers: Governor Clyde R. Hoey, Attorney General Harry McMullan,


Page 143

Fourth District Congressman Harold D. Cooley and Commissioner of Paroles Edwin Gill.

        In the fall of 1939 "Public Welfare--A Public Service," was the theme for the conferences, with open forums on service through the boards, service to youth, public welfare--a sound investment, and the job itself, were held during the morning sessions, with an address by the commissioner of public welfare, and a message from the president of the state association of county superintendents of public welfare. The luncheon sessions were devoted to the theme, with the following speakers: Governor Clyde R. Hoey, Honorable D. Hiden Ramsey, general manager of the Citizen-Times, Asheville, and Commissioner of Paroles Edwin Gill.

        Through coöperation of the state association of county superintendents of public welfare, these one-day conferences, have brought together each fall between twelve hundred and fifteen hundred interested citizens. It has been encouraging to note that the registration each year showed a substantial increase in the number of county officials, members of the legislature, and welfare board members, who attended and participated in the discussions of the conferences. The attendance for the past two years has been the largest ever recorded.

COUNTY COUNCILS OF SOCIAL AGENCIES

        The twenty-six county councils of social agencies throughout the state have made definite progress during the past biennium, in encouraging and securing lay participation. In most instances local citizens form the backbone of the councils, and their active interest in community social planning and their support of adequate welfare services has been of potential significance for future progress.

        The state board, through the local welfare boards, sponsors the organization of local councils. The director, through the field staff, assists in the organization machinery and in the planning of local programs and meetings. New councils have been organized in Burke, Forsyth, Macon, Martin, Person and Robeson counties. The director and field representatives have attended and participated in local council meetings when requested. A directory of the councils and officers has been maintained by the director.

        The state committee on councils of social agencies appointed in 1936 has been one of the chief factors in stimulating interest in councils. The members of the committee furnished the material for a handbook on councils which was compiled by the director and made available to the one hundred county welfare departments, private agencies and


Page 144

interested citizens throughout the state. The committee, of which the director is chairman, had been responsible for planning the program of two breakfast meetings during the annual meetings of the North Carolina Conference for Social Service. At these meetings the representatives from the local councils reported on the activities and projects in their respective councils. The splendid attendance and enthusiasm of these reports has demonstrated the value of the councils as a channel for coördinating and interpreting the welfare services in the various counties.

        

NORTH CAROLINA COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF PUBLIC WELFARE

County Superintendent Address
Alamance Mr. Gerard J. Anderson Graham
Alexander Mr. Luther Dyson Taylorsville
Alleghany Miss Lillie Ervin Sparta
Anson Miss Mary Robinson Wadesboro
Ashe Miss Ruth Tugman Jefferson
Avery Mr. W. W. Braswell Newland
Beaufort Mrs. Justus Randolph Washington
Bertie Miss Mary Bond Griffin Windsor
Bladen Miss Isabella Cox Elizabethtown
Brunswick Mr. C. C. Russ Southport
Buncombe Mr. E. E. Connor Asheville
Burke Miss Elizabeth Sneed Morganton
Cabarrus Mr. E. F. White Concord
Caldwell Mrs. Inah K. Squires Lenoir
Camden Mr. Roy B. Godfrey Camden
Carteret Mrs. George Henderson Beaufort
Caswell Miss Robena McLean Yanceyville
Catawba Miss Frances Lentz Newton
Chatham Mrs. C. K. Strowd Pittsboro
Cherokee Mrs. Linnetta Dean Murphy
Chowan Mr. William Perkins Edenton
Clay Miss Bettie Cabe Hayesville
Cleveland Miss Mary Moffitt Burns Shelby
Columbus Mrs. Johnsie R. Nunn Whiteville
Craven Mrs. John D. Whitford New Bern
Cumberland Mr. E. L. Hauser Fayetteville
Currituck Mr. Norman Hughes Currituck
Dare Mr. I. P. Davis Manteo
Davidson Mr. E. Clyde Hunt Lexington
Davie Miss Lucille Martin Mocksville
Duplin Mrs. Harvey Boney Kenansville
Durham Mr. W. E. Stanley Durham
Edgecombe Mrs. Mary E. Forbes Tarboro


Page 145

        

[NORTH CAROLINA COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF PUBLIC WELFARE-Continued]

County Superintendent Address
Forsyth Mr. A. W. Cline Winston-Salem
Franklin Mrs. J. F. Mitchiner Louisburg
Gaston Miss Agnes Thomas Gastonia
Gates Miss Clarine Gatling Gatesville
Graham Mr. M. J. Lynam Robbinsville
Granville Mrs. Lee Taylor Oxford
Greene Miss Rachel Payne Sugg Snow Hill
Guilford Mrs. Blanche Carr Sterne Greensboro
Halifax Mr. J. B. Hall Halifax
Harnett Miss Lillie Davis Lillington
Haywood Mrs. Sam Queen Waynesville
Henderson Mr. A. G. Randolph Hendersonville
Hertford Mrs. I. F. Snipes Winton
Hoke Mrs. C. H. Giles Raeford
Hyde Mrs. Elizabeth G. Lawrence Swanquarter
Iredell Mrs. R. M. Rickert Statesville
Jackson Mr. G. C. Henson Sylva
Johnston Mrs. D. J. Thurston Smithfield
Jones Mr. F. J. Koonce Trenton
Lee Mr. J. D. Pegram Sanford
Lenoir Mr. G. B. Hanrahan Kinston
Lincoln Mrs. Rose W. Grigg Lincolnton
Macon Mrs. Eloise G. Franks Franklin
Madison Mr. Calvin R. Edney Marshall
Martin Miss Mary W. Taylor Williamston
McDowell Mrs. G. W. Kirkpatrick Marion
Mecklenburg Mrs. Louise O. Neikirk Charlotte
Mitchell Miss Mildred Greene Bakersville
Montgomery Mr. Charles J. McLeod Troy
Moore Mrs. Lessie G. Brown Carthage
Nash Mr. James A. Glover Nashville
New Hanover Mr. J. R. Hollis Wilmington
Northampton Miss Iris Flythe Jackson
Onslow Miss Laura Matthews Jacksonville
Orange Mr. W. T. Mattox Hillsboro
Pamlico Mr. John G. Howell Bayboro
Pasquotank Mr. A. H. Outlaw Elizabeth City
Pender Miss Viola Scott Burgaw
Perquimans Miss Ruth Davenport Hertford
Person Mrs. T. C. Wagstaff Roxboro
Pitt Mr. K. T. Futrell Greenville
Polk Miss Ina Tyler Columbus
Randolph Mr. William Henderson Asheboro
Richmond Mr. O. G. Reynolds Rockingham
Robeson Mrs. Kate S. McLeod Lumberton
Rockingham Mrs. John Lee Wilson Reidsville
Rowan Mrs. Mary O. Linton Salisbury
Rutherford Mrs. O. C. Turner Rutherfordton


Page 146

        

[NORTH CAROLINA COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF PUBLIC WELFARE-Continued]

County Superintendent Address
Sampson Mrs. Katherine Wilson Clinton
Scotland Mr. E. F. Murray Laurinburg
Stanly Mr. Otto B. Mabry Albemarle
Stokes Miss Ella Downing Danbury
Surry Mr. Bausie Marion Dobson
Swain Mr. Raymond C. Willis Bryson City
Transylvania Mrs. Dora Patton Brevard
Tyrrell Mr. J. W. Hamilton Columbia
Union Mrs. George S. Lee Monroe
Vance Miss Clara Mae Ellis Henderson
Wake Mrs. T. W. Bickett Raleigh
Warren Mrs. Lora P. Wilkie Warrenton
Washington Miss Ursula Bateman Plymouth
Watauga Miss Marguerite Miller Boone
Wayne Mr. J. A. Best Goldsboro
Wilkes Mr. Charles C. McNeill Wilkesboro
Wilson Mr. M. G. Fulghum Wilson
Yadkin Miss Joseline Harding Yadkinville
Yancey Mr. L. G. Deyton Burnsville


Page 147

SURPLUS COMMODITY DISTRIBUTION

A. E. LANGSTON, Director

        During the past two years the Federal Surplus Commodities Corporation, recently renamed the Surplus Marketing Administration, and hereinafter referred to as the SMA, has continued the practice of purchasing surplus farm products, or products processed therefrom, when such surpluses, by reason of their existence, have depressed prices below normal or fair levels.

        The SMA has not gone into or taken part in any market until prices have declined below normal and then has gone in only when requested so to do.

        Seldom have they found it necessary to purchase more than five per cent of any crop in order to exercise the desired stabilizing influence, and in a great many instances the purchase of one per cent or even less has attained the desired ends.

        By following these practices they have, to a great extent, stabilized markets for farm products, given both the growers of and commercial dealers in farm products a much desired feeling of assurance and have helped to keep a great number of farmers and produce dealers off relief.

        The practice of purchasing only top grades of farm produce, and these under rigid inspection, has resulted in a large number of growers learning how properly to grade and pack their products and should in the future reflect itself in benefits to both the growers and the commercial handlers of these products.

ALLOCATIONS AND GRANTS

        While a number of means of disposing of the surpluses so purchased have been used, the bulk has been allocated or granted to the states for distribution to relief families, school lunch rooms, institutions, and organizations.

        Allocations or grants to the State of North Carolina have been made to the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare.

        Each grant or allocation has been made with the proviso that the commodities could only be distributed to certain groups of recipients and to them only on additional or supplementary basis.


Page 148

PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

        In order to assure that surpluses so allocated were in no instance used in such a manner as to conflict with similar products moving in commercial channels, the SMA has required that the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare enter into a written contract providing that commodities allocated to the state may not be sold but shall be distributed only as a supplement to other forms of relief.

        As a further precautionary measure, the SMA has retained supervision over distribution in the state and has prescribed the maximum quantities of the various commodities which could be distributed to families of the various sizes and to other recipients.

        These maximums have been held to levels that would assure that commodities were not taking the place of other purchases or constituting total subsistence.

EDUCATIONAL FEATURES

        In addition to being instrumental in teaching growers how better to grade, pack, and prepare their produce for market, as hereinbefore mentioned, the SMA, by distributing wholesome but little known foods such as whole wheat cereal, graham flour, and dry milk, has been instrumental in teaching relief recipients better food habits.

        By distributing recipes and working in close conjunction with demonstrational agencies considerable progress has been made in teaching these people new and better ways in which to prepare the various foods.

        It is hoped and expected that all of this will reflect itself in improved marketing conditions, better health conditions, and in an increased market for the surplus foods produced in the country.

WELFARE DEPARTMENT OPERATIONS

        The various county welfare departments have continued to be the only agencies authorized to certify recipients for the receipt of surplus commodities, and have found commodities to be of very material assistance as the county funds available for all sorts and kinds of relief have continued to be inadquate. The state makes no appropriation for direct relief.

        While the SMA has defined the various types and classes of recipients that might receive commodities, the selection and designation of the individuals has been left entirely up to the welfare department.

COMMODITY DISTRIBUTION DIVISION

        The commodity distribution division of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare has continued to be the agency charged with receiving,


Page 149

warehousing, repackaging, distributing, and accounting for all commodities allocated to the state.

        During the past year the commodity division has entered into written operating agreements with the Work Projects Administration and with the various counties which have gone a long way toward eliminating misunderstandings and promoting more harmonious and efficient operation.

        The commodity division has served the one hundred counties of the state from six districts and ten warehouses.

        Practically all accounting has been done on a district basis, and the state office of the commodity division has served only in a supervisory, control and auditing capacity.

WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION PARTICIPATION

        The Work Projects Administration, through a properly approved project, has furnished the commodity division with a certain amount of district supervision, together with all of the unskilled, intermediate, skilled, and professional and technical labor necessary for the operations carried on. The balance of the supervisory and administrative labor, together with the required materials, supplies, equipment and housing facilities, have been furnished by the state with assistance from the counties and cities.

        In addition to the above, the Work Projects Administration has on its projects manufactured large numbers of garments of clothing and household articles which have been turned over to the commodity division for distribution to the relief clients of the state.

STAMP PLAN

        For some time there have been requests that surplus commodities be distributed through commercial channels, and just about a year ago the so-called "stamp plan" of accomplishing these ends was devised and put into operation on an experimental basis. While the stamp plan of operation has been quite successful, it has been subjected to the criticism that it is to a certain extent a duplicate of the distribution system maintained by commercial operatives.

        During the past year five areas in North Carolina were designated as experimental stamp plan areas; these being Mecklenburg, Wake, Guilford, New Hanover, and Gaston counties. The first three of these got into actual operation before the end of the fiscal year and the other two shortly thereafter.

        Under this plan two kinds of stamps are used: namely, orange and blue. Participants in the plan are designated by the county welfare


Page 150

department which also indicates the type and extent of their participation. Orange stamps are sold to the certified participants on the basis of the size of their family and their ability to purchase, while blue stamps are given free to the participants on the basis of the amount of their purchases of orange stamps and the number in their family. Orange stamps may be used to purchase almost any item of food, while the blue stamps may be used to purchase only those items designated as surplus by the secretary of agriculture.

        Stamps are purchased from stamp depots maintained at convenient points in the designated areas. Purchase may be made with the stamps from any merchant in the area who has been approved to handle the stamps. Merchants obtain their supplies through channels normally used by them. Merchants turn stamps into money by depositing them with the bank for collection or by turning them in at the local audit office of the SMA when they are sent to the U. S. treasury, which issues check to cover.

        All stamps are in denominations of twenty-five cents and are bound in books that are numbered and on which the name of the rightful owner appears. Every possible precaution is being used to see that there is little or no misuse or mishandling of these stamps. Flagrant violators are being prosecuted. While in most places this plan is proving to be quite popular, it is rather expensive, both to the federal government and the local communities, and must for some time be considered as being in the experimental stages.

LUNCH ROOMS

        During the past year the free lunch program in the schools of the state was considerably augmented, 2,030 school lunch rooms serving free lunches to 143,153 undernourished and needy children certified for the receipt of surplus commodities as compared with 843 lunch rooms serving free lunches to 48,890 children the preceding year.

        During the past year the school lunch rooms were furnished with 4,856,388 ponds of food worth $306,850.36, as compared with 1,429,709 pounds worth $107,754.73 for the preceding year.

        It is hoped that during the coming year at least 3,000 school lunch rooms can be certified to serve free lunches to 200,000 or more undernourished and needy children. There is perhaps no better way to use surplus foods than to feed them to needy and undernourished children, thus helping to produce a more healthy and better-developed future generation.


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BENEFITS DERIVED BY NORTH CAROLINA AND ITS CITIZENS BY REASON OF THE OPERATION OF THE COMMODITY DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM

A. E. LANGSTON, Director

        
 Benefits Derived 1938-1939 Benefits Derived 1939-1940 Total Benefits Two Years
Money spent in State for purchase of commodities $ 182,059.00 $2,348,000.00 $2,530,059.00
Value of food distributed in the State 1,658,116.83 1,453,056.81 3,111,173.64
Value of clothing distributed in the State 1,261,722.77 667,269.10 1,928,991.87
Value of household articles distributed in the State 36,563.65 52,147.80 88,711.45
Salaries and wages received by citizens of the State 216,284.49 279,562.37 495,846.86
Rent paid to State landlords 11,264.26 15,074.64 26,338.90
Materials, supplies and services purchased in State 19,412.07 34,144.06 53,556.13
Value commodities distributed through stamp plan ---- 68,792.00 68,792.00
Total benefits $3,385,423.07 $4,918,046.78 $8,303,469.85
State cost for operating program $ 43,766.91 $ 50,934.61 $ 94,701.52
Counties cost for operating program 14,469.16 20,413.42 34,882.58
Total State and county costs $ 58,236.07 $ 71,348.03 $ 129,584.10
Per cent total cost to benefits derived 1.72 1.45 1.56
WPA payrolls and travel costs $ 194,276.89 $ 265,146.88 $ 459,423.77
Total costs including WPA payrolls, etc $ 252,512.96 $ 336,494.91 $ 589,007.87
Per cent to benefits derived 7.46 6.84 7.09


Page 152

SURPLUS COMMODITIES PURCHASED IN NORTH CAROLINA BY FEDERAL SURPLUS COMMODITIES CORPORATION

        
COMMODITY Unit 1938-1939 1939-1940
Quantity Purchased Amount Paid Quantity Purchased Amount Paid
Beans, fresh string Lb. 283,770 $ 4,221.00 86,640 $ 1,200.00
Blankets, cotton Each ---- ---- 495,000 450,500.00
Cabbage, fresh Lb. 1,427,924 5,712.00 6,930,095 52,500.00
Cotton, baled Lb. 525,000 33,715.00 3,446,000 343,600.00
Flour, graham Lb. 2,469,600 52,800.00 ---- ----
Flour, white Lb. 1,764,000 40,350.00 4,440.000 102,400.00
Grits, corn Lb. ---- ---- 160,000 2,900.00
Meal, corn Lb. 2,760,000 45,261.00 19,360,000 353,200.00
Potatoes, sweet Lb. ---- ---- 5,515.000 55,200.00
Sheeting, cotton Yd ---- ---- 12,838,233 986,500.00
Total purchases ---- 9,230,294 $ 182,059.00 53,270,968 $2,348,000.00

SURPLUS COMMODITIES DISTRIBUTED THROUGH STAMP PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION FISCAL YEAR 1939-1940

        
  Orange Stamps Sold Blue Stamps Grand Total All Stamps
Given with Orange Given in Addition Total
Mecklenburg County, 3½ months $ 56,348.00 $ 30,539.00 $ 19,077.00 $ 49,616.00 $ 105,964.00
Wake County, 2 months 18,151.00 9,075.50 8,277.00 17,352.50 35,503.50
Guilford County, ½ month 2,985.00 1,492.50 331.00 1,823.50 4,808.50
Totals $ 77,484.00 $ 41,107.00 $ 27,685.00 $ 68,792.00 $ 146,276.00
Total surplus commodities distributed through stamp plan ---- ---- ---- ---- $ 68,792.00

NOTE: In addition to the above three counties, New Hanover and Gaston counties were designated as Stamp Plan areas during the year; however the sale of stamps in these two counties did not start until after the end of the fiscal year.


Page 153

DETAIL OF OPERATING EXPENSES FISCAL YEAR 1938-1939

        
  Average Number of Persons Employed WPA Actual Costs State Counties Total Costs
Relief Non-Relief Actual Costs Fair Value Actual Costs Fair Value
STATE OFFICE ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS:                
Administrative salaries ---- 9 ---- $ 14,460.00 ---- ---- ---- $ 14,460.00
Rent and utilities ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Telephone and telegraph ---- ---- ---- 634.31 ---- ---- ---- 634.31
Postage ---- ---- ---- 400.00 ---- ---- ---- 400.00
Travel and subsistence ---- ---- ---- 3,152.14 ---- ---- ---- 3,152.14
Office supplies and equipment ---- ---- ---- 465.25 $ 250.00 ---- ---- 715.25
Total State Office Administrative Costs ---- 9 ---- $ 19,111.70 $ 250.00 ---- ---- $ 19,361.70
DISTRIBUTION COSTS:                
WPA labor 396 ---- $ 194,276.89 ---- ---- ---- ---- $ 194,276.89
State supervision ---- 4 ---- $ 6,100.00 ---- ---- ---- 6,100.00
County labor 11 ---- ---- ---- ---- $ 1,447.60 ---- 1,447.60
Freight and express ---- ---- ---- 180.80 ---- 42.30 ---- 223.10
Truck maintenance and operation ---- ---- ---- 11,406.90 ---- ---- ---- 11,406.90
Packing supplies ---- ---- ---- 2,555.79 ---- 307.37 ---- 2,863.16
Packing equipment ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Warehouse rental ---- ---- ---- 27.37 ---- 11,236.89 $ 6,744.25 18,008.51
Telephone and telegraph ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 413.69 ---- 413.69
Postage ---- ---- ---- 945.20 ---- 568.77 150.00 1,663.97
Office supplies and equipment ---- ---- ---- 1,034.48 $ 580.00 203.06 ---- 1,817.54
Truck rental ---- ---- ---- ---- 3,000.00 249.48 ---- 3,249.48
Equipment purchases ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Travel and subsistence ---- ---- ---- 2,400.00 ---- ---- ---- 2,400.00
Miscellaneous ---- ---- ---- 4.67 ---- ---- ---- 4.67
Total Distribution Costs 407 4 $ 194,276.89 $ 24,655.21 $ 3,580.00 $ 14,469.16 $ 6,894.25 $ 243,875.51
GRAND TOTAL COSTS 407 13 $ 194,276.89 $ 43,766.91 $ 3,830.00 $ 14,469.16 $ 6,894.25 $ 263,237.21


Page 154

DETAILS OF OPERATING EXPENSES FISCAL YEAR 1939-1940

        
  Average Number of Persons Employed WPA Actual Costs State Counties Total Costs
Relief Non-Relief Actual Costs Fair Value Actual Costs Fair Value
STATE OFFICE ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS:                
Administrative salaries ---- 9 ---- $ 14,405.00 ---- ---- ---- $ 14,405.00
Rent and utilities ---- ---- ---- ---- $ 650.00 ---- ---- 650.00
Telephone and telegraph ---- ---- ---- 638.16 ---- ---- ---- 638.16
Postage ---- ---- ---- 477.00 ---- ---- ---- 477.00
Travel and subsistence ---- ---- ---- 3,086.82 ---- ---- ---- 3,086.82
Office supplies and equipment ---- ---- ---- 581.31 540.00 ---- ---- 1,121.31
Total State Office Administrative Costs ---- 9 ---- $ 19,188.29 $ 1,190.00 ---- ---- $ 20,378.29
DISTRIBUTION COSTS:                
WPA labor and supervision 441 11 $ 261,437.36 ---- ---- ---- ---- $ 261,437.36
State supervision ---- 1 ---- $ 1,366.68 ---- ---- ---- 1,366.68
County labor 16 1 ---- ---- ---- $ 2,353.33 ---- 2,353.33
Freight and express ---- ---- ---- 1,231.04 ---- 54.00 ---- 1,285.04
Truck maintenance and operation ---- ---- ---- 11,819.31 ---- 1,195.63 ---- 13,014.94
Packing supplies ---- ---- ---- 5,285.50 ---- 341.73 ---- 5,627.23
Packing equipment ---- ---- ---- 302.00 ---- 154.01 ---- 456.01
Warehouse rental ---- ---- ---- 78.37 ---- 14,996.27 $ 4,369.10 19,443.74
Telephone and telegraph ---- ---- ---- 108.22 ---- 416.07 ---- 524.29
Postage ---- ---- ---- 989.50 ---- 554.30 ---- 1,543.80
Office supplies and equipment ---- ---- ---- 1,272.54 $ 1,050.00 230.58 ---- 2,553.12
Truck rental ---- ---- ---- ---- 12,630.00 ---- ---- 12,630.00


Page 155

        

[DETAILS OF OPERATING EXPENSES FISCAL YEAR 1939-1940--Continued]

  Average Number of Persons Employed WPA Actual Costs State Counties Total Costs
Relief Non-Relief Actual Costs Fair Value Actual Costs Fair Value
Equipment purchases ---- ---- ---- 8,240.08 ---- ---- ---- 8,240.08
Travel and subsistence ---- ---- 3,709.52 800.00 ---- 117.50 ---- 4,627.02
Miscellaneous ---- ---- ---- 253.08 ---- ---- ---- 253.08
Total Distribution Costs 457 13 $ 265,146.88 $ 31,746.32 $ 13,680.00 $ 20,413.42 $ 4,369.10 $ 335,355.72
GRAND TOTAL COSTS 457 22 $ 265,146.88 $ 50,934.61 $ 14,870.00 $ 20,413.42 $ 4,369.10 $ 355,734.01
COMPARISON:                
Grand Total 1938-1939 407 13 $ 194,276.89 $ 43,766.91 $ 3,830.00 $ 14,469.16 $ 6,894.25 $ 263,237.21
Grand Total 1939-1940 457 22 265,146.88 50,934.61 14,870.00 20,413.42 4,369.10 355,734.01
Cost per Unit Distributed, 1938-1939 ---- ---- 0.0056 0.0012 0.0001 0.0004 0.0002 0.0075
Cost per Unit Distributed, 1939-1940 ---- ---- 0.0081 0.0016 0.0004 0.0006 0.0001 0.0108
Per cent cost to value of commodities distributed 1938-1939 ---- ---- 5.84 1.31 0.12 0.43 0.21 7.91
Per cent cost to value of commodities distributed 1939-1940 ---- ---- 12.20 2.34 0.69 0.94 0.20 16.37


Page 156

REPORT OF COMMODITY MOVEMENTS FISCAL YEAR 1938-1939

        
COMMODITY Unit On Hand July 1, 1938 Received July 1, 1938 to June 30, 1939 Total Available Distributed July 1, 1938 to June 30, 1939 Over and Short Balance on Hand June 30, 1939 Per Cent Over or Short
Apples, fresh Lbs. ---- 1,466,254 1,466,254 1,468,808 2,554 ---- 0.17
Beans, lima Lbs. 368,545 ---- 368,545 367,050 -1,495 ---- 0.4
Beans, pea Lbs. 162,968 1,099,650 1,262,618 1,084,595 -295 177,728 0.02
Beans, string Lbs. ---- 64,812 64,812 62,440 -2,372 ---- 3.66
Beets, fresh Lbs. ---- 203,515 203,515 203,614 99 ---- 0.05
Butter, tub Lbs. ---- 1,678,296 1,678,296 1,636,159 -257 41,880 0.02
Cabbage, fresh Lbs. ---- 1,528,444 1,528,444 1,486,322 -38,414 3,708 2.51
Cereal, whole wheat Lbs. ---- 855,349 855,349 715,602 2,487 142,234 0.29
Cheese, American Lbs. ---- 86,947 86,947 87,400 453 ---- 0.52
Flour, graham Lbs. ---- 1,730,680 1,730,680 1,597,763 2,009 134,926 0.12
Flour, white Lbs. 58,800 10,760,400 10,819,200 10,780,353 -7,661 31,186 0.07
Grapefruit, fresh Lbs. ---- 3,471,112 3,471,112 3,249,298 -86,158 135,656 2.48
Grapefruit juice Lbs. ---- 341,340 341,340 341,350 10 ---- 0.003
Meal, corn Lbs. ---- 1,558,500 1,558,500 1,257,349 -1,151 300,000 0.07
Milk, dry skim Lbs. 169,774 720,127 889,901 685,661 829 205,069 0.09
Milk, evaporated Lbs. ---- 609,000 609,000 609,742 742 ---- 0.12
Oranges, fresh Lbs. ---- 1,106,095 1,106,095 981,439 -56,893 67,763 5.14
Peaches, dried Lbs. ---- 180,000 180,000 180,154 154 ---- 0.08
Peas, canned Lbs. 386,760 ---- 386,760 387,104 344 ---- 0.09
Potatoes, Irish Lbs. ---- 2,185,971 2,185,971 2,178,430 -2,441 5,100 0.11
Prunes, dried Lbs. 332,564 539,750 872,314 871,827 -487 ---- 0.05
Raisins, dried Lbs. ---- 540,000 540,000 540,058 58 ---- 0.01
Rice, milled Lbs. 293,729 40,000 333,729 334,029 300 ---- 0.09
Shortening, C. S. oil Lbs. 659 ---- 659 659 ---- ---- 0.
Total food Lbs. 1,773,799 30,766,242 32,540,041 31,107,206 -187,585 1,245,250 0.576
Total clothing Gar. 159,462 1,508,869 1,668,331 1,485,812 -6,897 175,622 0.41
Total household articles Art. 10,074 38,393 48,467 40,023 5 8,444 0.01
Total textiles Yds. 1,173,970 1,333,758 2,507,728 2,458,238 -709 48,781 0.03
Total cotton Lbs. ---- 205,677 205,677 47,856 ---- 157,821 ----
GRAND TOTAL UNITS ---- 3,117,305 33,852,939 36,970,244 35,139,140 -195,186 1,635,918 0.528


Page 157

REPORT OF COMMODITY MOVEMENTS FISCAL YEAR 1939-1940

        
COMMODITY Unit On Hand July 1, 1939 Received July 1, 1939 to June 30, 1940 Total Available Distributed July 1, 1939 to June 30, 1940 Over and Short Balance on Hand June 30, 1940 Per Cent Over or Short
Apples, canned Lbs. ---- 87,097 87,097 87,097 ---- ---- ----
Apples, dried Lbs. ---- 107,853 107,853 108,426 934 361 0.85
Apples, fresh Lbs. ---- 10,941,276 10,941,276 10,782,044 -159,232 ---- 1.48
Beans, pea Lbs. 177,728 299,800 477,528 477,394 -134 ---- 0.03
Beans, string Lbs. ---- 7,581 7,581 5,827 -1,754 ---- 23.14
Butter, tub Lbs. 41,880 273,969 315,849 323,128 7,308 29 2.31
Cabbage, fresh Lbs. 3,708 755,416 759,124 729,024 -8,150 21,950 1.07
Cereal, whole wheat Lbs. 142,234 577,495 719,729 649,380 1,490 71,839 0.21
Flour, graham Lbs. 134,926 1,811,040 1,945,966 1,837,364 31,608 140,210 1.62
Flour, white Lbs. 31,186 6,487,012 6,518,198 5,041,290 41,563 1,518,471 0.64
Grapefruit, fresh Lbs. 135,656 53,332 188,988 174,007 -14,981 ---- 7.93
Grapefruit juice Lbs. ---- 480,072 480,072 539,770 59,689 ---- 12.43
Grits, corn Lbs. ---- 1,280,000 1,280,000 1,067,550 5,995 218,445 0.47
Lard Lbs. ---- 675,202 675,202 480,866 -51,079 143,257 7.58
Meal, corn Lbs. 300,000 2,760,000 3,060,000 2,527,899 10,870 542,971 0.35
Milk, dry skim Lbs. 205,069 ---- 205,069 205,828 771 12 0.37
Oats, rolled Lbs. ---- 600,300 600,300 603,033 3,607 874 0.60
Oranges, fresh Lbs. 67,763 2,535,157 2,602,920 2,591,291 -11,629 ---- 0.45
Peaches, canned Lbs. ---- 101,760 101,760 101,721 385 424 0.38
Pecans, shelled Lbs. ---- 39,960 39,960 39,960 ---- ---- ----
Potatoes, Irish Lbs. 5,100 1,320 6,420 6,420 ---- ---- ----
Potatoes, sweet Lbs. ---- 1,289,627 1,289,627 1,288,351 -1,276 ---- 0.10
Prunes, dried Lbs. ---- 720,000 720,000 326,843 729 393,886 0.10
Raisins, seedless Lbs. ---- 1,259,150 1,259,150 943,815 1,792 317,127 0.14
Rice, milled Lbs. ---- 279,540 279,540 278,739 -801 ---- 0.29
Total food Lbs. 1,245,250 33,423,959 34,669,209 31,217,067 -82,286 3,369,856 0.24
Bags, glassine Each 167,356 ---- 167,356 158,182 -3 9,171 0.00
Cotton, raw Lbs. 157,821 107,357 265,178 265,283 105 ---- 0.04


Page 158

        

[REPORT OF COMMODITY MOVEMENTS FISCAL YEAR 1939-1940--Continued]

COMMODITY Unit On Hand July 1, 1939 Received July 1, 1939 to June 30, 1940 Total Available Distributed July 1, 1939 to June 30, 1940 Over and Short Balance on Hand June 30, 1940 Per Cent Over or Short
Ticking, mattress Yds. 48,781 100,218 148,999 114,089 ---- 34,910 ----
Comforts and quilts Each 118 2,588 2,706 1,914 -12 780 0.44
Mattresses Each 111 4,464 4,575 2,954 -26 1,595 0.57
Blankets, baby Each ---- 576 576 ---- ---- 576 ----
Sheeting, 45-inch Yds. ---- 14,000 14,000 ---- ---- 14,000 ----
Sheeting, 81-inch Yds. ---- 50,000 50,000 ---- ---- 50,000 ----
Sheeting, 90-inch Yds. ---- 32,000 32,000 ---- ---- 32,000 ----
Total F. S. C. C. items ---- 374,187 311,203 685,390 542,422 64 143,032 0.01
Clothing Gar. 175,622 1,096,571 1,272,193 950,067 -5,095 317,031 0.40
Household articles Each 8,215 22,412 30,627 28,528 -253 1,846 0.82
Total WPA clothes and household articles ---- 183,837 1,118,983 1,302,820 978,595 -5,348 318,877 0.41
GRAND TOTAL ---- 1,803,274 34,854,145 36,657,419 32,737,449 -87,570 3,831,765 0.24


Page 159

SUMMARY OF CERTIFICATION, SERVICE AND DISTRIBUTION FISCAL YEARS 1938-1939 and 1939-1940

        

Relief Families and Persons

  Fiscal Year 1938-1939 Fiscal Year 1939-1940
Families Persons Families Persons
Average number relief cases certified 42,011 193,428 46,408 212,526
Average number relief cases serviced 39,058 180,470 39,485 183,742
Per cent certified cases actually serviced 92.97 93.25 85.08 86.46

        

Distributed to Above Cases

  Fiscal Year 1938-1939 Fiscal Year 1939-1940
Estimated value food distributed $1,531,629.06 $1,127,283.04
Estimated value clothing distributed 1,245,998.67 662,464.76
Estimated value household articles distributed 30,891.49 43,640.95
Total estimated value $2,808,519,22 $1,833,388.75

        

School Lunch Rooms

  Schools Students Schools Students
Average number certified per month 431 25,633 783 59,372
Average number serviced per month 414 23,408 587 45,344
Per cent of certified actually serviced 96.6 91.32 74.97 75.87
Total food distributed Lbs. 1,429,709 Lbs. 4,856,388
Estimated value food distributed ---- $107,754,73 ---- $306,850.36

        

Institutions, Organizations, Etc.

  Cases Persons Cases Persons
Average number certified per month No Record No Record 62 5,613
Average number serviced per month 9 3,810 47 4,246
Per cent certified actually serviced ---- ---- 75.8 75.6
Total food Lbs. 388,998 Lbs. 357,304
Total clothing Gar. 16,146 Gar. 6,870
Total household articles Art. 5,616 Art. 4,767
Total units distributed Units 410,750 Units 368,941
Estimated value food distributed ---- $18,732.94 ---- $18,913.41
Estimated value clothing distributed ---- 15,724.10 ---- 4,804.34
Estimated value household articles distributed ---- 5,672.16 ---- 8,507.85
Total estimated value ---- $40,129.20 ---- $32,225.60


Page 160

DETAIL OF DISTRIBUTION BY COUNTIES FISCAL YEARS 1938-1939 and 1939-1940

        
COUNTIES Food Clothing Household Articles Total Estimated Value 1939-1940 Total Estimated Value 1938-1939
Pounds Distributed Estimated Value Garments Distributed Estimated Value Articles Distributed Estimated Value
Alamance 69,159 $ 3,248.17 6,126 $ 4,211.00 66 $ 32.00 $ 7,491.17 $ 12,717.24
Alexander 229,115 9,715.34 2,185 1,533.30 19 205.00 11,453.64 25,851.71
Alleghany 85,543 3,569.10 5,861 3,748.45 77 112.00 7,429.55 12,018.50
Anson 269,021 13,062.33 7,468 5,155.00 79 779.00 18,996.33 23,642.07
Ashe 157,496 8,009.68 1,835 1,151.70 163 82.80 9,244.18 16,691.04
Avery 273,433 13,629.62 2,042 1,223.30 59 339.00 15,191.92 26,074.32
Beaufort 333,507 15,164.85 3,577 2,810.75 49 12.25 17,987.85 23,299.92
Bertie 381,270 17,681.11 2,937 2,155.10 36 294.00 20,130.21 22,026.35
Bladen 134,077 6,578.57 4,058 2,855.85 65 114.25 9,548.67 15,325.19
Brunswick 112,389 5,628.13 4,101 3,121.75 112 112.00 8,861.88 9,471.94
Buncombe 1,456,920 72,320.85 95,445 66,827.70 730 2,251.50 141,400.05 187,561.22
Burke 253,162 11,164.30 6,351 5,062.70 345 194.10 16,421.10 12,538.26
Cabarrus 561,641 26,031.73 6,216 4,406.30 98 409.50 30,847.53 47,661.98
Caldwell 289,365 13,221.96 5,042 3,833.35 ---- ---- 17,055.31 22,048.96
Camden 61,727 2,961.86 5,248 3,549.50 27 13.50 6,524.86 7,948.96
Carteret 262,438 10,551.65 11,534 8,462.65 24 12.00 19,026.30 35,195.91
Caswell 151,780 7,933.39 2,821 2,003.35 36 8.40 9,945.14 7,765.94
Catawba 290,528 14,115.55 14,619 10,504.75 251 878.50 25,498.80 24,635.33
Chatham 148,786 7,172.04 3,951 2,908.35 137 41.00 10,121.39 10,444.98
Cherokee 260,399 11,561.89 11,854 7,540.40 247 131.00 19,233.29 28,254.88
Chowan 57,028 3,085.31 684 349.15 253 61.00 3,495.46 5,295.73
Clay 181,579 8,123.71 8,241 5,752.05 19 9.50 13,885.26 22,118.87
Cleveland 289,707 13,448.54 4,184 3,367.25 5 60.00 16,875.79 11,409.81
Columbus 307,133 12,760.44 4,371 3,186.25 13 6.50 15,953.19 15,090.97
Craven 489,049 21,724.40 7,583 5,082.40 77 19.75 26,826.55 30,181.12
Cumberland 480,992 22,650.29 8,599 6,121.55 59 708.00 29,479.84 41,353.82
Currituck 333,145 14,460.47 6,860 4,960.25 10 5.50 19,426.22 25,290.15
Dare 380,223 15,936.26 1,478 956.10 62 36.50 16,928.86 27,075.47
Davidson 667.429 28,614.51 12,146 9,215.05 301 1,795.00 39,624.56 65,259.62


Page 161

        

[DETAIL OF DISTRIBUTION BY COUNTIES FISCAL YEARS 1938-1939 and 1939-1940--Continued]

COUNTIES Food Clothing Household Articles Total Estimated Value 1939-1940 Total Estimated Value 1938-1939
Pounds Distributed Estimated Value Garments Distributed Estimated Value Articles Distributed Estimated Value
Davie 172,896 7,752.46 3,540 2,450.55 25 194.50 10,397.51 12,850.40
Duplin 188,826 8,640.71 10,143 7,459.60 181 285.95 16,386.26 25,553.06
Durham 1,307,791 60,071.34 30,950 21,814.35 1,326 1,190.50 83,076.19 79,075.01
Edgecombe 482,967 26,057.47 5,050 3,616.55 ---- ---- 29,674.02 24,507.55
Forsyth 310,245 14,183.89 64,734 41,215.20 3,210 3,972.25 59,371.34 104,236.53
Franklin 425,882 19,335.06 8,851 5,936.30 425 402.50 25,673.86 27,320.95
Gaston 288,121 12,448.47 26,013 18,873.10 1,839 608.50 31,930.07 45,982.13
Gates 57,889 2,695.29 4,422 2,747.60 207 131.80 5,574.69 8,549.85
Graham 275,823 12,640.01 7,899 5,374.25 61 432.90 18,447.16 21,765.48
Granville 228,411 11,609.33 4,426 2,559.45 157 41.25 14,210.03 13,425.00
Greene 84,698 3,551.94 3,210 2,333.40 279 123.00 5,908.34 9,659.85
Guilford 790,587 39,521.02 65,960 46,827.55 1,858 7,143.50 93,492.07 100,544.87
Halifax 161,130 7,943.80 2,310 1,836.25 2 24.00 9,804.05 21,777.53
Harnett 123,358 6,079.16 1,729 1,199.00 19 228.00 7,506.16 13,437.05
Haywood 411,254 20,398.40 17,711 12,166.50 1,585 1,569.65 34,134.55 37,353.55
Henderson 321,180 14,931.95 9,595 6,740.40 4 2.00 21,674.35 34,109.84
Hertford 86,130 4,004.91 2,530 1,838.10 176 117.50 5,960.51 6,185.51
Hoke 309,919 18,243.59 3,560 2,647.05 377 90.80 20,981.44 17,658.04
Hyde 95,582 4,634.10 3,393 2,730.75 15 9.00 7,373.85 9,041.42
Iredell 364,924 17,016.20 15,459 10,206.60 360 676.75 27,899.55 38,597.92
Jackson 295,564 12,981.21 15,582 10,055.95 52 59.50 23,096.66 29,024.81
Johnston 158,425 7,049.77 7,570 5,568.75 150 37.50 12,656.02 18,895.02
Jones 262,859 11,387.25 3,985 2,864.50 333 96.00 14,347.75 22,221.15
Lee 194,807 8,899.13 5,103 3,603.05 36 282.50 12,784.68 21,072.10
Lenoir 444,592 19,437.52 2,660 2,023.10 302 75.50 21,536.12 27,314.01
Lincoln 165,281 7,187.71 3,872 3,012.95 24 46.50 10,247.16 12,053.07
Macon 340,528 16,198.01 4,618 3,413.00 95 47.50 19,658.51 29,679.13
Madison 241,472 10,734.06 11,791 8,172.25 190 286.50 19,192.81 28,285.10
Martin 130,971 6,685.44 1,528 1,082.95 ---- ---- 7,768.39 2,438.84
McDowell 539,670 24,195.67 12,158 7,892.50 110 23.80 32,111.97 44,547.26
Mecklenburg 800,143 36,737.17 48,043 36,957.50 1,535 9,976.55 83,671.22 126,654.22
Mitchell 417,863 20,245.04 9,726 5,666.55 30 24.00 25,935.59 38,294.98
Montgomery 185,486 9,857.65 7,056 5,152.75 203 354.50 15,346.90 24,278.13
Moore 138,423 7,200.38 7,196 5,463.60 24 74.50 12,738.48 13,033.93
Nash 353,857 16,406.12 7,160 4,823.55 12 5.55 21,235.22 23,626.88
New Hanover 370,336 15,369.57 12,973 10,012.10 5,450 3,547.05 28,928.72 62,524.98
Northampton 200,631 8,692.37 9,062 6,274.90 102 378.75 15,346.02 14,702.21


Page 162

        

DETAIL OF DISTRIBUTION BY COUNTIES FISCAL YEARS 1938-1939 and 1939-1940--Continued

COUNTIES Food Clothing Household Articles Total Estimated Value 1939-1940 Total Estimated Value 1938-1939
Pounds Distributed Estimated Value Garments Distributed Estimated Value Articles Distributed Estimated Value
Orange 227,924 10,424.65 6,443 4,239.45 124 32.00 14,696.10 20,229.32
Onslow 71,157 2,823.93 6,107 4,441.00 224 126.00 7,390.93 11,685.71
Pamlico 309,481 13,017.21 725 501.45 ---- ---- 13,518.66 18,455.52
Pasquotank 250,147 11,204.91 4,981 3,491.10 97 33.00 14,729.01 28,658.88
Pender 158,993 6,840.54 1,842 1,419.35 3 .30 8,260.19 13,650.73
Perquimans 93,257 4,027.37 929 768.50 ---- ---- 4,795.87 8,429.52
Person 117,389 5,166.67 6,035 4,348.70 285 81.50 9,596.87 11,637.46
Pitt 209,838 11,223.99 6,820 4,933.15 26 168.25 16,325.39 15,290.41
Polk 111,238 5,418.79 2,727 1,663.65 37 216.95 7,299.39 11,098.94
Randolph 87,012 3,853.40 5,053 3,723.70 194 240.50 7,817.60 17,358.19
Richmond 156,290 8,391.83 8,525 6,376.90 105 455.00 15,223.73 24,083.68
Robeson 581,423 27,245.00 8,917 7,258.65 1,320 401.65 34,905.30 41,614.75
Rockingham 424,538 19,046.05 6,213 4,196.10 158 143.50 23,385.65 61,284.28
Rowan 516,041 23,039.97 22,375 17,776.70 324 3,418.30 44,234.97 59,993.42
Rutherford 471,978 21,775.66 10,574 8,315.60 63 32.50 30,123.76 41,855.33
Sampson 191,700 8,886.07 4,901 3,489.10 232 106.25 12,481.42 21,600.41
Scotland 243,737 10,931.45 4,100 3,074.80 94 327.00 14,333.25 22,644.21
Stanly 130,723 6,481.58 8,417 6,198.10 40 480.00 13,159.68 22,041.15
Stokes 150,131 7,000.35 1,651 985.30 30 70.60 8,056.25 15,252.98
Surry 422,331 20,068.01 13,606 9,049.45 ---- ---- 29,117.46 38,647.16
Swain 787,470 35,868.95 11,835 7,116.90 95 139.50 43,125.35 41,079.60
Transylvania 337,287 15,440.39 4,837 3,041.55 43 458.50 18,940.44 28,519.71
Tyrrell 208,030 9,449.32 3,107 2,222.05 1 .50 11,671.87 18,214.78
Union 143,497 7,256.57 3,669 2,752.70 75 841.50 10,850.77 14,031.13
Vance 289,639 14,709.25 5,035 3,217.00 225 72.50 17,998.75 28,605.19
Wake 1,079,144 51,211.22 24,527 16,453.15 317 2,446.00 70,110.37 115,547.70
Warren 223,721 11,593.06 6,166 4,571.20 ---- ---- 16,164.26 17,198.92
Washington 182,227 7,912.50 692 541.75 ---- ---- 8,454.25 9,193.04


Page 163

        

[DETAIL OF DISTRIBUTION BY COUNTIES FISCAL YEARS 1938-1939 and 1939-1940--Continued]

COUNTIES Food Clothing Household Articles Total Estimated Value 1939-1940 Total Estimated Value 1938-1939
Pounds Distributed Estimated Value Garments Distributed Estimated Value Articles Distributed Estimated Value
Watauga 178,417 8,738.40 2,734 1,854.55 125 175.50 10,768.45 17,449.20
Wayne 610,730 28,170.63 9,272 6,062.05 30 360.00 34,592.68 41,157.81
Wilkes 482,625 23,018.59 12,203 7,377.65 66 25.40 30,421.64 39,854.83
Wilson 577,643 26,530.88 7,926 5,725.45 ---- ---- 32,256.33 41,056.74
Yadkin 206,544 8,785.83 ---- ---- ---- ---- 8,785.83 11,054.28
Yancey 288,185 12,354.57 8,139 5,514.55 22 11.00 17,880.12 23,460.85
Total 31,217,067 $1,453,056.81 950,067 $ 667,269.10 28,528 $ 52,147.80 $2,172,473.71 $2,956,403.25
Total 1938-1939 31,107,206 $1,658,116.83 1,485,812 $1,261,722.77 40,028 $ 36,563.65 $2,956,403.25 ----

NOTE: That while the estimated value of the food distributed in 1939-1940 decreased $205,060.02, as compared with 1938-1939, there was an actual increase of 109,861 in the total pounds of food distributed during the same periods.


Page 164

SELECTION AND CERTIFICATION OF APPLICANTS FOR CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS

T. L. GRIER, State Supervisor

        During the biennium 1938-40 there have been many changes in emphases for the purpose of the advancement of the service of CCC selection. A complete summary of recollections about the birth of CCC selection in April 1933 and the many changes which have occurred would require too much for inclusion in a biennial report but the growth of the selection procedure especially during this biennium has been so rapid and interesting that it is deemed entirely proper to include in this report a brief summary of the most important changes and developments which have occurred.

CHANGES IN EMPHASES

        When responsible officials of an agency change their attitude toward its work from a short term to a long term viewpoint there are many advantages; there is more readiness to undertake improvement in methods and there is greater conviction that a careful job is worthwhile.

        The Civilian Conservative Corps, created to meet an emergency situation is still in existence. Whereas CCC selection was primarily regarded as temporary and a "step-child" of the relief and welfare organizations it has now taken its place as one of the most important programs of every state welfare organization.

        The Act of Congress, June 30, 1937, emphasized conservation and set up a three-fold program--"to provide employment, to provide vocational training, and to perform 'useful public work in connection with the conservation and development of natural resources of the United States, its territories and insular possessions'."

        This law established the basic principles under which the CCC operates. Only July 1, 1939, the CCC became a unit of the Federal Security Agency. Later that same year Congress reaffirmed the Act of June 30, 1937, and said, "The provisions of this act shall continue until July 1, 1943."

        Since July 1, 1937, and increasingly in recent enrollment periods, young men have been selected principally because of their ability to contribute to and profit by work of the Corps. Destitution is not the badge of eligibility for enrollment. Despite the fact that the local


Page 165

departments of public welfare in North Carolina have to think much of the time in terms of the relief load, they welcome the change in the CCC law which has removed the relief restrictions.

        On July 17, 1940, an extension of the CCC eligibility standards was issued to all state selecting agencies. The modified regulations were transmitted with Official Letter Number 25 from the division of selection in the office of the director again emphasizing the consistent development of the Corps as a program of work experience and training for the widest possible group of unemployed young men of character, energy, and ambition.

        No longer must a selecting agent automatically exclude from consideration ambitious young men whose families are not dependent upon them. The fact of a youth's own personal unemployment and his need for work experience, for job training and development will permit acceptance of his application. The priorities of need still remain, however, assuming always, of course, good personal qualifications.

        It is interesting to note that, since the Corps is no longer operating for the exclusive benefit of those who are on relief or eligible for relief, 67 per cent of all selections made, from July 1937 through January 1940, have represented families either receiving relief or eligible to receive relief. The Corps continues to serve its purpose in the alleviation of economic distress but it has become much more than an emergency program whose primary purpose is to provide financial assistance. It has been transformed into a work training agency and the efforts of selecting agencies are devoted to affording the privilege of enrollment to dependable, mature, and alert young men who have an honest desire to obtain a job training opportunity.

PUBLICITY

        It is generally assumed that everybody in North Carolina and, for that matter, in the whole country, knows about the CCC and it is true that most people know that the CCC program is principally for young unmarried men, that the youths live in barrack camps, and work out-of-doors on conservation projects. Few people, however, have little knowledge about the purposes and nature of the Corps; many have wrong impressions about the camp programs. Selecting agents generally have realized this lack of information about the Corps, not only on the part of the people but particularly among families who have sons eligible for enrollment, and for the past biennium great stress has been laid on the matter of properly informing the people and families who have sons eligible for selection of the chief purposes of


Page 166

the Corps, its objectives and aspirations, and of the routine and details of camp life.

        The Civilian Conservation Corps celebrated its seventh anniversary the first week in April 1940, and this occasion provided the CCC with an opportunity for a public inspection of CCC camps throughout the United States. Thousands of persons visited the camps and newspapers ran special articles; radio programs were broadcast and splendid results were achieved as a result of coöperative effort between selecting agents and camp officials.

        It is the responsibility of selecting agents to keep the public and prospective applicants and their families properly informed of the opportunities and requirements of the Corps. Recently selecting agents acting in coöperation with all other coöperating agencies have helped splendidly in the endeavor to inform the public accurately of the nature of the Civilian Conservation Corps. The "open-house" activities in connection with the seventh anniversary celebration and the April 1940 enrollment which occurred during the same month furnished a wonderful opportunity for selecting agents to contribute to the good results achieved by the "open-house" program.

THE PRESENT DAY SELECTING AGENT

        State and local selecting agencies by direct administrative assignment and responsibility represent the office of the director in the field and maintain necessary CCC records on behalf of the director.

        Each CCC selecting agent acting under the direction of the state commissioner of public welfare is an official representative of the Civilian Conservation Corps. He is a member of the permanent personnel which is concerned with the large working force employed in the camps, he and his staff in every county in North Carolina select annually a total of approximately 7,000 young men for service in the Corps.

THE SELECTION PROCESS

        In order to accomplish his work successfully each selecting agent must follow a well-recognized procedure. The first step in the selection process is to obtain a thorough understanding of the purposes of the organization, the requirements of the job and the opportunities for training, employment and advancement.

        The second step in the procedure is to seek to discover what characteristics of applicants seem to result in their success on the job. In the Civilian Conservation Corps it is not necessary for selecting agents to analyze and discover the success factors for particular jobs in particular


Page 167

camps since the success factors which are common to all CCC camps are the ones with which they will be primarily concerned.

        The third step to be taken in the selection procedure is for the selecting agent to make extensive investigation of the family, community relationship of applicants, and reason for applying.

        After applicants have been evaluated and rated in terms of their own charactersitics and eligibility requirements the next step is definite selection--this is not a routine process. It is a critical decision before employment. The selecting agent must sum up and review all the information which has been accumulated and express careful and impartial judgment. Certain rules of priority must be applied and these rules must be fitted into his method of making careful selection. The CCC selecting agent must follow the rule that, "among applicants who fully meet the legal and administrative requirements for enrollment, and who are equally qualified as to fitness, character, need for employment and adaptability to the Corps, preference shall be given in order of financial need."

NUMBER OF MEN ENROLLED

        During the fiscal years 1938-1939, a total of 12,648 young men have been enrolled in North Carolina, the regular quarterly enrollments occurring in July, October, January, and April of each fiscal year to fill vacancies caused by discharges to accept employments and for other reasons. The enrollment by quarters for the biennium follows:

        
1938-- July 1,575
  October 1,494
  January 1,077
  April 2,455
1939-- July 1,133
  October 2,371
  January 1,380
  April 1,163

        During the seven-year period, April 1933 to April 1940, there have been selected and enrolled in North Carolina 57,706 junior enrollees (between the ages of 17 and 24). The total number of men being furnished employment as of January 1, 1940, was 7,625. The total number of men enrolled from North Carolina serving in CCC as of June 30, 1940, was 6,420. During the current enrollment period July 1-31, 1940, the Civilian Conservation Corps is offering 2,805 North Carolina men an opportunity to enroll in CCC camps as replacements for men who have left to accept employment or who have completed their terms of enrollment.


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NUMBER OF CAMPS OPERATING IN NORTH CAROLINA

        During this biennium an average of forty-four camps have been in operation in North Carolina. For the seven-year period an average of forty-seven camps have operated in this state. At the present there are forty-one camps in operation. The program calls for the employment of 7,000 North Carolina young men and 660 war veterans. Of the 7,000 young men of North Carolina serving in CCC approximately 1,400 of this number are serving in camps in the Ninth Corps Area--eight states west of the Rocky Mountains. In addition to the North Carolina men serving in this state an additional 540 men from the states are working in camps to carry on the CCC conservation program in North Carolina.

        Of the 8,200 men employed in North Carolina, 3,000 will work on erosion control projects on agricultural lands; 2,600 on forest improvement development and protection; 1,400 in national parks; 600 in state parks; 400 on wild life projects and 200 in the Tennessee Valley Authority.

        The national CCC program is continuing on the basis of 1,500 camps operating in the continental United States with a maximum enrollment of 300,000 young men and war veterans exclusive of 11,000 Indian and territorial enrollees. A list of North Carolina CCC camps is given on page 171.

ALLOTMENTS

        Each CCC enrollee who has dependents of blood or obligation is required by law to make an allotment in the amount of $22.00. If he has no dependents he is required to make a deposit with the finance division, CCC, in a like amount.

        As previously stated 67 per cent of selectees represent families receiving or eligible to receive relief; the remainder of selectees have come from families below a normal living standard, to whom minimum $22.00 allotment is also made, or who are single, unattached applicants without dependents.

        During the biennium North Carolina enrollees have willingly returned to their families, in the form of allotments, the sum of $3,437,856. During the past seven years more than $13,000,000 has been returned to North Carolina in the form of allotments from CCC enrollees.


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SOCIAL VALUES

        The state and local selecting agencies not only fully recognize the influence of the Corps on the group of enrollees from marginal family income levels as helpful to avoid future economic and social distress, but they are fully aware of the substantial contribution the Corps makes toward the preparation and training of young men for vocational life and useful citizenship. Selecting agencies are interested in the very definite personal gains which have been made by enrollees who return from the camps to take up careers among their former neighbors. These personal gains although sometimes intangible may be grouped as follows:

  • Health
  • Personal appearance
  • Work habits
  • Tolerance
  • Skills
  • Family support
  • Discipline
  • Self-reliance

        These are direct personal benefits to the young man and they are reflected in the home community especially in the changed attitude of their families and in the economic and social life of the community as a whole.

        The goal of every youth who enters the CCC is a job. The program of selection coördinated with the camp program is centered around the idea of making each youth capable of getting employment; it should teach these youths a sense of responsibility for doing good work; above all, it should teach them to do an honest day's work.

IMPORTANCE OF WORK DONE

        In connection with the work program carried on by the CCC in North Carolina the most important results have been obtained in the fields of reforestation, forest improvement, forest protection, soil erosion prevention, wild life restoration and out-door recreation.

Reforestation

        Tree planting is popular, it is badly needed and it is a permanent investment for the future. The CCC has made a good beginning by planting millions of trees but an enormous tree planting program remains to be done.

Forest Improvement

        Much timber stand or forest improvement has been done but there are thousands of acres of federal and state land untouched. The removal


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of crooked, diseased, or worthless trees from the existing forest stand is worthwhile and permanent improvement of the forest.

Forest Protection

        Forests must be protected from fire, insects and diseases. Probably the biggest single contribution the CCC has made to conservation has been done in the nature of forest protection. The CCC contribution to forest protection has covered a wide field in such work as building lookout towers and cabins, telephone lines and truck trails, fire hazard reduction, fire breaks and in fighting forest fires. In addition millions of acres of forests have been protected against many different kinds of diseases and insects.

Soil Erosion

        Saving from total loss of our best farm soils has been aided greatly by the Corps largely by sample work on farms and demonstrations by the CCC. Not only has the Corps helped in this soil-saving program, but the enrollees themselves have learned what conservation of the soil means.

Wild Life Restoration

        The most outstanding examples of protection and restoration of wild life have been accomplished by the two biological survey camps, Pea Island Migratory Waterfowl Refuge camp at Manteo and the Lake Mattamuskeet Refuge in Hyde County. Many acres heretofore uninhabitable by wild life have been developed into suitable habitats, resting and breeding places for birds and migratory water fowls. Much has been accomplished in the national and state park and forest areas in providing sanctuaries for game animals.

Outdoor Recreation

        Extensive recreational facilities have been provided in the national and state parks and forests of this state. In the park and recreational field CCC has made its greatest contribution toward conservation of natural and human resources. The Hanging Rock, Mount Morrow, Mount Mitchell and Cape Hatteras State Parks are outstanding examples. The increase of 100 per cent in state park acreage since 1933 has resulted almost entirely from the encouragement to expansion taken by the state from the availability of CCC man-power and funds for development.


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A NEW OBJECTIVE

        As the state and local selecting agencies look forward to sending new men into the Corps during the next biennium the CCC has a new objective--NATIONAL DEFENSE.

        For the present the Corps will contribute largely through the training of young men in maintenance and operation of automotive and mechanized equipment, in auto mechanics at central repair shops, in radio communication and in other civilian activities useful in national defense. Through this program, largely in intensification of the CCC training activities which have been under way for several years, the Corps can provide thousands of men each year to aid industry and the nation in the advancement of the national defense program.

        As soon as the needs of the national defense departments are made known the Corps will, no doubt, modify its present program to comply with new requirements. It will continue to stress conservation of human and natural resources but it will also increasingly emphasize its efforts in mechanical training; maintenance and repair of mechanized and automotive equipment, the building of bridges and dams and many other types of work done by the engineer corps in times of war.

CCC CAMPS OPERATING IN NORTH CAROLINA AS OF

JULY 1--SEPTEMBER 30, 1940

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT "A," FORT BRAGG, NORTH CAROLINA

        
Company and Camp No. Work Area County Postoffice
403 NC F-5 WJ Pisgah NF Caldwell Mortimer
401 NC F-27 WJ Pisgah NF McDowell Marion
4482 NC S-68 WJ State Bladen Elizabethtown
5424 NC P-73 CJ Private Brunswick Bolton
5420 NC P-74 CJ Private Pender Maple Hill
433 NC P-75 WJ Private Caldwell Buffalo Cove
* NC S-76 WJ State Richmond Hoffman
429 NC SCS-5 CJ Private Caswell Yanceyville
5423 NC SCS-24 CJ Private Rutherford Forest City
2431 NC SCS-25 WV Private Halifax Littleton
5425 NC SCS-26 CJ Private Montgomery Mt. Gilead
3405 NC SCS-27 WJ Private Surry Elkin
2430 NC SCS-28 CV Private Cabarrus Concord
3404 NC SCS-29 CJ Private Wake Raleigh
3418 NC SCS-30 WJ Private Nash Nashville
3409 NC SCS-31 WJ Private Anson Peachland
*3408 NC SCS-32 WJ Private Davie Mocksville
*1497 NC SCS-33 CJ Private Guilford Gibsonville
* 410 NC SCS-34 CJ Private Orange Chapel Hill
*3415 NC SCS-35 WJ Private Catawba Hickory

        * New camp



Page 172

        

[CCC CAMPS OPERATING IN NORTH CAROLINA AS OF

JULY 1--SEPTEMBER 30, 1940

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT "A," FORT BRAGG, NORTH CAROLINA -- Continued]

Company and Camp No. Work Area County Postoffice
*3411 NC SCS-36 WJ Private Gaston Cherryville
*3417 NC SCS-37 Private Lee Sanford
436 NC BS-2 WJ Pea Island Waterfowl Refuge Dare Manteo
424 NC BS-3 WJ Lake Mattamuskeet Wildlife Refuge Hyde New Holland
3423 NC NP-1 WJ Cape Hatteras National Seashore Project Dare Buxton
3420 NC NP-21 WJ Blue Ridge Parkway Alleghany Laurel Springs
* NC NP-24 WJ Crabtree Creek Area Wake Raleigh
**5489 NC SP-2 WJ Mt. Mitchell SP Yancey Black Mountain
1499 NC SP-3 WJ Morrow Mountain SP Stanly Albemarle
3422 NC SP-5 WJ Hanging Rock SP Stokes Danbury

        * New camp


        ** Re-established camp


        

HEADQUARTERS DISTICT "B," CCC, FORT MCPHERSON, GEORGIA

408 NC F-10 WJ Nantahala NF Macon Aquone
3446NC F-23 WJ Nantahala NF Macon Otto
3447 NC F-24 WJ Nanthaala NF Graham Robbinsville
428 NC F-28 WJ Pisgah NF Transylvania Pisgah Forest
2450 NC F-29 WV Nantahala NF Cherokee Murphy
411 NC NP-5 WJ Great Smoky Mt. NP Swain Smokemont
426 NC NP-19 WJ Great Smoky Mt. NP Swain Ravensford
3453 NC NP-23 WJ Great Smoky Mt. NP Swain Proctor
3448 NC P-66 WJ Pisgah NF Transylvania Brevard

        

HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT "C," CCC, FORT OGLETHORPE, GEORGIA

407 NC NF-7 WJ Pisgah NF Madison Hot Springs
2432 NC TVA-2 WV Tennessee VA Madison Mars Hill
415 NC NP-22 WJ Great Smoky Mt. NP Haywood Cove Creek

    KEY

  • F, National Forest, 8 camps
  • S, State Forest 2 camps
  • P, Private Forest 3 camps
  • TVA, Tennessee Valley Authority, 1 camp
  • SCS, Soil Conservation Service, 15 camps
  • BS, Biological Survey, 2 camps
  • NP, National Park, 7 camps
  • SP, State Park, 3 camps
  • WJ, White Juniors
  • CJ, Colored Juniors
  • WV, White Veterans
  • CV, Colored Veterans


Page 173

WORK AMONG NEGROES

WILLIAM R. JOHNSON, Consultant and Field Agent

        For nearly sixteen years the unit of work among Negroes has functioned as a part of the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare. During this period national attention has been attracted to the growth and expansion of what was at its beginning a new experience, unparalleled anywhere in the nation. During that period inquiries have come from all over the southland and a number of border and northern states relative to problems arising from such a set-up, especially with regard to its effectiveness in integrating the Negro social worker into the state's program.

        It has become an accepted fact, not only in North Carolina, but in many other states, that it has proved its worth in a complex South and helps very definitely in the pointing to the American better way of life. There is much yet to be done, however, in the further development of such a program.

FUNCTIONS

        The unit of work among Negroes serves the several divisions listed under the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare wherever the welfare of the Negro is concerned. Consultations are held with other state departments whenever problems arise affecting the life of the Negro citizenry. The specific duties of this unit are:

  • 1. Consultation on matters pertaining to welfare work among Negroes.
  • 2. Consultation in the placement of Negro social workers.
  • 3. Planning and conducting annual welfare institute for Negro social workers.

OBJECTIVES

        The major objectives of this unit change little from year to year, for in a program of long-time planning it is difficult to set a time limit upon the accomplishment of any single objective. Chief among the objectives are:

  • 1. Encouraging the employment of Negroes in other agencies of the state that directly concern Negroes.
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  • 2. Creating among the Negro group a more receptive and tolerant attitude toward parolees.
    • (a) Assisting parolees in finding steady employment.
  • 3. Promoting the placement of trained Negro social workers on county welfare staffs, particularly in those counties where Negroes form twenty-five per cent and more of the total population.
  • 4. Creating a lasting program of goodwill between the races.

PLACEMENT AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING

        During the past sixteen years, progress has been made in the placement of Negro social workers with private and public agencies. Approximately thirty workers in fifteen or more counties are employed at present. A continued vigilance is exercised in working toward placing Negro workers in those counties with a large Negro population.

        The training of the Negro workers in North Carolina compares favorably with that of other groups. At present there are available a number of well trained workers, due to the fact that there are far more trained workers than available jobs. During the school year 1938-39 and 1939-40, there were fourteen North Carolina Negro students matriculating at the Atlanta University School of Social Work. Out of a graduating class of twenty-nine, at that institution in June 1940, nine were from North Carolina. Other graduates represented every section of the nation. On the staffs of the county welfare departments, where Negro workers are employed, other institutions represented are the New York School of Social Work, Pittsburgh University School of Social Work and the School of Social Work at Catholic University, Washington, D. C.

        In the state's program of graduate work for Negroes at the North Carolina College for Negroes, a plan is underway for the establishment of a school of social work. To this end the University of North Carolina is advising and coöperating to an extent that is typical of the inter-racial good-will which has been developing over a period of more than thirty years.

PUBLIC WELFARE INSTITUTES

        Two annual public welfare institutes for Negro social workers have been conducted during the past biennium at St. Augustine's College, Raleigh, N. C. The conference theme for the 1939 meeting was "Negro Youth and Juvenile Delinquency"; and for 1940, "Community Responsibility in Individual Readjustment."

        These conferences take on an inter-racial aspect. Members of the various departments of the state and the federal governments come and


Page 175

give of their time willingly in the carrying out of the programs. In addition to these institutes, the Negro workers attend the various district meetings planned and conducted by the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare, and some of them always attend the state institute conducted each year at Chapel Hill. The purpose of the institutes is to supplement the training of the Negro social worker. Workers from other state and federal agencies frequently avail themselves of the conference at St. Augustine's College.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES

        The unit of work among Negroes has coöperated with other state and federal agencies in helping to carry out those programs which definitely affect Negroes. The Work Projects Administration, National Youth Administration, Unemployment Compensation Commission, Employment Service, Parole Commission, State Board of Health, Department of Public Instruction, State Commission for the Blind, and the prison division are the agencies with which there has been a close relationship.

PAROLE WORK

        This unit continues to coöperate with the Parole Commission in helping in the adjustment of the Negro parolee. One of the major objectives is to help the parolee find a job and at the same time help the community adjust to him as well as help adjust himself to a community from which he has been separated often over a period of years. A very large percentage of them are making good and do not re-enter prison.

NEED FOR INCREASED INSTITUTIONAL FACILITIES

Negro Girls

        There is no institution for young female offenders. For a number of years the Federation of Colored Women's Clubs operated a small inadequate institution, known as Efland Home for Negro girls. Toward this effort the state gave a small grant. Other revenue came from private gifts, which during the past few years of the depression were meagre. Through an agreement between the state board and the board of Efland Home, the school was closed about two years ago. It was a fire hazard and inadequately staffed. It is hoped that the General Assembly of 1941 will establish such an institution which has been so long neglected by the state, thus making the four-point program for youthful offenders complete. This step together with that of providing


Page 176

adequate facilities for Negro feeble-minded children, should take precedence over institutional life for Negroes during the General Assembly of 1941.

Negro Boys

        Morrison Training School meets a very definite need in the life of the male youthful offender among Negroes. It should be enlarged in order that each county might have more commitments. The complaints from juvenile judges and welfare workers with regard to its inadequacy to care for their clients are legion. If this institution were sufficiently enlarged, many youths between the ages of sixteen and twenty-five could be accepted and given adequate vocational training, which would contribute greatly to their rehabilitation. In addition, they would not have to be associated with more experienced and hardened criminals.

Feebleminded Negro Children

        In North Carolina there are a large number of Negro children who need institutional care due to extremely low mentality. There is space at Goldsboro, but no personnel and equipment for the care and training of these unfortunates. Such an institution should be set up apart from the institution for the insane. A trained personnel should be attached thereto and this would go a long way in solving many of our social problems in communities both from the standpoint of relief and supervision. Many of these children are mentally deficient but not beyond the point to be taught to follow some trade upon their return to the community.

PUBLIC RELATIONS

        The summer schools of the state as well as one of the large summer schools outside the state, where large numbers of North Carolina teachers and Jeanes teachers study each summer have been visited during the past biennium. Parent-teacher groups, the North Carolina Negro Teachers Association, civic groups, farm and home agents meetings, church groups, Sunday school conventions, state and district interracial meetings have been addressed.

RACE RELATIONS

        The consultant and field agent serves on the executive committee of the State Interracial Commission, and during the past year was conference secretary for the eastern meeting at Kinston and the western meeting at Gastonia. He also attended the Southern Conference for


Page 177

Human Welfare at Chattanooga, Tennessee, and served on its rules committee. The consultant and field agent also serves on the special advisory committee to the chairman of the State Interracial Commission.

COMMISSIONS AND COMMITTEES

        The consultant was named by Governor Hoey as a member of the State Committee on Organization and Planning, Southern Governors' Conference Campaign "For Balanced Prosperity in the South, 1940-50"; advisory committee, Adult Education program. He is a member of the advisory committee to the National Youth Administration and the Raleigh Housing Authority, and recording secretary of the Committee for the Development of Psychopathic Hospitals and Other Mental Hygiene Resources for Negroes.

ADVISORY COMMITTEE

        The Negro advisory committee to the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare consists of the following members: President F. L. Atkins, Winston-Salem; Dr. F. W. Avant, Wilmington; Dr. J. A. Cotton, Henderson; Rev. R. I. Johnson, New Bern; Mrs. H. L. McCrorey, Charlotte; Mrs. W. G. Pearson, Durham; Miss Adela F. Ruffin, Asheville; President J. W. Seabrook, Fayetteville; and Dr. P. M. Smith, Hickory.

RECOMMENDATIONS

  • 1. That encouragement be given to the employment of Negro social workers by counties having twenty-five per cent or more of the total population composed of Negroes.
  • 2. That the state assume full responsibility for the care of delinquent Negro girls.
  • 3. That an institution be established for feeble-minded Negro children.
  • 4. That Morrison Training School be expanded to meet the needs of a larger number of youthful male offenders, including a large number of those above sixteen years of age.


Page 178

RECAPITULATION OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LEGISLATION
AND APPROPRIATIONS

  • 1. That the sum of $15,000 be appropriated for the state boarding home fund for each year of the biennium.
  • 2. That provision be made in the annual state board budget to absorb at least ten per cent of the cost of the state child welfare services staff now financed as a demonstration unit by the federal government.
  • 3. That funds be provided to allow for state-wide psychological service.
  • 4. That more adequate personnel be provided in each of the state hospitals for the insane to allow patients the advantages of an occupational therapist, a psychiatric social worker, more physicians and more attendants.
  • 5. That appropriations be made with the object of bettering the public assistance program by:
    • a. Providing funds for a state program of general relief;
    • b. Establishing a larger equalizing fund to assist the poorer counties in paying their part of public assistance grants;
    • c. Providing funds for an increase in grants for aid to dependent children and for an increase in the number of families so aided and now eligible.
  • 6. That state institutional facilities be expanded to provide:
    • a. For more nearly adequate care of feeble-minded white and Negro children;
    • b. For the care of delinquent Negro girls;
    • c. For increased capacity at Morrison Training School to meet the needs of a larger number of youthful Negro male offenders.
  • 7. That the annual appropriation of the state board be increased to provide re-establishment of regular inspection service for county homes, county and city jails, and state institutions.
  • 8. That the annual appropriation of the state board be increased to provide the additional staff expansion necessary to effect an efficient administration of the public welfare program in the light of increasing demands for services by the people of the state.


Page 179

STAFF OF THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE BOARD OF
CHARITIES AND PUBLIC WELFARE

        ADAMS, MRS. ADDIE EZZELL, Division of Public Assistance.

        ANDREWS, FRANCES, Division of Public Assistance.

        ARRINGTON, A. H., Division of Public Assistance.

        AYCOCK, MRS. W. B., Director County Organization.

        AYDLETT, A. LAURANCE, Information Service.

        BAGGETT, MARY, Division of Public Assistance.

        BALLARD, KATE, CCC Selection and Certification.

        BARBOUR, MRS. LOVIE L., Child Welfare Services, Division of Child Welfare.

        BELL, MRS. W. FRANK, Division of Public Assistance.

        BELL, VICTORIA, Field Social Work Service.

        BENSON, MRS. NELLIE PAUL, Public Assistance.

        BERNARD, KATHLEEN, Division of Institutions and Corrections.

        BOST, MRS. W. T., Commissioner of Public Welfare.

        BRADLEY, MRS. ELEANOR M., County Organization.

        BRADSHAW, GEORGE W., Statistical Service.

        BRIGGS, MARY MARSHALL, Child Welfare Services, Division of Child Welfare.

        BROWNING, MRS. CARRIE M., Surplus Commodity Distribution.

        BROWN, R. EUGENE, Assistant to the Commissioner and Director of Field Social Work Service.

        BUNN, BONNIE B., Child Welfare Services, Division of Child Welfare.

        BUTT, ETHEL, Division of Public Assistance.

        CASHION, WADE N., Field Social Work Service.

        CASSATT, ANNA A., Director Division of Casework Training and Family Rehabilitation.

        COVINGTON, AGNES, Division of Public Assistance.

        DANIEL, CROMWELL, Division of Public Assistance.

        DARK, FANNIE S., Administrative Office.

        ELLINGTON, MRS. HATTIE, Surplus Commodity Distribution.

        ELLIOTT, MRS. ANNIE R., Division of Public Assistance.

        ESKRIDGE, E. S., Division of Public Assistance.

        EZELL, WM. CURTIS, Director Division of Institutions and Corrections.


Page 180

        FARRELL, H. D., Field Social Work Service.

        GITTINGS, MRS. EMMA J., Administrative Office.

        GRAY, T. P., JR., Surplus Commodity Distribution.

        GRIER, T. L., Supervisor CCC Selection and Certification.

        HAMAKER, MRS. MARGARET P., Division of Public Assistance.

        HARRIS, MRS. IRENE S., Statistical Service.

        HASHAGEN, JANE M., Child Welfare Services, Division of Child Welfare.

        HAUSER, JESSIE, Supervisor of Child Welfare Services, Division of Child Welfare.

        HAWKINS, S. J., Field Social Work Service.

        HAY, GILBERT, JR., Statistical Service.

        HERBERT, MRS. KATHERINE, Division of Mental Hygiene.

        HEYWARD, MRS. N. J., CCC Selection and Certification.

        HIGHSMITH, DORA, Surplus Commodity Distribution.

        HILL, THELMA, Division of Public Assistance.

        HODGES, CLAIRE, Administrative Office.

        HOLDING, MRS. LOTTIE M., Division of Public Assistance.

        HORTON, MRS. MARJORIE OLDHAM, Division of Public Assistance.

        HOUSTON, ROBERT H., Division of Public Assistance.

        HUGHEY, CLYDE O. P., Division of Public Assistance.

        INBORDEN, MRS. NANNIE, Negro Welfare.

        JOHNSON, H. J., Surplus Commodity Distribution.

        JOHNSON, WILLIAM R., Consultant on Negro Welfare.

        JOHNSTON, NELLE, Field Social Work Service.

        JONES, NANCY, Field Social Work Service.

        JUSTICE, R. H., Statistical Service.

        KIRK, J. S., Director Statistical Service.

        KURALT, WALLACE H., Field Social Work Service.

        LANE, MARGARET M., Child Welfare Services, Division of Child Welfare.

        LANGSTON, A. E., Director Surplus Commodity Distribution.

        MALLISON, MRS. MARY K., Division of Casework Training and Family Rehabilitation.

        MITCHELL, LILY E., Director Division of Child Welfare.

        MORTON, HELEN R., Statistical Service.


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        PARKER, JOY, Division of Public Assistance.

        PARTRIDGE, RUTH, Division of Public Assistance.

        PATTERSON, WILL, Administrative Office.

        PEARSON, B. P., Surplus Commodity Distribution.

        PORTER, E. C., Administrative Office.

        RICHIE, DR. RICHARD F., Child Psychiatrist, Division of Mental Hygiene.

        RILEY, MRS. SARAH E., Supply Commodity Distribution.

        RUNNION, MARGARET, State Board of Eugenics.

        SCOVILL, MARY, Psychologist, Division of Mental Hygiene.

        SHAW, MRS. HAZEL A., Division of Public Assistance.

        SHUFORD, GLADYS, Child Welfare Service, Division of Child Welfare.

        STEWART, J. A., Auditor.

        TOLER, LESSIE, Social Work Consultant, Division of Public Assistance.

        TRIGG, ELLEN LYON, Division of Child Welfare.

        UPCHURCH, MRS. FRANCES, Division of Mental Hygiene.

        WATSON, DR. JAMES, Director Division of Mental Hygiene.

        WEATHERS, MARY, Division of Public Assistance.

        WILKERSON, T. F., Jr., Surplus Commodity Distribution.

        WILSON, MRS. MARGARET, Field Social Work Service.

        YELTON, NATHAN H., Director Division of Public Assistance.