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North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration, J. S. Kirk (Jacob Sydney), 1909-, edited by, Walter A. Cutter (Walter Alrey), 1902-, edited by, and Thomas W. Morse, edited by
Emergency Relief in North Carolina. A Record of the Development and the Activities of the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration, 1932-1935. North Carolina Emergency Relief Commission, State Administrator, Mrs. Thomas O'Berry. Edited by J.S. Kirk, Walter A. Cutter [and] Thomas W. Morse.
[Raleigh]: [Edwards & Broughton], 1936.
List of Illustrations


Description
Page
[Cover Image]

[Spine Image]

[Frontispiece Image]
The Restored Chapel of Fort Raleigh on Roanoke Island

[Title Page Image]

PER CENT DISTRIBUTION OF DISTRICT ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL
BY FIELD OF ACTIVITY

NORTH CAROLINA EMERGENCY RELIEF ADMINISTRATION DISTRICTS AFTER CONSOLIDATION
OF COUNTY UNITS--NOVEMBER 1934--AUGUST 1935
(Districts 6 and 25 consolidated into Districts 10 and 26 respectively)

NORTH CAROLINA EMERGENCY RELIEF ADMINISTRATION DISTRICTS AFTER SEPTEMBER 1935
ARRANGED BY AREAS COTERMINOUS WITH THE WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION.

DISTRIBUTION OF RESIDENT PERSONS ON
RELIEF IN NORTH CAROLINA
JUNE, 1935
1 DOT = 100 Persons on Relief

GENERAL RELIEF CASE LOAD FOR NORTH CAROLINA BY MONTHS

PER CENT RELIEF AND GENERAL POPULATION IN NORTH CAROLINA BY COLOR
AND PLACE OF RESIDENCE

RESIDENCE OF RELIEF CASES
NORTH CAROLINA
JUNE, 1935
TOTAL RELIEF CASES FOR MONTH 62,010

FAMILIES AND SINGLE PERSONS RECEIVING RELIEF BY MONTHS
APRIL, 1933, THROUGH DECEMBER, 1935

OBLIGATIONS INCURRED FROM PUBLIC FUNDS BY QUARTERS † Exclusive of Surplus Commodities, funds for other Federal Agencies, Self-help Coöperatives, etc.
APRIL, 1933, THROUGH DECEMBER, 1935
N.C.ERA * The increase in obligations incurred during the second quarter of 1935 was due to the rapid expansion of the Rural Rehabilitation Program in North Carolina. That expansion included purchases for fertilizers, seed, farm equipment and stock in addition to subsistence grants to Rural Rehabilitation clients all over and above the regular functions of the Emergency Relief Program. Seasonal farm activities made necessary this enlarged expenditure.

AVERAGE RELIEF BENEFITS, PER CAPITA--FOR 12 MONTHS
APRIL, 1934 THROUGH MARCH, 1935
The wide variation of average relief benefits per capital depended greatly upon the intensity* * Percentage of population on relief. of relief. This chart should be compared to the census figures of population and tabulation of relief population by counties found on page 54.

AVERAGE RELIEF BENEFITS PER RELIEF PERSON--BY COUNTIES
JUNE, 1935

WHAT THE STATES HAVE RECEIVED TO DATE IN EMERGENCY AID
FEBRUARY 19, 1934

WHAT THE STATES PAID TO THE FEDERAL TREASURY IN TAXES IN 1933

INTENSITY OF GENERAL RELIEF*
JULY 1933 - JUNE 1935 * BASED ON AVERAGE RELIEF FIGURES AND AVERAGE ESTIMATED POPULATION

INTENSITY* OF GENERAL RELIEF IN THE UNITED STATES
JULY 1933 - JUNE 1935 * PERCENTAGE OF ESTIMATED POPULATION ON RELIEF

TOTAL FERA GRANT TO STATES
MAY 23, 1933 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 1935

PER CAPITA FERA GRANTS TO STATES
MAY 23, 1933 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 1935

EXPENDITURE OF THE ERA DOLLAR
BASED ON OBLIGATIONS INCURRED FOR THE TWFLVE MONTHS ENDING MARCH 31, 1935

OBLIGATIONS INCURRED FOR WORK AND DIRECT RELIEF IN
NORTH CAROLINA
JANUARY, 1933, THROUGH DECEMBER, 1935

[Map of North Carolina Counties]

ORGANIZATION CHART
NORTH CAROLINA EMERGENCY RELIEF ADMINISTRATION

WORK RELIEF EARNINGS AS A PER CENT OF TOTAL RELIEF
GRANTED FOR TWELVE MONTHS ENDING MARCH 31, 1935

(1) Quarrying stone in Caldwell County. (2) Quarrying and crushing stone for street improvements in Monroe, Union County. (3) Crushing stone, Alamance County.

(1) Sidewalk built at Hamlet, Richmond County. (2) Sidewalk built at Wadesboro, Anson County. (3) Sidewalks and curb built at Rockingham, Richmond County. (4) Sewer construction at Elizabethtown, Bladen County.

(1) Broadway Avenue before widening, Asheville, Buncombe County. (2) Biltmore Avenue before widening, Asheville, Buncombe County. (3) Widening of Biltmore Avenue, Asheville, nearing completion. (4) Broadway Avenue, Asheville, after being widened.

(1) Workers receiving pay checks in Durham. (2) Paying off workers in Raleigh.

(1) Cemetery wall built in Johnston County. (2) Stream gaging station built in Davie County. (3) Stone office building at public cemetery in Salisbury, Rowan County. (4) Wall around cemetery in Mecklenburg County. (5) Wall built at Old Soldiers. (6) Wall built at cemetery in Jackson County.

(1) Concrete culvert built in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County. (2) Bridge built in Lincoln County in coöperation with State Highway Commission. (3) Underpass under highway at the Jackson Training School, Cabarrus County. (4) Queen River Bridge, Onslow County.

(1) Eliminating dangerous curve on highway in Stokes County. (2) Relocation of Salisbury Road to eliminate curve, Forsyth County. (3) Construction of a new road in Durham County. (4) Extension of Queen Street in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County. (5) Relocation of Highway 6, Catawba County.

(1) Boats used in planting oysters, Brunswick County. (2) Oyster planting, Carteret County.

(1) School addition built for primary grades at mill village near Concord, Cabarrus County. (2) Addition to Massey Hill school, Cumberland County. (3) Addition of wings to Pitt County school. (4) Auditorium built at Mecklenburg County school.

(1) Rock retaining walls built at school in Durham County. (2) Road improvement and stone retaining wall built at Cullowhee school, Jackson County. (3) Entrance posts in cemetery wall, Burlington, Alamance County. (4) Wall constructed around Old Soldiers.

(1) Hanes Park in Winston-Salem after grading and landscaping, Forsyth County. (3) Rhododendron Gardens Park built in Asheville, Buncombe County. (3) Picnic tables and benches and outdoor fireplace in Winston-Salem Park, Forsyth County. (4) Iris in Runnymead Park, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County. (5) Iris in Runnymead Park, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County. (6) Overlook, City Park, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County.

(24) ERA labor clearing large swamp in Harnett County. (25) Municipal drainage system in Siler City, Chatham County. (26) Draining large swamps in vicinity of Hertford, Perquimans County. (27) Completing large drainage system near Wilmington, New Hanover County. (28) Completing large project in Hemp, Moore County. (29) Starting important malaria control project at Warren Plains, Warren County. (30) Draining large swamp which surrounds Jacksonville, Onslow County. (31) Tapping large mosquito breeding pond within city limits of Durham, Durham County.

(1) Dam, constructed under CWA and ERA, twelve miles above city for Asheville water supply, Buncombe County. (2) Twelve miles of sixteen-inch pipe laid under CWA and ERA for City of Asheville water supply, Buncombe County. (3) Chlorinator house constructed under CWA and ERA for City of Asheville water supply.

(1) Atkinson Gymnasium built in Pender County. (2) Gymnasium built in Northampton County. (3) Gymnasium built at Goldsboro in Wayne County. (4) Gymnasium built at Woodland, Northampton County. (5) Gymnasium built at Richlannds in Onslow County. (6) Gymnasium built at New London in Stanly County.

(1) Farmington School Gymnasium built at Farmington, Davie County. (2) Gymnasium built at Morehead City, Carteret County. (3) Gymnasium built at State College for Negroes, Durham, Durham County. (4) Gymnasium built at Healing Springs, Ashe County. (5) Interior of Troy Gymnasium, Montgomery County.

(1) Addition to Hiddenite School in Alexander County. (2) Green Valley School built in Watauga County. (3) Landis Colored School built in Rowan County, reconstructed after fire. (4) Nathans Creek High School, Ashe County, completed under CWA and ERA. (5) Taylorsville Colored School built in Alexander County. (6) Addition to New River High School in Ashe County constructed.

(1) Laying storm culverts, Reynolda Park, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County. (2) Water line extension being built in Albemarle, Stanly County. (3) Filter plant, Siler City water works, Chatham County.

(1) Quarrying stone for the construction of cemetery drive in Rowan County. (2) Streets surfaced in Hertford County. (3) Yellow Creek Road constructed in Graham County. (4) Airport built at Salisbury, Rowan County. (5) Airport fill and runways built at Winston-Salem, Forsyth County.

(1) Mocksville Gymnasium in Davie County. (2) School Gymnasium built in Kannapolis, Cabarrus County. (3) Gymnasium built at Berry Hill School in Nash County.

(1) Tennis courts built at Blair Park in High Point, Guilford County. (2) Track built at high school in Durham, Durham County. (3) Playing field built at high school in Durham, Durham County. (4) Baseball field and grandstand at Bailey, Nash County.

(1) Nathaniel Macon Home, Warren County, before restoration. (2) Nathaniel Macon Home, Warren County, before restoration. (3) Public library built in Rutherford County. (4) Nathaniel Macon Home, Warren County, after restoration. (5) Library at Roland, Robeson County. (6) Library built at Warrenton, Warren County. (7) Steele Memorial Library built at Mount Olive, Wayne County. (8) Interior of Steele Memolial Library, Mount Olive, Wayne County.

(1) Gymnasium built in Yadkin County. (2) Schoolhouse built in Iredell County. Pump house and Gymnasium in background also built as ERA projects. (3) Tyrrell County Home constructed under CWA and ERA. (4) School farm shop built in Iredell County. (5) County Home barn built in Union County. (6) County Home barn built in Haywood County. (7) Community House built in Madison County. (8) Community House built at Leaksville, Rockingham County.

(1) Green Creek gymnasium constructed in Polk County under CWA and ERA. (2) Gymnasium constructed at Rock Springs, Denver, Lincoln County. (3) School built at Hayesville, Clay County. (4) Waxhaw High School gymnasium constructed in Union County. (5) Stone gymnasium built at Andrews in Cherokee County. (6) Bald Creek School gymnasium and assembly hall constructed in Yancey County.

(1) Community House built at Roxboro, Person County. (2) Community House built at Belmont, Gaston County. (3) Community House built at Ayden, Pitt County. (4) Community House built at Pittsboro, Chatham County.

(1) Waccamaw Community House and gymnasium, Brunswick County. (2) Field Museum at Municipal Park, Washington, Beaufort County. (3) Red Oak Community House, Nash County.

(1) Negro school at Selma, Johnston County, built with ERA and State funds. (2) Comfort School, Jones County. (3) Addition to colored school in Wake County. (4) Addition to school in Stanly County. (5) Negro school built in Scotland County. (6) Training school built in Moore County. (7) School built in Moore County. (8) Laurinburg vocational school in Scotland County.

(1) Community Building at Lenoir, Caldwell County. (2) Biological Laboratory at Beaufort, Carteret County. (3) Community House at Marion, McDowell County. (4) Pleasant Garden Community House, McDowell County. (5) Community House at Rutherfordton, Rutherford Rutherford County. (6) Community House, Rutherfordton, Rutherford County.

EXPENDITURES OF ERA DOLLAR APRIL, 1935
N. C. ERA

HOW THE CLIENT'S DOLLAR IS SPENT
BASED ON OBLIGATIONS INCURRED FOR RELIEF
APRIL, 1934, THROUGH MARCH, 1935

PER CENT DISTRIBUTION OF CASE LOAD BETWEEN WHITE
AND COLORED

DISTRIBUTION OF RELIEF BY TYPE
JULY, 1934, THROUGH FEBRUARY, 1935

AVERAGE RELIEF BENEFITS PER PERSON BY SIZE OF FAMILY
FEBRUARY, 1935

SIZE OF FAMILY--RELIEF AND GENERAL POPULATION
JANUARY, 1935

SIZE OF FAMILY--RELIEF AND GENERAL POPULATION
JUNE, 1935

See special descriptive matter referring to these Illustrations on page 141.
[Appeared on page 141 in original.](1) Home of a typical Rural Rehabilitation family, Alexander County. (2) Children of this Rural Rehabilitation family, Alexander County. (3) House built for Relief Family, Brunswick County. (4) The home of a Relief family in Iredell County. This house was built during the winter months of 1934. Through field work the mother secured $20 with which she purchased a one-acre tract of land. A neighbor offered her the logs in a near-by house which had fallen down. She and her son, with the help of some neighbors, put these logs together, making a one-room cabin. There was nothing with which to chink the cracks, and late November found the family with no chimney and no way to keep out the cold winter air. The mother then agreed to pick 2,000 pounds of cotton for a neighbor if he would give her the brick in a chimney left in his field from a building that had burned there several years before. She and her children took this chimney down and carried the brick about a mile to their cabin. It was then that the Relief Administration, together with the County Welfare Department, gave her assistance in building the chimney and boarding up the inside of the cabin. Eleven persons live in this one room. (5) Rural Rehabilitation client, Craven County. This family purchased one acre of land and constructed the house from farm income under the Rural Rehabilitation Program of 1934. (6) Alexander County. The head of this family worked under the CWA program, saved his money and bought a small tract of land on which there was a tobacco barn. With the aid of his wife and children he gathered field stones and built a chimney, then added a room and porch, in this way converting the barn into a livable home. The owner and his family are delighted to have had an opportunity to acquire a home and are planning through the Rural Rehabilitation Program to buy necessary stock and equipment so that they may become self-supporting. (7) Rural Rehabilitation family, Rutherford County. This family built the cabin themselves, out of slabs. The land had no house on it. (8) Relief family, Iredell County. This is an illustration of the need for relief. The family is tragically poor. The father does not have either the willingness or the intelligence to provide for the family. There was one bed for the entire family. A pile of cotton in one corner of the room furnished the bed and covering for part of the family. Food was prepared on the hearth, for there was no cook stove. A "hoe-cake" was broken into bits and handed to members of the family, since there was no table at which the family could sit, and there were no dishes from which food could be served.

PER CENT OF POPULATION ON RELIEF BY COUNTIES
AUGUST, 1934

PER CENT OF POPULATION ON RELIEF BY COUNTIES
OCTOBER, 1934

PER CENT OF POPULATION ON RELIEF BY COUNTIES
JANUARY, 1935

PER CENT OF POPULATION ON RELIEF BY COUNTIES
MAY, 1935

COSTS OF MEDICAL CARE BY MONTHS
FEBRUARY, 1935, THROUGH DECEMBER, 1935

HOW THE ERA DOLLAR WAS SPENT FOR MEDICAL CARE
PER CENT DISTRIBUTION OF MEDICAL COST
FEBRUARY, 1935, THROUGH DECEMBER, 1935

EMERGENCY RELIEF WORK PROGRAM
EARNINGS AND PERSONS AT WORK BY
WEEKS ENDING APRIL 5, 1934, THROUGH
NOVEMBER 14, 1935
SOURCE N. C. ERA Weekly Reports (FORM 190)
Prepared by Statistical Department

OBLIGATIONS INCURRED IN NORTH CAROLINA FOR EMERGENCY
RELIEF FROM PUBLIC FUNDS

(1) Negro school in Hoke County before being remodeled. (2) The same school as No. 1 after being remodeled under Governor's Office of Relief Program. First building in state to be completed from Federal Funds. (3) Landscaping and improving school grounds in Davie County under Governor's Office of Relief Program. (4) Gymnasium built at Woodleaf School, Rowan County, under Governor's Office of Relief Program. (5) Interior of Community House built in Granville County under Governor's Office of Relief. (6) Checking marker on Geodetic Survey project under Governor's Office of Relief.

SUMMARY OF ELIGIBLE WORKERS 16 TO 64 YEARS OF AGE BASED
ON COMPLETE CENSUS OF ELIGIBLE WORKERS ON RELIEF,
WITH ALL PRIORITY RANKINGS FOR WORK,
NORTH CAROLINA--MARCH, 1935

SUMMARY OF ELIGIBLE WORKERS 16 TO 64 YEARS OF AGE
BASED ON COMPLETE CENSUS OF ELIGIBLE WORKERS ON
RELIEF, WITH FIRST PRIORITY RANKING FOR WORK,
NORTH CAROLINA--MARCH, 1935

AMOUNTS APPROVED BY THE NORTH CAROLINA EMERGENCY RELIEF
ADMINISTRATION AND BY GOVERNMENTAL UNITS FOR PROJECTS
IN VARIOUS FIELDS OF ACTIVITY
MARCH 29, 1934-DECEMBER 5, 1935
Prepared by Statistical Department
Note: Any cost less than ten thousand dollars is not indicated on the chart.

EMERGENCY RELIEF ADMINISTRATION EXPENDITURES AND EXPENDITURES
OF GOVERNMENTAL UNITS FOR THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA BY
FIELDS OF ACTIVITY
MARCH 29, 1934--DECEMBER 5, 1935

AMOUNTS APPROVED BY THE NORTH CAROLINA EMERGENCY RELIEF
ADMINISTRATION AND BY GOVERNMENTAL UNITS FOR PROJECTS
IN VARIOUS FIELDS OF ACTIVITY
MARCH 29, 1934-DECEMBER 5, 1935
Note: Any cost less than ten thousand dollars is not indicated on the chart.

EMERGENCY RELIEF ADMINISTRATION EXPENDITURES AND EXPENDITURES
OF GOVERNMENTAL UNITS FOR THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA BY
FIELDS OF ACTIVITY
MARCH 29, 1934--DECEMBER 5, 1935
Note Governmental expenditures based on percent completed N. C. ERA allotments--56 per cent average for all fields of study.

(1) Surfacing airport road in Nash County. (2) Elimination of curves on county highway in Forsyth County. (3) Completed road project in Forsyth County. (4) Merrimon Avenue, Asheville, during widening. Buncombe County. (5) Merrimon Avenue, Asheville, after widening. Buncombe County.

EMERGENCY WORK RELIEF PROGRAM OF THE NORTH CAROLINA EMERGENCY RELIEF
ADMINISTRATION, APRIL 1, 1934 TO DECEMBER 5, 1935
NOTE--Black area represents the average for each month of the number of workers employed each week. The black plus the white area represents the maximum number employed in any one week of each month. The black area plus the white area plus the shaded area represents the number of relief cases employed on projects each month. The vertical bar chart of the number of workers employed does not include emergency education and administrative projects.

(1) Bridge built in Wake County. (2) Bridge in Mooresville, Iredell County before work was undertaken. (3) The fill and culvert which replaced the bridge shown in No. 2. (4) Bridge built at Siler City, Chatham County. (5) Bridge across creek at school in Haywood County.

(1) Sidewalk construction in Gatesville, Gates County. (2) Construction of curb and gutter, Beaufort, Carteret County. (3) Construction of sidewalks in Roanoke Rapids, Halifax County.

(1) Sidewalks constructed at Wilkesboro, Wilkes County. (2) Sidewalks constructed at Thomasville, Davidson County, under CWA and ERA. (3) Concrete approach steps built at County Courthouse, Sylva, Jackson County. (4) Sidewalk and sidewalk retaining wall constructed in Spruce Pine, Mitchell County. (5) Sidewalks constructed in Northampton County. (6) Streets graded and stoned in Elk Park, Avery County.

(1) Concrete storm culvert, Gastonia, Gaston County. (2) Water tank at State Farm Colony for Women, Lenoir County. (3) Stream gaging station built in Nash County. (4) Construction of sewer system in Murfreesboro, Hertford County.

(1) Paw Creek Gymnasium, Mecklenburg County. (2) Stone Gymnasium in Yancey County.

(1) Colored school built in Greene County. (2) Additions and repairs to Rock School in Burke County. (3) Library and gymnasium at the Appalachian State Teachers' College in Watauga County built with State and ERA funds. (4) Cove Creek School in Haywood County. (5) Jefferson High School, Ashe County. (6) West Jefferson High School, Ashe County: Second floor rebuilt, entire building remodeled.

(1) Big Bend school, Haywood County. (2) Big Bend school children. (3) Pond spraying to control malaria epidemic, Black Water fever, affecting hundreds of relief clients. (4) Relief family exposed to Black Water fever. (5) Control and prevention of Black Water fever. ERA nurse at home of infected family. (6) Recreational project, Rhythm Band, Pitt County. (7) Excavation Indian Mound under CWA, Cherokee County. (8) Pond before drainage in vicinity of town of 12,000 inhabitants, Craven County. (9) Privy construction, Randolph County. Typical of privies constructed on State-wide Health Control project.

(1) Classroom building at Negro Training School, Gates County. (2) Wing added to school in Pitt County. (3) Colored school built with ERA labor and local funds in Rocky Mount, Nash County. (4) Milton-Semora School built in Caswell County with local funds and relief labor.

(1) Foreman's house at soil erosion farm, Iredell County, before renovation. (2) Foreman's house at soil erosion farm, Iredell County after CWA and ERA repairs and renovation. (3) Painting in Carteret County Courthouse. Note difference between painted section and existing section. (4) Tubercular cottages built in Wayne County.

(1) New Bern Library, Craven County, before remodeling. (2) New Bern Library, Craven County, after being remodeled and repaired by ERA. (3) Hillsboro Confederate Memorial Public Library built under CWA and ERA, Orange County.

(1) Walkway connecting hospital and nurses' home, Winston-Salem. (2) Community theater building built in Macon County. (3) Hospital built at Appalachian State Teachers' College, Watauga County, with CWA and State funds. (4) Fire station built at Pinehurst in Moore County. (5) City Hall and fire station built at Lillington, Harnett County. (6) Warehouse remodeled for District ERA offices, Statesville, Iredell County. (7) Isolation ward at Goldsboro, North Carolina.

(1) Addition to school in Wilson County. (2) Community House built in Wayne County. (3) Gymnasium built in Granville County. (4) Work shop built at Bethel Hill High School, Person County. (5) Gymnasium built in Washington County. (6) Washington County Home built under CWA and ERA.

(1) Digging ditch for sanitary sewer, Edgecombe County. (2) Laying sewer pipe in Burlington, Alamance County. (3) Portion of sanitary sewer system built in Belmont, Gaston County, with local funds and relief labor.

(1) Dam and pumping plant built by CWA and ERA at Siler City, Chatham County. (2) Laying water mains in Durham, Durham County. (3) Digging ditch for sewer line, Sanford, Lee County. Note shoring. (4) Reservoir constructed at Carthage, Moore County.

(1) Deep Creek, clearing right-of-way, Drainage, Edgecombe County. (2) Hoke County, Bob's Pond drainage project near Lobella. (3) Hyde County, Gulrock Drainage. (4) The inter-section of ditches draining large swamps in Gates County.

(1) A typical ponded swamp in Robeson County in vicinity of densely populated section. A malaria blood slide survey showed a higher positive reaction than any other place in North Carolina. (2) Ponds paralleling Fourth Creek before drainage, Iredell County. (3) Channel after drainage, Fourth Creek, Iredell County. (4) The same swamp as No. 1 after drainage. One year after completion, malaria decreased over, 60 per cent.

(1) Aerial view of completely drained salt marsh near Manteo, Dare County. Work done by transients. (2) Section of drainage shown in No. 1. (3) Relief workers building dredging machine, Iredell and Rowan counties. (4) Transients at work on the salt marsh drainage shown above. (5) Dredging machine completed by relief workers shown in No. 3. (6) Dragline on Fourth Creek, Iredell County. (7) Surveying right-of-way for drainage of Swift Creek, Pitt County.

(1) Completed ditch near Raynham, Robeson County. (2) Completed canal near Wilmington, New Hanover County. (3) Completed channel at Pittsboro, Chatham County. (4) Ditch, draining swamp which surrounded Williamston, Martin County. (5) Canal, draining Ground Nut swamp, near LaGrange, Lenoir County. (6) Channel drainage, swamp at Shiloh, Camden County. (7) Bertie County, drainage ditch. (8) Crew removing vegetation from canal, Columbus County. (9) An inter-section of drainage project near Henderson, Vance County.

(1) Sanitary sewer under construction at Queen Street in Kinston, Lenoir County. (2) Water tower constructed at Faison, Duplin County. (3) Water tower constructed at Kenansville, Duplin County. (4) Stream gaging station on French Broad River near Hot Springs, Madison County. (5) Repairs to Toomers Creek intake, Wilmington, New Hanover County. (6) City reservoir constructed at Carthage, Moore County.

(1) Erecting pole on rural electrification line in Orange County. (2) Completed rural electrification line in Orange County. (3) Completed rural electrification line in Orange County.

(1) Water tower built as part of municipal water system at Wadesboro, Anson County. (2) Dam built at Apex, Wake County. (3) Retaining wall built at Game Farm, Durham County. (4) Reservoir built at Marshall, Madison County. (5) Chlorinator house built at Marshall, Madison County. (6) Empounding dam at Wadesboro, Anson County.

(1) Concrete bleachers at State College Stadium, Raleigh, Wake County, under construction, August 20, 1935. (2) Concrete bleachers at State College Stadium, Raleigh, Wake County, under construction, August 24, 1935. (3) Concrete bleachers at State College Stadium, completed October 10, 1935. (4) Air view of State College Stadium. Right-hand stands constructed with sponsor's funds and relief labor.

(1) Stone bleachers built at Independence Park, Charlotte, North Carolina. (2) Putting in underground drainage system, the Municipal Stadium at Charlotte. (3) The Municipal Stadium, Charlotte, completed. (4) Baseball diamond built at Huntersville, Mecklenburg County under RFC, CWA and ERA.

(1) View of amphitheater and bathhouse built at High Point Municipal Park under CWA and ERA, Guilford County. (2) Community House and lake built at Black Mountain, Buncombe County. (3) Improvement of Jacks Creek and Municipal Park, Washington, Beaufort County.

(1) Swimming pool at Municipal Park, High Point, Guilford County. Largest outdoor pool in North Carolina. (2) Swimming pool and bathhouse at Pullen Park, Raleigh, Wake County.

(1) Restoration work at old Fort Raleigh on Roanoke Island, Dare County, showing cabins and stockade in background. (2) Chapel constructed as part of the restoration program at old Fort Raleigh. (3) Interior of chapel at old Fort Raleigh. (4) Stockade and blockhouse built at old Fort Raleigh under ERA and CWA.

(1) Nursery room in Greensboro operated as ERA project, Guilford County. (2) Recreational activities at Neuse Forest Camp, Craven County. (3) Lake park and recreational buildings constructed in Rockingham County. (4) School bus station in Graham County. (5) Bridge built at Blair Park, High Point, Guilford County. (6) Community Center in Greensboro, Guilford County.

(1) Intramural field at the University of North Carolina during construction. (2) Intramural field at the University of North Carolina after completion. (3) Field house built at the intramural field at the University of North Carolina. (4) Bleachers and athletic field at State College for Negroes in Durham. (5) Caretaker's house at the City-County Recreational Park near Greensboro. (6) Lake and bath house at City-County Recreational Park near Greensboro.

(1) Improvements at Greenfield Park, Wilmington, New Hanover County. (2) Improvements at Greenfield Park, Wilmington, New Hanover County. (3) Upper: stone wall built at the end of tennis courts, University of North Carolina; lower: asphalt tennis courts built at the University of North Carolina. (4) The municipal lake and park at Rocky Mount. (5) Shelter House at the municipal park at Durham. (6) Community House and swimming pool built at Sanford, Lee County.

(1) Municipal swimming pool built at Greenville, Pitt County. (2) Municipal swimming pool built at Kinston, Lenoir County. (3) Municipal swimming pool built at Durham, Durham County. (4) Municipal swimming pool built at Tarboro, Edgecombe County. (5) Year-round swimming pool, Wayne County Community Center, Goldsboro.

(1) Swimming pool and bathhouse built at Spindale, Rutherford County. (2) Pressure filters being installed at Goldsboro swimming pool. Similar filters were installed at other swimming pools built with CWA and ERA funds. (3) Skating rink at Asheville Recreational Park after reconstruction. (4) Swimming pool built at Brevard, Transylvania County. (5) Filter plant reconstructed at Negro swimming pool, Charlotte. (6) Horney Heights Swimming Pool, Asheville.

(1) Boy Scout cabin, Polk County. (2) Additions and repairs to Young Tar Heel Farmers' Camp, White Lake, Bladen County. (3) Golf course built at Lumberton, Robeson County. (4) Golf course at Hendersonville, Henderson County. (5) Athletic field, Surry County.

(1) Administration building at Cleveland County Fairgrounds. (2) Grandstand built at Cleveland County Fairgrounds.

(1) Gymnasium built at Beaufort, Carteret County. (2) Brick gymnasium built at Wendell, Wake County. (3) Interior of gymnasium built at Apex, Wake County.

(1) Gymnasium built at Saluda, Polk County. (2) Gymnasium built at Alliance, Pamlico County. (3) Celeste Henkel Gymnasium built in Iredell County. (4) North Brook No. 1 Gymnasium built in Lincoln County. (5) Sparta High School Gymnasium built in Alleghany County under CWA and ERA. (6) Ferguson School in Wilkes County built under CWA and ERA to replace burned building.

(1) Community House built at Scotland Neck Halifax County. (2) Interior of Scotland Neck Community House.

(1) Middleburg Community House built in Vance County. (2) Interior of Middleburg Community House, Vance County. (3) Community House at Lumberton, Robeson County. (4) Smithfield Community House, Johnston County. (5) Selma Community House, Johnston County. (6) Community house and boathouse, Black Mountain, Buncombe County.

(1) Morganton Community House, Burke County. (2) Historic home remodeled for community center, Tarboro, Edgecombe County.

(1) Fish Hatchery at Rutherford, Watauga County. (2) Fish breeding pool constructed at State Fish Hatchery, Alleghany County. (3) Concrete rearing pools constructed at Pete Murphy Fish Hatchery, McDowell County. (4) Pools for fish during period of growth, State Fish Hatchery, Roaring Gap, Alleghany County. (5) Repairs to Diamond Back Terrapin Ponds and driveway constructed at United States Fisheries at Beaufort, Carteret County. (6) Stone, Warden's house constructed at State Game Refuge and Fish Hatchery, Yancey County.

(1) Breeding pens built at the game farm, Cumberland County. (2) Lodge and classrooms at Quail Roost, Durham County. (3) Caretaker's cottage at Quail Roost, Durham County. (4) Fish pool at Mount Mitchell Game Refuge, Mitchell County. (5) Stone house at Mount Mitchell Game Refuge, Mitchell County. (6) Rearing pools at the Cumberland County fish hatchery.

(1) Boardwalks built at Wrightsville Beach, New Hanover County, after the fire. (2) Condition of boardwalks at Wrightsville Beach after the fire and before restoration by CWA and ERA. (3) City docks at Morehead City before repairing, Carteret County. (4) The dike built at low beach in Currituck County to prevent ocean water from running into Currituck Sound. (5) Currituck County dike under construction. Currituck Sound is a fresh water sound. (6) City dock at Morehead City after being repaired, Carteret County.

(1) Pump house and shallow wells built at Elizabeth City to furnish city water. (2) Spillway repaired in Franklin County. (3) Rural Electrification line, Wilson County.

(1A) Wilkinson Boulevard, Mecklenburg County, before improvements. (1B) Wilkinson Boulevard, Mecklenburg County, before improvements. (2) Honeysuckle planted on fill. Roadside improvement project, Durham County. (3) Cut planted to laurel and rhododendron. Roadside improvement project, Buncombe County. (4) Wilkinson Boulevard after grading and planting, Mecklenburg County. (5) Wilkinson Boulevard after grading and planting, Mecklenburg County. (6) Roadside improvement, Durham County.

(1) Raleigh Municipal Airport. Field runways built under CWA and ERA. (2) Airport hangar built at Rocky Mount Municipal Airport.

(1) Distributing homemade molasses, Iredell County. (2) Shelling and sacking peas, Mecklenburg County. (3) Threshing and sacking wheat, Mecklenburg County. (4) Squeezing juice from sugar cane for making syrup, Craven County. (5) Making syrup, Craven County. (6) ERA Community Cannery, Durham County. (7) Interior Community Cannery, Durham County. (8) Potato field, community garden, Goldsboro, Wayne County. (9) Filling orders at commodity storeroom, Wilmington, New Hanover County.

(1) Hauling and stacking wood for relief clients. (2) Loading wood for delivery to relief clients. (3) Hauling wood from drainage project to wood yard. (4) Unloading wood to be cut into fuel lengths.

(1) Negro nursery school, New Hanover County. (2) School lunch room for Negro children, Durham County.

(1) The North Carolina Symphony Orchestra, one of the outstanding ERA musical projects in the United States. (2) Mint Museum built at Charlotte.

(1) Women's project for making quilts, Raleigh, Wake County. (2) Weaving rugs, Durham County. (3) Women's sewing room project, Wake County.

(1) Making mattresses, Mecklenburg County. (2) Mattresses made in Mecklenburg County. (3) Tying nets, Carteret County. (4) Weaving rugs, Mecklenburg County. (5) Repairing household furniture, Mecklenburg County. (6) Building office equipment, Mecklenburg County.

(1) Completed mattress and rope springs made in Mecklenburg County. (2) Book repair and Library project at Negro College, Durham, Durham County. (3) Garment made in Mecklenburg County Sewing Room. (4) Chair making project, Black Mountain, Buncombe County. (5) Shoe repair shop, Mecklenburg County. (6) Negro Sewing Room, Raleigh, Wake County.

(1) Making baskets, New Hope Township, Iredell County. (2) Making axe handles, Mecklenburg County. (3) Finishing axe handles and bats in Mecklenburg County. (4) Bats and axe handles made in Mecklenburg County. (5) Children's playground equipment built in Mecklenburg County. (6) Harrows for use in Rural Rehabilitation program built in Mecklenburg County.

(1) Interior of the ERA Tannery at Old Fort, McDowell County. (2) Exterior of ERA Tannery at Old Fort, McDowell County.

(1) First aid on the job to injured workers. (2) Giving first aid at the project.

(1) Rural Rehabilitation clients harvesting wheat on community farm, Wake County. (2) Rural Rehabilitation clients harvesting wheat on community farm, Wake County. (3) Rural Rehabilitation clients harvesting wheat on community farm, Wake County.

ORGANIZATION CHART RURAL REHABILITATION DIVISION OF THE N.C. E. R. A.

(1) Rural Rehabilitation client plowing his field with mule purchased through the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation, Wilkes County. (2) Rural Rehabilitation client with horse and wagon purchased through the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation, Wilkes County. (3) A fine crop of beans, Rural Rehabilitation program, Buncombe County. (4) Rural Rehabilitation clients picking beans, Wake County. (5) Potato sprayer in operation on farm of a Rural Rehabilitation client, Alleghany County. (6) Cabbage field of a Rural Rehabilitation client, Buncombe County.

(1) Pastoral scene. (2) Hay grown and harvested by relief clients. (3) Tobacco grown, sun cured and stored by relief families. (4) Canning vegetables grown by relief families. (5) Home gardens. (6) Relief client distributing fertilizer on his farm. (7) Home garden. (8) Outdoor canning. Vegetables grown by relief families.

NORTH CAROLINA
A comparison of the values of 13 principal field crops, canned vegetables and fruits, subsistence gardens, and meat, produced by Relief Families in the Farm and Garden Program in 1934.
Total estimated value of gardens, field crops, meat, etc. . . . .$6,750,775.25
Total estimated value of field crops grown by Administrative units. . . . .176,733.74

(1) Rural Rehabilitation clients harvesting Irish potatoes near Rocky Mount, Nash County. (2) Horse and colt belonging to Rural Rehabilitation client, Wake County. (3) Livestock of Rural Rehabilitation client, Durham County. (4) Tobacco crop of Rural Rehabilitation client, Durham County. (5) Rural Rehabilitation client with his peanut and corn crop, Edgecombe County. (6) Colt belonging to Rural Rehabilitation client, Edgecombe County.

(1) RR family with livestock purchased through the RRC, Iredell County. (2) RR client feeding his chickens, Carteret County. (3) RR client plowing fields with steer purchased through RRC, Jones County. (4) A typical RR family, Iredell County. (5) RR client and mare purchased through RRC, Wilkes County. (6) RR family and livestock purchased through RRC, Iredell County. (7) RR client and steer purchased through the RRC, Iredell County

(1) Tenant house before purchase by Rural Rehabilitation Corporation, Wake County. (2) Same house remodeled for RR client. (3) Home Economics supervisor teaching canning in RR homes, Mecklenburg County. (4) Home remodeled for RR family, Stokes County. (5) Cabbage grown by RR client, Carteret County. (6) Cash crop--cotton grown by RR client, Craven County.

(1) Stallion belonging to Rural Rehabilitation client, Magnolia Farm, Tyrrell County. (2) Part of the beef cattle herd on Magnolia Farm, Tyrrell County.

(1) Beale Johnson Rural Rehabilitation farm, showing bridge over the dam and the grist mill, Wake County. (2) View of lake, Beale Johnson Rural Rehabilitation farm, Wake County. (3) Temporary house built by Rural Rehabilitation Corporation for Rural Rehabilitation client, Perquimans County. (4) Part of canned vegetables and fruit grown and canned by Rural Rehabilitation client on Magnolia farm, Tyrrell County. (5) Sweet potato crop of a Rural Rehabilitation client in Durham County. (6) Sweet potato and corn crops of a Rural Rehabilitation client in Durham County.

(1) Farm of Rural Rehabilitation client, Wake County. (2) A Rural Rehabilitation family enjoying their watermelons, Edgecombe County. (3) First Rural Rehabilitation colt born on Magnolia farm, Tyrrell County. (4) Wheat field of Rural Rehabilitation client ready for harvest, Wake County. (5) Rural Rehabilitation client with his mule and corn crop, Craven County. (6) Rural Rehabilitation client with cotton and corn crops on Tillery Farm, Halifax County. (7) Rural Rehabilitation mules in Wilson County.

(1) Mr. and Mrs. Dewey learned to write in ten lessons. (2) Young mothers in ERE parent-teachers class. (3) Student who says he "would not take anything for arithmetic he learned this winter." (4) Henry Treadway and specimen of his writing. He reached three grades in ERE school. (5) ERE teachers in training classes at Boone. (6) Student and her baby. (7) Family group of adult students. (Specimen of writing--Mrs. Seboch learned to write in ten lessons. (8) Young man who is crippled and could not attend public school. Has learned to read and write. (9) Children treated in ERE school clinic. (10) Group in home making class. (11) Group of students with their children.

Typical ERE night school students who received certificates at ERE Commencement Exercises, Asheville, June 1, 1935. (1) Student and her family. This mother received certificate in Group No. 3. (2) Group of students in attendance at graduating exercises. (3) Distinguished speakers at Commencement. (4) Two students who attended Commencement. (5) Group of students who attended Commencement. (6) Three thousand students in attendance at Commencement Exercises.

(1) Rest period at nursery school in Durham, Durham County. (2) ERE kindergarten in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County. (3) Nursery school in Transylvania County. (4) School lunch room in Durham County.

ERE students and some of the articles they learned to make in homemaking classes. (1) Mother of three children who completed course in Group No. 3. (2) Mother and daughter. Mother attended school regularly, completed course in first group. (3) Young mother who completed course in Group No. 3. (4) Student who had attended high school before going to night school. (5) Deputy Sheriff of Buncombe County presenting captured copper whiskey still to ERE teacher. (6) Articles made by ERE students from copper still pictured above.

(1) Christmas toys made by transients and Christmas tree for Negro relief children. Raleigh Transient Center. (2) Distributing the presents at Transient Center. Toys made and tree decorated by transients.

(1) The poultry yard at the New Hope Transient Farm, Chatham County. (2) Sawmill at New Hope Transient Farm. Cutting lumber for construction work. (3) Livestock barns and livestock at New Hope Transient Farm. (4) Clearing underbrush in fields at New Hope Transient Farm. (5) Farming operations at New Hope Transient Farm. (6) The dining hall and barracks at New Hope Transient Farm.

Ice Plant, Refrigerating and Cold Storage, Processing—Offices—Fishermen's Recreation Rooms, Warehouse, Garages.

Docks at Rear of Buildings

(1) Stockyards built for handling drought cattle in Raleigh. (2) Drought cattle in ERA stockyards, Goldsboro. (3) Meat cannery in New Bern, Craven County. (4) Workers processing meat in New Bern cannery. (5) Cans of meat prepared from drought cattle.

(1) ERA abattoir at New Bern, Craven County. (2) ERA abattoir at Hamlet, Richmond County.

(1) Cutting meat for canning in ERA cannery. (2) Interior ERA meat cannery.

(1) Packed dried milk, Forsyth County. (2) Prepared dried milk for shipment, Forsyth County. (3) Sealing bags of dried milk, Forsyth County.

(1) Relief clients at work in beet field. (2) Relief clients at work in okra field. (3-4) Preparing vegetables for canning. (5) Canned products and food products ready for distribution to relief clients. (6) ERA commodity storeroom.

SOCIAL SECURITY SURVEY
OF
EMERGENCY RELIEF CASES
COVERED BY THE FEDERAL SOCIAL SECURITY ACT
STATE TOTAL
FAMILIES WITH DEPENDENT CHILDREN
CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO REASON FOR DEPENDENCY