Arrived His Excellency Arthur Dobbs Esqre Governor &c:a of North Carolina at Charles Town; And on Monday the 3d arrived His Honour Francis Fauquier Esqre Lieut; Governor of Virginia; pursuant to Orders they had respectively received from His Majesty signified by His Principal Secretary of State to be present at a Congress appointed to be held by the Southern Governors with the Chickasaw, Chactaw, Creek, Cherokee and Catawba Indians at Augusta or elsewhere.
It was agreed to give Notice to His Excellency Governor James Wright of the Inconveniences attending a Journey by Land or
We take the earliest Opportunity after our being met together to give your Excellency Notice of it and this we look upon to be the more necessary since our conversing upon the subject of the future Congress has occasioned an alteration of the place of meeting. A Change in every respect so much more convenient to Us will, we flatter ourselves, not be otherwise to you, the distance will, we understand be the same and the accommodations no doubt better. It was the Intention of some of us to have gone up Savannah River by Water but the tediousness of that passage has deterred us as the difficulty if not impracticability of conveying ourselves and the necessary conveniences by Land has made us lay aside all Thoughts of this also. The Behaviour of some of the Indians to the King's Subjects and their ill disposition towards one another points out too the Propriety of assembling them at some Place where they will be under a greater Check & Controul than they would be in so stragling and ill settled a Place as Augusta but with regard to the Indians themselves we imagine the alteration will not be disagreeable. They were before apprized that Augusta was pitched upon because the Small Pox was in Carolina. That Disorder having long since ceased will be reason therefore sufficient to assign for the change of Place. The Chactaws, Chickesaws, and Catawbas are not at all likely to make objections. The Cherokees are extremely averse to going to Augusta and if the Creeks should entertain any Jealousy the Superintendant will no doubt be able to convince them that Nothing is intended by the Change of Place but to render the Meeting more commodious to the Governors some of which have already come a great way and will suffer unavoidably by proceeding farther. Captain Stuart will either lodge the Presents at Augusta or order them back again as may appear to him the most proper when he has sounded the Indians on this subject. We should have been glad if Time would have permitted to have known your Sentiments upon this Alteration but the day appointed draws so near that Captain Stuart thinks it proper toWe are with great regard &cTHOs BOONEARTHUR DOBBS.FRAN. FAUQUIER.JOHN STUART.His Ex: GOVr WRIGHT.
It was further agreed that Mr Stuart should proceed to Augusta and collect what Indians were there and conduct them to Dorchester.—
Agreed also that from a Representation that the Goods ordered up the River Savannah from the Lowness of it could not possibly arrive there and from a supposition that the Indians might be disgusted at not receiving the Presents in the usual manner and at the usual time the finishing of the Congress it was Agreed and accordingly Ordered that the said Goods should be stopped and ordered to Dorchester.
Resolved that Fenwick Bull be Secretary to the future Congress.
This day per the Scout Boat arrived a Letter from Governor James Wright in answer to that wrote to him of the 4th Inst: &ca and is as follows: vizt
Savannah in Georgia
8th Oct:ber 1763.
I have just received your's of the 4th inst: acquainting me with an intended Alteration of the Place of Meeting to hold the future Congress. The Change if to be in Charles Town is certainly more convenient and agreeable to you and it ever gives me pleasure when in executing any part of my duty I can do it in such manner as may be most agreable to those concerned. Tho' I must observe that the difficulties thrown in the way I conceive (on a Trial) wou'd not have proved so great as represented or imagined. The Place affords sufficient Houses plenty of Provisions and Accommodations of every kind tho' not so elegant as in Charles Town. As to any particular convenience or Inconvenience to myself I set thattys service interferes and altho' some very few of the Upper Creeks misbehaved lately yet I am fully persuaded the Meeting at Augusta would have been perfectly safe and all Parties secure from Danger. I wish the Creeks &ca may be prevailed on to proceed any further than Augusta but doubt very much whether they will. Mr Stuart in his letter to me does not mention the least difficulty or objection made by the Cherokees against Augusta but that they had received his Invitation with the greatest cordiality and joy And I should suppose the Chactaws and Chickesaws would have no objection to a saving of 300. Miles travelling You have omitted to mention the Place only in a Posteript say “The Indians will be ordered down to Dorchester” the time I presume is now uncertain but when you are pleased to inform me of that and the Place I shall certainly attend if Health permits. With respect to any reasons that may be given to the Indians or Directions about the Presents or my Sentiments on the Propriety of the Alteration it's needness of me to give any Opinion on Matters predetermined shall only say that I still think the King's intentions might be more effectually executed at AugustaI am &caJAMES WRIGHT.Their Ex:cies Thomas Boone
& Arthur Dobbs EsqreThe Honble Francis Fanquier Esqre
& John Stuart Esqre
Which letter being read in the presence of their Ex:cies Thomas Boone and Arthur Dobbs Esqre and the Honble Francis Fauquier Esqre the following answer was written, agreed to and dispatched by two opportunities.
Charles Town So Carolina 14th Oct:ber 1863.
We have this morning been favored with your letter of the 8th inst: upon which we think it just necessary to observe that Augusta its accommodations and security must have been misrepresented to us and besides that the getting there at all with the least degree of convenience to ourselves was scarce possible. Mr. Stuart might have omitted acquainting your Excy with the Disinclination of theth Instant which Govr Boone has received from Augusta says that none of the Upper Creeks will be there at the Congress. If this was their Resolution before the Place of Meeting was changed it looks as if they could not hope that their offences would be forgiven them: with regard to the Choctawas and Chickasaws, they are already on their Route; We all know that 2. or 300 Miles to an Indian when he is in expectation of either Rewards or Revenge and they frequently come that distance uninvited and upon an Incertainty. We before declared how agreeable it would have been to us to have consulted you upon the alteration if Time would have permitted; We now express our hopes that your arrival here or in Dorchester the Place appointed for the Congress will be as soon as possible that everything may be concerted previous to the coming of the Indians and we flatter ourselves that by the assistance we shall be able to give each other the King's Intentions will be executed faithfully effectually and with dispatch. We are with great regards &cTHOs BOONE.ARTHUR DOBBS.FRAN: FAUQUIER.His Excy Govr Jas: Wright.
This day a letter arrived by express from His Excy James Wright Esqre Govr &ca of Georgia. The underwritten is copy thereof.
Savannah in Georgia 11th October 1763.
Last night I received a letter sent by express from Augusta, informing me, that the Wolfe King has gone to Pensacola to make some demands relative to the ceded Lands and giving an accountr Stuart cannot prevail on the Creeks to proceed to Dorchester or Charles Town. My last by Joyner I wrote immediately on the Receipt of yours, on a supposition and in hopes that Mr Stuart might prevail with the Creeks to proceed down but on the Receipt of my letter last night I began to reflect more fully on the consequence of their refusing to go any further and the more I reflect on the critical situation of affairs with these Indians the more I am convinced of the danger that in all probability will attend their returning home disgusted. And I very much fear they will not go down to Dorchester. They are not in a situation or humour to follow Orders Nay I am apprehensive if they should hear of an Intention to carry them down to Charles Town They will not even come to Augusta. And therefore I have now wrote to Lieut; Barnard and Mr. McGalphin desiring them to give Mr Stuart their best assistance in the Affair. Gentlemen at a distance may not see or consider this matter in the Light it Strikes me And a Creek War may be as little felt in Virginia as the Northern Massacres are in this Province. Our Commisseration is of little service to those who feel and suffer even North and South Carolina would feel little or nothing of a rupture with the Creeks in comparison of this Province I must therefore consider this matter in a more serious Light than you may and it is to be presumed I am better acquainted with their Situation and our own than Gentlemen at a greater distance and His Majesty's Council are unanimously and clearly of opinion that should the Creek Indians refuse to go down to Charles Town and return back from Augusta displeased at this critical conjuncture it might be productive of the worse consequences to His Majtys service in general and the safety of this Province in particular. And therefore in order to prevent if possible the dangers that may attend their returning disgusted have advised me in case the Indians refuse to proceed to Charles Town to meet them at Augusta as the best if not the only method to prevent further Misunderstandings with them and to tys most gracious Intention and establishing Peace and Friendship with them on a more firm Basis.
This advice entirely coincides with my own opinion and I judge it altogether expedient for me to go up to Augusta to meet them in case they will not proceed to Charles Town and can be prevailed on to wait at Augusta.
I send a Person express to acquaint your Excies with this matter. If the Indians, in general go to Charles Town I shall attend the Congress there. If they will not go then it seems absolutely necessary for me to proceed to Augusta where I shall give them a Talk and proceed further with them according as I find them authorized by the Nation or not and as things may be circumstanced in which Mr Stuart may join if he pleases If this event should happen I doubt not but you will join in opinion that a Proportion of the Presents His Majesty has been graciously pleased to send out on this occasion will be necessary to give them. I have sent an Express to Augusta and wrote to Mr Stuart on the subject. The Bearer has orders to wait a day for any commands you may have.I am &caJAS: WRIGHT.Their Excies Thos Boone &
Arthur Dobbs Esqrs &The Honble Fran: Fauquier Esqre
And P: M: Horā 4:ta the following answer was sent by the said Express.
Chas Town. So Carolina October 15th 1763.
We are this moment favoured with your Letter of the 11th by Express and after having seriously considered it find no fresh Intelligence than what our Letter of yesterday observed upon nor conceive a difficulty or objection to be started by the Creeks against coming to Dorchester but what may and according to our Information will be urged by the Cherokees against their going to Augusta this in great measure induced us to change the Place appointed. The Superintendant who is supposed to know the disposition of Indians in general and from whom we are supposed to receive the Information regarding them so far from advancing reasons against concurred in the Alteration of Place and we have nor Stuart since he left this place so that at present we may presume he sees no furthur objection tho' apprized of all Indian Intelligence We send him a Copy of your Letter that when acquainted with your doubts he may be more attentive to remove every suspicion or umbrage.We are with great regard &caTHOS: BOONE.ARTHUR DOBBS.FRAN: FAUQUIER.
At the same time it was agreed to write to John Stuart Esqre and is as follows.
Charles Town 15th Oct:ber 1763.
We inclose you a copy of a letter we have wrote this morning in answer to one received from Govr Wright which is also sent you the Sight of both will be a clue to you how to conduct yourself in the removing every Umbrage that may have been taken by or given to the Creeks we depend on your using your utmost Influencer Wright to cooperate with you It is a material part of your Duty to discover and prevent the ill effects of private Tamperings & Insinuations thrown out to Indians and to take care as far as you are able that they listen to nothing but what is to be said to them by the Persons appointed by the King You will no doubt set the coming of the two distant Governors in its full light and force and that the sentiments of four Provinces will be upon this occasion communicated to them publicly solemnly and in presence of one another that every Nation may be apprized of the King's gracious Intention towards them.We are, Sir,
Your most humble servtsTHOS: BOONE.ARTHUR DOBBSFRAN: FAUQUIER.John Stuart Esqre
Southern Indian affairs at Augusta.
Yesterday in the evening arrived an Express from John Stuart Esqre superintendent &c: with the following letter &c: &c:
Fort Augusta 15. Oct: 1763.
I got to this Fort the 11th current where I found no other Indians than about sixty Catawbas including Women and Children who had been here about two days before my arrival on the 13th in the morning I received a letter by express from Lieutenant Taylor dated the 10th referring me to the intelligence contained in the inclosed letter to your Excellency and which I imagine contains full Accounts of what passes in that Nation I likewise send a Duplicate of the Talk sent here from the Lower Creeks by the Messenger of whom Mr Campbell wrote you with Lieutenant Barnard's answer by which your Excellency and the other governors will be able to judge of their Temper and which gave me bad hopes of success in endeavouring to persuade them to go further.
Yesterday in the morning the Upper Creek Warrior Mustisiqua with the second man of the Tuquabachies and a number of their followers came here with them were the Leader of the Chickasaws Paya Matta one considerable leading man of the Chactaw Nation called Red Shoes and about Twenty Chickasaws of Note and their Followers Colbert who had arrived some days before them informed me that his reception in the Chactaw Nation had been most friendly that many of the most considerable amongst them had determined to accompany him down but upon receiving news that two of their people were killed by the Creeks none thought proper to venture except this Red Shoes Colbert adds that the Treatment which he and the Chickasaws received in their way through the Creek Nation was extremely insolent and had made those Indians extremely anxious to return home Accordingly they pressed me much to dispatch them I invited them to come to the Fort this day with the Catawbas and Creeks I acquainted them with the alteration of the Place of Meeting proposed and the reasons for it The Chickasaw Leader said he had come a great way upon my invitation and found himself disappointed that he was too much tired to go any further and should return without taking anything amiss as such accidents were often not to be avoided that he was [glad] he had seen me and when ever he should promise me anything I might depend upon meeting with no disappointment. The next who spoke was the second man of the Creeks who said that he had come punctually at the time and to the place of appointment and expected to have seen the Governors that it was their hunting season when they should have been in the woods providing for their Families but that their time was taken up in this visit which they should not think lost if I would deliver the King's talk to them and dispatch them immediately that several of their own People had promised to attend the meeting who were not come but that it seemed to be the present prevailing custom for men to speak with two tongues I repeated the reasons for altering the Place of Meeting which I enlarged upon as much as the subject would admit and desired they would let me know after considering the affair maturely whether or not they would go to Dorchester they did not hesitate a moment but possitively refused to go one step further I then asked if they would stay here till the return of a messenger I should send to the Governors This with great difficulty the Creeks
I find it absolutely impracticable to satisfy these Indians now here with allowance of Provisions stipulated by Sir Jeffry Amherst they have always been used to a very different Treatment and such an innovation introduced by me would give a very unfavourable impression of me at my first Entrance on the Execution of my Office besides they would be disgusted and would probably go off which I would by all possible means avoid till I am made acquainted with the determination of yourself and the other Governors it being the general opinion of People here that in such an Event a Creek War would immediately take place and by the Intelligence I can procure I think it probable they are right.
Matters being in this situation I have not sent any directions for the Boats with the Presents to return because that may be done in sufficient time after the return of the Express for them to be at Dorchester if any Congress do take place there. I have the honour of being with the greatest respect.Sir
most obedient and most
humble servantJOHN STUART.His Excellcy
Thos Boone Esqre
Copy of the Lower Creeks Talk alluded to in Mr Stuart's Letter.
Sepr 16th 1763.
We Headmen of the Lower Creeks have heard bad Talks and are desirous to hear the Truth when we were young Men the Governor of Charles Town always spoke good and friendly to us and told us that the path should be strait and white to the Nation and it is our desire it should so continue and to let the Governors see our good Intentions We Headmen of the Lower Towns will still hold the English fast by the hand It is the Great God above that gave us the knowledge so to do. We have heard a word amongst us which has put us in a Fright and don't know what to do till we hear the truth we were intending down to Augusta till this news came up amongst us for we saw the Great King's Talk and it was a very good one; We all got together to hear it and agreeable to the White Peoples desire we intended to go down, it was not we Lower Towns only that were sent for it was all the English Friends the Upper Towns do not intend to go down and we are afraid that if only the Lower Towns go we might be detained till the Upper Towns came down and thereby might lose our Horses. These three Rivers are all one People and the Upper Towns do not want to go down but we dont throw away the White People's Talk and we desire the Governors to send us word whether we Lower Towns may be dispatched when we go down When the Governors see this Talk they may consider and think that we have some Reason for not coming down at the time appointed it seems you keep your Talk very private but there is nothing to be hid from the Red People there was a Red Man from the Tuckabackers went
Indian Ellick. Cusselaws Hoyanny Chehaws White Cabbin Do War King Do Scotch Man Cusselaws.
Lieut: Barnard's Talk to Captain Ellick, Hoyanny, White Cabbin, War King, Scotch Man and other Head Men and Warriors of the Lower Creek Towns.
The Talk you sent by Saml Thomas and one of your own people I shall forward to the Governors by the first opportunity but as you require an answer forthwith I acquaint you that there is not one word of Truth in what you have heard you have seen the Great King's Talk and say its a good one hold fast by that and you will have nothing to fear the Great King is desirous of making you a happy People and the Governors and Beloved Man who are to meet you at Augusta invite you with all their other Friends and Brothers of the Red People to convince you of his good Intentions and not to ask for your Lands they dont want any of your Lands you see it is the Great King's Talk that you shall keep your Lands and you may rely on his word he never alters.
You'll soon be convinced when you see the Governors and Beloved Man at the Meeting that they only want to brighten the chain of Friendship with their Friends and Brothers the Red People and to give them a few Presents to let them see that the Great King remembers his Red People as well as his White Children.
Continue in your first mind come down and see the Governors they will be here at the time appointed your hearts will be glad and you will return home with joy.
You must not give ear to such Talks they are made by bad designing People the White People will never throw you away but continue your fast friends for ever.From your Friend &c:Present.His Excellency THOMAS BOONEHis Excellency ARTHUR DOBBS &The Honble FRANCIS FAUQUIER.
Mr Stuart's Letter, Creeks Talk & Mr Barnard's reply being read the following Letter and Talk were agreed on and sent by an express in answer vizt.
Chas Town. 18th October 1763.
We last night received your Letter of the 15th instant and are sorry you met with any difficulty's in bringing the Indians down to Dorchester from your account we have little reason to suppose that the Congress will be general and if that is the case it cannot be so effectual as was intended but that we may be liable to no blame in spite of the inconveniences which present themselves on every side in spite of the impossibility which Kalteisen represents of getting a Waggon to Augusta We have resolved to set out as soon as possible and give you this information by Express that the Indians now there may wait with less impatience As those with you knew several Nations were to be invited could they think it probable that all would be punctual to the time The Cherokees were not at Fort Prince George the 10th and thō we must wait the return of Colonel Randolph's vessel we apprehend that some Indians will be after us at Augusta For the satisfaction of thoseAnd are Sir
your humble servantsTHOs BOONE.ARTHUR DOBBS.FRAN: FAUQUIER.John Stuart Esqre
We have detained Wm Kalteisen to conduct us to Augusta.
Copy of the Talk inclosed to Mr Stuart for the Indians at Augusta.
We the Governors to the Great King George of his colonies of South and North Carolina and Virginia entertained hopes of seeing our brothers of the Indian Nations at Dorchester in South Carolina there to brighten the chain of Friendship between the White and Red Men according to the directions we have received from the Great King our Common Father for that purpose which chain we are desirous to hold fast by one end and if you are inclined to lay strong hold on the other nothing hereafter will be able to break a single link of it and our Friendship will last as long as the sun shall shine or the Waters flow and to convince you that our Talk is strait and that we do not talk with double Tongues We are determined to set out to meet you at Augusta since you find the difficulties so great to come so near to Charles Town No difficulties can stop us the Great King's appointed Governors from executing his orders.
We have been informed of the evil News you have heard that the Governors intended to possess your Lands. We take this opportunity to assure you in the King's name that you have been misled by ignorant people who do not know the Great Kings Intention which has been communicated to us his officers. and that no such intention is harboured in the breast of any of us. The Great
We have sent this Talk previous to our coming but which we shall follow immediately to convince you of our sincerity and to induce you to remain at Augusta till our arrival that the Great King's Orders may be strictly complied with.THOs BOONE.ARTHUR DOBBS.FRAN: FAUQUIER.
Done at Chas To So Carolina 18th Oct: 1763.By their Excellencies command.Fenwicke Bull Secy
And then the undermentioned Letter was sent by Express to His Excellency Govr Wright.
Chas To So Carolina 18th Oct:ber 1763.
Having last night received a Letter from Mr Stuart mentioning the disinclination of the Indians now assembled at Augusta to proceed downwards to Dorchester that nothing may be wanting on our parts to fulfil his Majesty's directions We have agreed to set out for Augusta by Monday at farthest.
And as Mr Stuart informs us that you are apprized by Lieutenant Barnard of the Indians Resolution to come no farther we take it for granted we shall meet you at Augusta.We are with great regard
Sir your Excellency's
most obedient & most humble servantsTHOS: BOONE.ARTHUR DOBBS.FRAN: FAUQUIER.His Excellcy
James Wright Esqre
The Ways and Means to raise supplies to pay Contingencies such as Express &c: &c: being debated and duly considered the following Expedient was approved of as the ensuing Letter will more fully explain vizt
Chas To So Carolina 18th Oct: 1763.
We have this day drawn a Bill of Exchange on you for £100 Sterling at 30. days sight in favour of Robert Raper Esqre in consequence of your Letter of the 11th June to Governor Boone regarding the Indian Presents which arrived safe presuming that by this time you are in cash for their amount and that the residue of the money given for this service remains in your hands if we should be mistaken we beg you will present our Bills to the Secretary of State that they may be duly honoured for no other Method is pointed out to us how we should defray the contingencies of this Southern Congress.We are
your very humble servtTHOS: BOONEARTHUR DOBBS.FRAN: FAUQUIER.To
Mr Samuel Smith
Cheaton Street. London.
Excha £100 Stg.
Chas Town 18 Oct: 1763.
At thirty days sight pay this first of our Exchange (second and third of the same Tenor and Date not paid) to Robert Raper Esqre or his order the sum of one hundred pounds sterling being for value rec'd of him for the contingencies to the Southern Congress.We are
your honble servtsTHOS: BOONE.ARTHUR DOBBS.FRAN: FAUQUIER.To Mr Samuel Smith.
Which Bill being ordered to be sold the Secretary Fenwick Bull did sell the same to Mr Raper for £271. Currency the present price of Exchange and the said money was ordered to be vested in the hands of the said Fenwick Bull as Treasurer to enable him to answer contingent demands relative to this Southern Congress and that he be accountable for the same.
Arrived Colo Randolph from Georgia in the scout Boat and brought the following letter from His Excellency James Wright Esquire vizt
Savannah 18th Oct: 1763.
I had the honour to receive yours of the 14th inst: last night by Colo Randolph and another this morning by Joyner and had the Indians proceeded down to Dorchester I should have set off immediately for Charles Town in order to have contributed to the utmost of my power every thing that might appear necessary on the occasion but this morning I received Letters from Augusta in which Mr Stuart acquaints me “That after explaining to the Indians the motives that induced the Governors to alter the Place of Meeting he put the question whether or not they would proceed to Dorchester to which both the Chickesaws and Creeks answered flatly in the negative that he then desired to know if they would wait the return of an Express which he would immediately dispatch to the Governors which they also at first refused. But after much persuasion he had prevailed on them to wait the ten days at the Expiration of which time they will undoubtedly go away if none of the Governors get there.”
I am therefore to acquaint your Excellencies that agreable to what I wrote you in my last I shall proceed to Augusta instead of doing myself the pleasure of waiting upon you in Charles Town.I am with great regard
your Excellencies most obedient
and most humble servantJAMES WRIGHT.Their Excellencies
Arthur Dobbs &
the Honble Fran: Fauquier Esquires.
Fort Augusta 20th Oct: 1763.
Last night I was honoured with your Excellencies Letter of the 15th current enclosing a copy of Govr Wright's letter of the 11th and your Answer and before now Govr Boone must have received my letter of the 16th by express in which I fully informed him of my transactions with the Indians and of their absolute refusal to proceed to Dorchester The Lower Creeks and Cherokees will be here this day being only a few miles off. The Upper Creeks of whom a considerable number are here remain firm in their determination to proceed no farther into the Settlements and their resolution will determine the Chickasaws. A regard to your Excellencies conveniency induced me to acquiese in your proposal of altering the place of meeting and to use my utmost endeavours to reconcile the Indians to that measure althō I then expressed a doubt of being able to prevail on the Creeks to proceed further into the Settlements. Having had no intelligence from the Upper Creeks Chactaws and Chickasaws or answer to the invitation I sent them on the part and by order of the King to meet your Excellencies and me upon the special service we have in charge I could not be certain of success and I did not doubt but your Excellencies had resolved on the measures to be pursued by you in case of a disappointment I am conscious of having done my duty by endeavouring to remove their Jealousies and using every argument that occured to me to induce them to proceed if the Indians be privately tampered with (which I suspect) it must be by the Traders the very Channel thrō which I am obliged to converse with them my best endeavours to engage the good offices of the Traders on this occasion have and shall not be wanting but my Influence may possibly to very insufficient for as matters are now situated.
They have nothing either to hope or fear from my authority as superintendent but perhaps Mr Wright's endeavours may be more efficacious and I learn that he is soon expected.
Upon the whole as I shall use all possible means to accomplish what I came about If I fail I hope to be free from censure and blame.I have the honour of being with the greatest respect
humble servantJOHN STUART.Their Excellencies
Thos: Boone. Arthur Dobbs
& the Honble Fran: Fauquier Esqre
P. S. The Cherokees are just arrived. I am sorry to hear that a Boat with some Presents on board her is sunk in this River. I send down two boats to lighten the rest which are said to be deep loaded which however shall not prevent any Directions you may think fit to send relative to the Presents being complied with.
Fort Augusta 23rd Octber 1763.
On the 21st late at night I had the honour of receiving your Excellencies letter of the 18th inst: I am sorry to acquaint you that my endeavours to carry the Indians to Dorchester have proved unsuccessful the Creeks and Chickesaws will not think of going one step farther of the Upper Creeks there are now here about seventy including some women there will be a few from the Lower Towns of that Nation who are now at Mr Galphins.
Agreable to your Excellencies desire I went yesterday to the Creek Camp where I convened the Chickesaws Catawbas and the Chactaw King. I delivered to them your Excys Talk and having waited some time desired to know their answer They told me they had no particular answer to give that they had heard your Talk and should think of it I was surprised at the indifferent dissatisfied behaviour of the Creeks but I soon after discovered the cause the Interpreter came to me in less than an hour after I left them and acquainted me that all the Creeks were setting out on their return home one of their Nation who for many years had resided in the Chickesaw Camp near this Place went to his Countrymen yesterday in the morning and told them that we had determined to take revenge for the late Murders committed by the Mortars and that some particular People amongst them were pitched upon as the
The Indians being perpetually going and coming I cannot be exact as to Numbers but think there are 500. or more including the Lower Chickesaws.
If your Excys have any particular commands I shall with the greatest chearfulness execute them being with the greatest respectGentlemen
most obt and most
humble servantJOHN STUART.Their Excys Tho:
Dobbs and the Honble
Fran: Fauquier Esqrs
Copy of Mr Colberts Journal as inclos'd in the Superintendant's Letter to the Govrs vizt
Augusta 13th July 1763.
I set out with an Express to the Upper Creeks Chactaws and Chickasaws.
19th I arrived in the Okehoys and called all the Head Men of the Upper Creeks together and was well treated there by pointing their Guns at me.
23rd I set out from the Chactaw Nation on the way I met with Mr John Buckles & three Chactaws one of which went back with me.
29th I arived in the Chactaw Nation and on my arrival I called all the Headmen of the Chactaws together and there delivered my message. But none of the Headmen of the French party would come to hear it: The Talk was very agreable to them of the English Party and they all with one consent agreed to come down.
Augst the 3rd I arrived in the Chickasaw Nation (Two days before my arrival there) there came a Chactaw Fellow from the Brud Camp giving an accot that the Creeks had killed the Chactaw that went to the Brud Camp with Mr Buckles and that he the same Fellow narrowly made his escape. Four Chickasaws that had been at War and having strayed from the rest of their gang came on a Camp of People and killed three French men and two English women and took a Negro Boy alive.
5th I had Talk with the Headman of the Chickasaws and they were all agreed thereto
12th A Runner came to me from the Chactaws and acquainted me that none of them would go down on account of the Creeks being at War with them.
13th This day I sent a Runner back and on the 22d I received an answer that none of them would go down by reason of the Creeks killing one of their People and threatening destruction to them all and that if they should go down it might be a detriment to their Brethren the Chickasaws for which reason they referred it and concluded to go to war to take satisfaction for the man they lost.
25th News came from the Creeks that three White Men were killed and all their Goods taken and that the Mortar threatened to Kill every White Man that should come up to the Chickasaw Nation.
28th A Headman came from the Chactaws and desired the Chickasaws to act for them as they would for themselves and the Chactaws would stand to everything or proposal the same as if they themselves were present.
30th The Chickasaws held a Council whether it was proper for them to go down or no, and after five days deliberation they concludedth day of Sepber for their setting off.
Sept 17th I arrived at the Brud Camp and there met with very bad Talks hearing of the Creeks threatening to kill the Chickasaws.
23rd I set out from the Brud Camp.
25th I arrived in the Waukakoes with the Chickasaws and was well treated there.
29th I arrived in the Ockehoys with the Chickasaws and there I invited the Ockehoy King down. All the reason he had for his not coming was that the Governor would not send him a Negro Boy to mind his Stock while he came to see the Governor.
27th The Chickasaws had a Talk in Ockehoy Square giving very good talks and the Ockehoy King told the Chickesaws that if it was good talk that the Governors gave below it would be better times than ever has been But if bad talks he would not cut his Land in pieces and give it away to the White People for nothing.
Wednesday 2d Nov. 1763.
Arrived at Fort Moore on Savannah River in the Province of South Carolina their Excellencies Thomas Boone, Arthur Dobbs and the Honble Fran: Fauquier Esqrs &c: &c: &c: from Charles Town when their Excellencies sent over to Augusta to His Excellency Governor Wright to inform him of their arrival and that they proposed to meet him the next day at the King's Fort Augusta at 10 o'clock in the morning to proceed to Business.
And His Excellency Governor Wright by return of the said Messenger informed their Excellencies of his readiness to meet them agreable to their Proposal.
Augusta in Georgia. Nov. 3d Hora 10.PresentHis Exy James Wrigh.His Exy Arthur Dobbs.His Exy Thos Boone.The Honble Fran: Fauquier Esqres
With John Stuart Esqr Superintendant &c of Southern Indian affairs.
When a Talk was prepared agreed on and ordered to be engrossed and the several Instructors were ordered to inform the respective Indians that the Congress would be opened the next day being friday the 4th at 10 o'clock in the morning.
And at which time the Governors attended to give their Talk but the Upper Creeks having a desire to consult the Lower Creeks requested that it might be postponed till Saturday the 5th at the same hour and place.
Which delay however extraordinary, as they were only to hear, they were notwithstanding gratified in.
Total number of Indians about 700.
And they being sworn Colo Ayres the Catawba Chief was allowed to interpret for his nation.
The Conference was opened by Govr Wright in consequence of its being in his own Province. He observed to the Indians that the day was fair and hoped that the Talks would not prove otherwise That the several Governors had pitched upon Capt Stuart to deliver their sentiments that they were agreed upon the declarations to be made to the Indians and desired them to pay attention to what Mr Stuart uttered as they were the words of all the Governors And each respective Governor for himself desired the Indians to look upon what Mr Stuart said as said by the respective Governor himself Mr Stuart accordingly begun as follows
Friends and Brothers,
We are come here in the name and by the command of the Great King George who under God the Master and Giver of Breath is your and our Common Father and Protector.
The Talk you are now to hear is from the Great King and ordered to be delivered to you by four Governors of different Provinces and the Superintendant who is equally connected with all for this reason he is pitched upon to be our mouth.
Our words our hearts our intentions are the same. As our respective Provinces join together so are our interests inseparable.
No Conference was ever intended to be more general none more friendly.
This is not a partial Meeting of one Nation of Indians with one Governor but the Great Kings good disposition towards his red children is to be communicated to you in the presence of one another.
His goodness is as extensive as the Dominions he possesses At a time when he has nothing to apprehend from any enemies he opens his arms to receive his red children and he does it the rather at this juncture as he knows the insinuations and Falsehoods which have been formerly circulated among you by the perfidious and cruel French.
We desire you to recollect in how many instances they have misled and deceived you, you will remember their lies and have been the dupes of their promises.
They are never easy unless engaged in mischief themselves or when engaging others. Incapable of supplying your wants they endeavor to detach you from your best and only friends the English.
The great King who wishes to extend the commerce of his subjects to live in Peace and Friendship and relieve the distress of all Mankind bore with uncommon patience the repeated insults and excessive cruelties which the French alone could perpetrate. To cruelty they added Treachery and Perfidy. Fair speeches were in their mouths but mischief in their hearts and when they did not act openly themselves they deceived and instigated the Red People to outrages which could only end in separating them from the White People with whom they ought for the advantage of both to be united.
At length when the Great King saw his moderation disregarded his children plundered and destroyed and that the French were resolved to contend with him for superiority that one Country in short could not hold them both he then exerted himself like a man and in a short time defeated and humbled that perfidious enemy and also the Spaniards who by the fatal and mischievous Practices of the French had been involved in the quarrel.
The King has now given Peace to both nations and to prevent the revival of such disturbances and troubles by repetition of such dangerous proceedings and for this purpose only he insisted in the Treaty of Peace that the French and Spaniards should be removed beyond the River Missisippi that the Indians and White People may hereafter live in Peace and brotherly Friendship together.
It will be your Faults if this does not happen for we are authorized by the Great King to give you the most substantial Proofs of our good intentions and desire to live like Brothers with you.
If you bring the same Friendly disposition what can you desire more than the repetition of the assurances already given you by the King's orders with regard to your Lands which we now from our hearts confirm.
Do we not act like Friends & Brothers when we declare that all past offences shall be buried in oblivion and forgiveness & this we do because we are persuaded that the French imposed on your credulity & deceived you.
Do you wish for anything more than to be plentifully supplied with goods by the White People who alone can supply you this we promise you but it must also depend on yourselves for those Nations where Traders reside must provide for their security or no man will stay with them.
Besides this we engage as far as we can for ourselves and those under our controule to manifest an attention to your Interests and a readiness to do you justice upon all occasions.
Lastly we promise you faithfully and solemnly that those Forts now ceded to us by the French shall be employed for your Protection assistance and convenience and for the better carrying on Trade with you by which we all shall be benefitted.
Consider now likewise men whether this is the language of ill designing people whether there is any occasion at this time to make you such friendly assurances unless it was our intention to keep our words.
The White People value themselves on speaking Truth but to give still greater weight to what we say the Great King has thought proper as we observed before that his four Governors and the Superintendant from a great distance should utter the same words at the same time and to remove every Umbrage or Jealousy that you should all hear them in Presence of one another in case we should ever hereafter act contrary to our declarations.JAMES WRIGHT.ARTHUR DOBBS.THOs BOONE.FRAN: FAUQUIER.JOHN STUART.
Given at Fort
Augusta in the
Province of Georgia
5th Nov: 1763, by
order of their Excys.
Fenwicke Bull, Secy.
His Excy James Wright informed the other Governors that if their Secretary Fenwicke Bull was in want of an assistant to copy Talks or any business relative to the congress he had with him an able Gentlemen Mr Box Secretary for Indian Affairs in his Province of Georgia and he was for the sake of dispatch employed accordingly.
And then the Congress was adjourned to Monday the 7th of Nov:ber Hora 11ma at which time the Indians promised to give their Talks.
The Talks of the Chickesaw, Upper & Lower Creeks Chactaw Cherokee & Catawba Indians to their
The Honble Fran: Fauquier Esqre Lieut: Govr of Virginia and John Stuart Esqre Agent and Superintendant of Southern Indian Affairs at Fort Augusta the 7th & Tuesday the 8th November 1763.
James Colbert Interpreter for the Chickesaws. Pia Matta a Chickesaw Leader delivered himself to the following effect: That he had been a long time and would give his Talk first and then give leave to the Creeks That the day was at length come on which he hoped to see his dearly beloved Brother of Charles Town and also the other Governors And now the day has come he will give his Talk that he is come to return thanks for the services already done them and says that if it had not been for the assistance of their Excellencies he should not have been here at this time He was the man that sent Express when in want of things and is ready to give any Proofs of his attachment to the English you must not look on him as on other Indian Nations for he is true and trusty He and his are few but faithful that he has no fault to find as none have been found with them That we of late heard of no Mischief being done by the Chickesaw that he looks on the White People and them as one That they are as good Friends as if they had sucked one breast Althō his skin is not white his heart is so and as much so as any White man—He has now done on that subject and and will proceed to something else.
He wants not to imitate other Indian nations and declares he cannot do without the White People and that he believes it is the same case with all the Red People he cannot find out the reason why other People are not as he is he leaves it to the Governors to find it yet he will give his sentiments vizt He and every one with him are of opinion that so many White men being among the Indians as Traders is the occasion thereof and he thinks in time it may be his case to act like other Red People the great number of Traders create disturbances between the Red and the White People He has a very great regard for the White People but they have not for one another. This is from his heart and he hopes to be believed The young People may become outrageous and mischief be done because
Which request being considered he was desired to proceed and he should have an answer to the whole at once He then went on as follows vizt Many White People go through his Towns to trade with the Chactaws He wou'd not have the whole stopped the number only lessened And upon his being asked what number would be sufficient to supply his own Towns He replied High Rider and John Brown were enough and he desired no more.
Pouchymatyhad the second Man of the Chickesaws then said it is not out of any Ill will to other Traders but that the two above mentioned have always been with them He is heartily glad to see his Brothers here in good health and that he only reminded his brother Pia Matta relative to the above two Traders.
Creeks talk. Stephen Forrest Interpreter. Captain Ellick for the Upper and Lower Creeks delivered himself thus: He is glad to see you all here and having received a good talk will now give his vizt
It is not his own speech but of the whole nation put into his mouth by them the Talk is much the same as formerly given there is no need of variation all the Headmen Upper and Lower have given their Talk and heard that of the Governors with satisfaction and as for the Absentees of the Creeks they have sent word they will abide by the Proceedings of those Present.
Formerly they had a good Talk from the great King George and such shall always remain with them that the Lower Towns were always well inclined and as for the White People he desires they may remain quiet amongst them.
Telletcher the second Creek then declared that the Red People were formerly ignorant but God Almighty and the King of England had made them otherwise, and proposed that the Lands above the Rocks should remain unsettled and that the Line between the White People and the Indians hunting grounds should run from the Rocks down to Savannah River and the other way from the saidr Galphin's Cow Pen from thence to the Lower Ford on Ogeechy River near the Settlement of one Lambert and from thence to cross to Santa Sevilla to the Alatamaha River.
Little River by no means to be settled but from thence——— He talks nothing but good Talks and hopes none others will That the Children in the Place described may grow up and flourish. The White People may settle the inside of the River St Johns to Augustine.
St Johns (a Marsh) the Spaniards only possessed the English must not exceed the same Bounds as from thence is their Hunting Grounds he has described the Bounds of the Lands to the White People and hopes they will make no Encroachments upon them.
And then Capt Ellick said that the Lands he was settled upon were run out and as the Governor of Georgia knew nothing of it he desires to know from the four Governors the Reasons of it.
Then Telletsher said that no settlements should be made by the White People at Pensacola but within the ebbing and flowing of the Tide.
Mobile to be settled in the same manner the Tide to determine the Line.
The path shall be kept open to the traders that are peaceable of the Brud (or Chickesaw) Nation he is very glad to see the Governors and gives a good Talk and hopes it will be received as such.
Sampiaffi or Fool Harry then said as the Governors had heard the rest of his Nation he hoped they would hear him and then desired them not to suffer any People to trade in the woods but to go into the Towns to Trade no Rum to be sold to the Indians in the woods because the young People there got drunk and disposed of their Skins for that Commodity and so were unable to pay their Debts to the Traders in the Nation which frequently occasioned Quarrels and Mischief among them. He speaks boldly before the Whites and Red and that the Reds often send Runners for Rum which he desires may be prevented and if the Governors will not forewarn the White People he will not kill them but he will take all they have from them and ask if they are French or Spaniards.
The Young Twin said his Father was a Great Man he behaved well, when he died the White People thought proper to deceive him 8. years since and none but bad Talks have been since then
Mico Hatkee a Coweta King informed that his brother died on the Path and that he went to Savannah and Governor Wright gave him a Commission which he produced.
Mustisiqua having declared to the same effect finished the Creeks Talk.
Colbert Interpreter for the Chactaws. Red Shoes the Chactaw Leader declared he was a new friend his Talk is not long and he hopes t'will be accepted. The invitation sent up by the four Governors and the Great King was received chearfully and intended to be complied with by the whole nation but an Accident happened on the path which prevented their coming down He is now come to affirm his attachment he always was faithfull the Peace between him and the Chickesaws and him hath been faithfully Keep. Now he wants his nation to be under the English as well as other Red People and as a proof of his sincerity anything required of their Nation he will to the utmost of his power comply with.
Watts Interpreter for the Cherokees.
Judd's Friend desires he may be listened to this is the day appointed as well by the Great Being above as by the Governors he is now as well with his Red Brothers as the White People and desires the Governors and Captain Stuart may see the Testimonial the Great King George presented to him in England he hath and always will take care of the same (which Testimonial is a Certificate of his having been at the Peace of Williamsburg in Virginia and obtained leave to go home to England in a Man of War was graciously received there and sent back again in a ship of War).
And then the Prince of Choti said now you Governors are all here and Captain Stuart he desires you will all smoke and then he will give his Talk and when they had all smoked with him he proceeded and said now you beloved Men are met together he is a beloved Man as well as you he knows nothing that may happen the Being above only knows, he has a house at Choti where the beloved talks are made and all the Warriors may hear he has made a Path from Choti to the English he hopes nothing will ever spoil it he gave a string a Beads with three knots and said the middle knot
As we came along many of the Warriors of the Valley were at a loss to know what the Invitation meant and they have sent beads to be informed. He has but one Tongue and hopes that there will be none but good Talks he has lost overhills men and lower Towns yet he hopes the children now will grow up in peace. Gives a String of Beads.
It is very rare at this Town to see any Goods brought amongst them which distresses them much he expects to see Goods brought amongst them that they may purchase with their Skins &c As his People
He is now to beg leave that a Trade may be carried on over the mountains and a price set on the goods some people did come from Virginia but had exorbitant prices and got their Skins almost for nothing they being in distress he took little notice then as he was soon to see you he did not know but that the Governors had given such orders as respected the prices but as he was present before the Governors he wanted the matter cleared up and he (Attakullakulla) gave a Talk to the several Nations of Indians vizt.
He has now met all the Red People of various Nations and will now give his Talk to them. He has heard a many Lies from the Coersaws and that way but he is now intending to make the Path straight he says the Governors by the Great King's Orders sent for them all together and not to dwell together in enmity but like friends and brothers.
He desires all people here will remove Blocks that may obstruct the Path to and from Choti he says the beloved Headman of Choti sits under a White Flag and wishes to preserve it from Blood and any one who may make it otherwise will be found out He says in the Spring of the year some of his People and Hunting were killed among the Creeks (not by desire of the beloved men) but it will be no more thought on as he hopes they will not be guilty of the like again he or his people bear no ill will to the Southward Indians but the Northward Indians are troublesome when any mischief is done they are always sure to find out who they are as a little bird always tells from the top of a Tree. He has no more to say but promises to Keep clean his Path in future aud hopes they will do the same.
Gave a String of Beads.
The Prince of Choti presented a pipe and some Tobacco as a Testimony of Friendship between the Cherokees and White People.
Captain Ellick (a Creek) mentioned the frequent stealing of horses by both the Creeks and White People and proposed the preventing it for the future.
Colo Ayres chief of the Catawbas said (in English) he always minds the White People the King George's Talk and four Governors are all good, to day all the people meet here, he hears all the Red people and the White right well and they Talk good (Gives a String of Beads) these are white beads all none black all for King George and the four Governors they all send a Talk a good Talk to the Red People he and his People are as White Men and is well pleased with what he has heard he did and will keep it to his heart he goes to sleep and rises but never loses the Talk of the White People The Catawbas and he are all of one mind. All the Indians that are now good their children should be suffered to grow up he has very little to say he lives among the White People and came to hear the Talks of Others he holds fast his commission receives none from the French and in consequence of his commission from his Brethren the White People he came to hear the Talks of others.
He informed the Governors his Land was spoilt he had lost a great deal both by scarcity of Buffalos and Deer they have spoiled him 100. Miles every way and never paid him his hunting Lands formerly extended to Pedee Broad River &c but now is driven quite to the Catawba Nation if he could kill any deer he would carry the meat to his Family and the skins to the White People but no Deer are now to be had he wants 15. miles on each side his Town free from any encroachments of the white People who will not suffer him to cut Trees to build withal but keep all to themselves.
After having finished his Talk to the Governors he presented Strings of White Beads to each of the Nations of Indians in which he desired them to observe there was not one black one amongst them and that he presented them as tokens of the Friendship he professed for them all and which he desired might continue.
Present Their Excellencies the Governors Superintendant Interpreters Indians &ca as at the Congress yesterday The Reply to the Indians requiring more time than was expected the Governors informed them that it should be delivered the next day being the 9th at 11 o'clock in the morning. But in the mean time if any of the Tribes of Indians had any thing to add to their former Talks the Governors were ready to hear them, when Ellick a Creek
Second Creek added as the King had been so good to forgive and give them a good Talk he is in hopes the children will grow up without interruption on either side there is a Road to Charles Town and the Line of Ogeechy is the Line for the White people to grow between. And then Ellick resumed and said to prevent any further disturbances the Upper Part of the Ogeechy's shall be the hunting grounds beneath that free for the White People. First when this Country was settled Savannah River was the Boundary and any Negro Horse &c that strayed beyond the same was returned as a Gratuity formerly agreed upon. But now the Ogeechy is the Boundary any Negro Horse Cattle &c that exceeds such bounds he declares openly and in the presence of all the Governors he will seize and keep.
They were then reminded that the Gratuity formerly offered for returning such negros &c subsisted upon which they agreed to comply with the Terms.
Attakullakulla or the little Carpenter, by Watts the Interpreter said many White People are assembled here and he is very glad to see them White People are settled beyond the long Canes they may stay there but must proceed no farther the White People and his are as one and when they meet in hunting good behaviour may be by and between both. The Lands towards Virginia must not be settled nearer the Cherokees than the Southward of New River Hunting is their Trade and they have no other way of getting a living.
Gave a string of Beads.
Now he is before the Governors he desires they will order Traders to his Town there is a plentifull store at Keowee but it is a long way from him and it is very hard work to carry Leather over the Mountains and a long way for the women to fetch any small matter he desires good Traders staid Men, not rioting Fellows who commit disturbances 8. Traders will be sufficient and to have them placed in the Towns.
Gave a String of Beads & Wampum.
He desired to have Traders sent him from Virginia when he was desired to explain whether he did not address the four Governors he replied that one or more Traders might come from each therefore he addressed the four Governors and as King George had ordered him Goods he hoped the Governors would send them accordingly.
He has now done and will be glad to be on his journey home as soon as their Excellencies please to dispatch him.
Salui the young Warrior (Beamer his Interpreter) said he had heard the Talk from the Great King George that the people of his nation had been often to Charles Town to hear Talks he never was therefore he came to see the Governors he never is inclined to be at Meetings but is well pleased with what he has heard and hopes the Governors are also. As the Warriors are now done he will speak and begs to be heard he says some time ago twas cloudy all was darkness but it is now clear and he hopes all will be forgiven and then nothing offensive shall be more repeated The Great King George in Pity hath taken them into favour and as the day is bright and clear he hopes twill ever be so on the Path.
The Warriors who have been in England had a right to speak first but now he informs that his heart is as firm to the English as ever in his Life he sees all around his Friends both Red and White People that the White People of Georgia were the first that gave them goods after the War he now hopes to have a supply from Charles Town there are goods at Keowee plenty but people who live 8 or 10. miles distant and want Trifles find it hard to send or go to Keowee for them. The Lines run out between the English and them he is satisfied with thō they are small for his People.
The White People settled at or near Long Canes he desires not to remove but none more to settle nearer the Cherokees.
After reminding again concerning the Traders he declared he had finished his Talk. And gave a String of Beads.
At a full Congress of the Governors Superintendant Indians &c the Replys were delivered as follows.
Answer of the several Governors and the Superintendant to Pia Matta the Chickesaw Leaders Talk. (Colbert Interpreter)
Friend Brother and Ally
We the several Governors and Superintendant are extremely pleased with the Talk you delivered the day before yesterday as our eldest Brother you began replying and gave an Example to the other Indians your Talk was as straight and as grateful as your conduct has been for these many years we acknowledge your Fidelity we have had repeated Proofs of it and we hope that by this Meeting the chain of Friendship which has long united us will receive additional strength and Brightness.
The words you have uttered are those of a wise and generous man and such as Experience has taught you, you observe that you cannot do without the White People this is most certainly true but it is as certain that by preserving your heart entirely English by making their Enemies your Enemies & their Friends your Friends you have felt no wants whatever. The Great King has liberally supplied you he has convinced you that let his children be ever so remote let seas or mountains separate them that as long as they behave faithfully as you have done they never will be cast off.
You say that the number of Traders which pass through your Country to the Chactaws and the too great number which trade with your People breed disturbances which you may not always be at hand to prevent You now shall have a Reply to both these remarks. By the cession of Mobile to the English the Chactaw Trade will be carried on from thence because it will be more convenient to both English and Indians so that from this time you will have no complaints of that Kind to make Your other request that High Rider and Brown only should traffick among you has been considered by us as your Friends and we are persuaded that some White Man for his own Interest has imposed upon you. You may believe us as the Great King's beloved Men that when the Trade is in few hands the price of Goods is always higher, but if you give a preference to the Traders you have mentioned you are under no obligation to buy Goods of Others if High Rider and Brown are Your Friends deal with them only but they are more likely to continue to use you well when you have other Traders to resort to in case they abuse you. This advice comes from us all and we give it because we esteem and value you. We have nothing further to add but that you may safely rely on the continuance of that friendship and assistance which the Great King has always given you.
To the above they seemed satisfied.
Previous to the answer of the Creeks, Forrest (the Interpreter) being desired to ask Capt Ellick on behalf of himself and Brothers if he understood the Line as settled yesterday he answered in the Affirmative Then the Reply was proceeded on vizt.
Friends and Brothers
In reply to the answer of you—the Creek Indians—to the Great King's Talk the Governors and Superintendant say that your repeated assurances that your hearts and the hearts of your whole people (for whom you speak) are straight and good toward the Great King George and his subjects they receive cordially and that such friendly declarations as these duly observed on your Parts you may depend shall be properly regarded by us who will continue to exercise the King's great Benevolence and Goodness towards you agreable to his Talk given you at our first Meeting.
The complaint made of straggling People going about the Woods between Augusta and the Creek Country and carrying them and others Things to trade with such Indians as they may meet with when hunting is a mischief which we are sensible of and what we are very desirous of putting a stop to and you may be assured that everything which can be done shall be done in order to prevent such Practices. You have also mentioned that if any Negros run away or Horses or Cattle stray into your Grounds that you will seize upon them and keep them but with respect to these two Points you must recollect and well remember the Treaties and Agreements you have formerly entered into with the White People and that you are not to do any Mischief or Damage to them or take away their property or take any satisfaction yourselves against the White People—But if you think you receive any injury you are to make your Complaint to the Governor of the Province who will always be ready to hear you and do you justice and this is the method you must observe and not attempt to do any Mischief to the White People or take away the Goods and Horses of such as you may find trading in the Woods for that would be contrary to your former Engagements which are still binding and must be observed and kept but you must complain against them to the Governor. And you well remember that by a former Treaty you are allowed a Reward for taking up any Negros that run away from their Masters and you will still be rewarded for
And here we think it necessary to observe that great complaints have been made by the Traders that some of you have stolen their Horses and refuse to deliver them when found in their possession Also by several of the Inhabitants that you wantonly kill their Cattle and that even since the holding of the Congress several Cattle in this Neighborhood have been wantonly shot and the Carcasses left on the spot. If these things be true it is not agreable to the Friendly Declarations made by you and we expect that nothing more of this sort be done for the future.
We have examined the Commission delivered by Thougulskie (the young twin) and have heard and believe that his Father was a good King and Warrior in the Creek Country and we hope Thougulskie may be so too but we shall not interfere with you in the choice or appointment of your Emperors or Kings but whenever you shall agree amongst yourselves upon the Election or Choice of an Emperor we shall be ready to confirm such choice.
Capt Ellick has mentioned a claim to his settlements at Santa Sevilla which he says has been run out as to which the Governors observe that they know of no Survey being made on any Settlement of his that if any such thing has been done it is without their Privity and if the lands are really his nothing that has been done can affect his property thereto but he will continue to enjoy them. You have proposed enlarging and extending the Boundaries or Limits of the Lands to the westward which may be settled by the White People. And this you declare to be in gratitude and return for the great clemency and generosity shown to you by his Majesty and which in his name we agree to accept of so that for the future the Settlements of the White People are to extend up to Savanah River to Little River and back to the Fork of Little River to the end of the South Branch of Bryer Creek and down that Branch to the Lower Creek Path and along Lower Creek Path to the main stream of Ogeechee River and down the main stream of that River just below the Path leading from Mount Pleasant and from thence in a strait Line cross to Santa Sevilla on the Alatamaha River and
N. B. Upon an explanation of the Boundary Line in the Talk to them, they were again asked if they clearly understood it. To which they all (and the Wolfe King in particular) answered in the affirmative.
And as to what you have mentioned about the Lands to the Southward of Georgia near St Augustine Pensacola and Mobile. These are Matters that the Great King has not empowered us to talk with you about. He has appointed Governors for those countries who will soon come over and be there And we shall acquaint them with what you have said and must leave you to talk with them and settle that matter for we cannot do anything in it.
Reply to Red Shoes the Chactaw Leader—Colbert, Interpreter.
Friend and Brother
Your Talk was but short but we are well satisfied with it, we are sorry for any accident which prevented more of your People from complying with the Great King's Invitation As they are not come you must be more carefull to remember what you have heard and relate it to your Nation, you desire to be under the English as the other Red People are Do you behave as well as the faithful Chickesaws your Friends and you will meet with the same Treatment from the English Probably long before you get home plenty of English goods will be in your Nation. In your Transactions with the White People take the Chickesaws for your Pattern they have reaped the advantage of our Friendship and we sincerely hope that your whole nation will embrace the offers of good will which we have made you and that one heart only may be in the bosoms of the White People and the Chactaws
With this Talk Red Shoes was well pleased.
To the Cherokees (Watts Interpreter)
Cherokee Friends & Brothers.
The Governors and Superintendant observe with pleasure the good dispsoition with which you are come to this Meeting apparent in your Talks and in your Countenances and the just sense you
In your answers to the Talk delivered from him you mentioned two Points to each of which you will now receive particular answers.
The first relates to the Trade carried on between the White People and your Towns the other to the Lands on which the White People are settled.
As to the Trade you have Goods sent among you by almost all the Colonies over which we preside but the prices you are inclined to give for Goods are so small that few Traders choose to carry goods into your Towns you must consider that if Traders do not make an advantage of their Goods they will not carry them. You would do the same yourselves.
The Trade of South Carolina stands on another Footing. At the same Time the Path into your Towns was but lately cleared from Blood to preserve it clean to prevent the same Mischiefs from being repeated which had been occasioned by the madness of your young men and the misbehaviour of our Traders a Factory was settled at Keowee and a Trader whom we may depend upon for using you well established there. Plenty of Goods are constantly kept for your supply and the Price as low or lower than any private Trader can afford them This regulation the Province of South Carolina cannot alter because it has been laid before the King. It is in his power and in his alone to make an alteration and until this is done South Carolina has not the Power of Sending Private Traders.
In North Carolina there are no Indian Traders at all either to your Nation or any other.
And as to Virginia the Traders there are free to carry up their Goods or not as they find their advantage there are no Laws to compel them to go or to restrain them from going. Every man carries up his goods as he thinks proper & sets such prices upon them as he judges will answer his Expence in carrying them up into your Towns you are also free to purchase them or not as you approve of the prices set upon them And all we have to add on this subject is that the Government of Virginia sets no Prices on the Goods sent up to you but leaves you and the Traders to agree upon the Price in such manner as is suitable to you both.
We shall now come to the other point relative to Lands you
By a former Governor and above Twenty years since a large Grant of Lands in that part of the Country was made to one Colo Patten who under that Grant sold out Parcels of Land to People who settled there. In these Settlements you have acquiesced without complaint to this Time as they are at a great distance from your Country. Another large Grant was also made by the Great King just before the breaking out of the War with the French but those Disturbances prevented many persons settling under that Grant and by the King's late Instructions to the Governor of Virginia no land can be granted even as far as the Eastern Banks of that River and in obedience to that Instruction not a foot has been since granted upon that River so that you have nothing further to apprehend on that account. And we now take this opportunity to confirm you in your Security by assuring you that on the Return of the Governor of Virginia into His Colony all Treaties will be carefully examined and punctually observed and you may depend on strict justice being done to you.
It is possible some Idle person may set down on Lands without any Authority whatever but this you ought not to consider as an Act of the Government which does not nor ever will countenance and protect people settling in that Manner but heartily concur with you in removing them on Complaint made by you to the Governor for that Purpose.
In relation to the Settlements above Long Canes in South Carolina, those Settlements were allowed and agreed to in the Treaty of Peace signed at the close of the last War by Lieut: Govr Bull & Attakullakulla between the White People and your Nation.
And then the Interpreters were ordered to inform the several Nations of Indians that the Great King had sent them presents as a Mark of his Esteem for them and that the four Governors & Superintendant should agree in the Distribution and the Superintendant would then deliver them.
To Colo Ayres and Brothers of the Catawbas.
It gives us great pleasure and satisfaction to find that the good Talk which we gave you from Our Great King and Father of both the Red and White Children is so satisfactory to you as you have always been fast Friends to all his White children so our King and Father holds out his arms to receive and protect you from all your enemies and is very sensible of your constant Love and Friendship for all your White Brothers and you may be assured of his confirming to you all your just claims to your Lands and Hunting Grounds pursuant to the Agreement made between your Nation and his Governor of South Carolina and Mr Atkins his Superintendant of Indian Affairs upon your having a Fort built for your Protection from your Enemies when you deserted your old Towns which was then agreed upon on both sides to be a square of Fifteen Miles to be laid out on both sides of the Catawba River and part of the Line was actually surveyed.
If you stand to your former Agreement your Lands shall be immediately surveyed and marked out for your use but if you do not your claim must be undecided till our Great King's Pleasure is known on the other side the Waters.
The Talks being given to the Indians the Cherokees acknowledge of their own accord that they had claimed more than were their Hunting Grounds and what they now desired was that they might not be molested in hunting as for as the Spring Head of Holstein River.
They desired the Governors to write to Mr Wilkinson at Keowee to send Goods from thence to Estitoi to which t'was replied that the Governors had it not in their power the Great King had ordered it otherwise.
The Catawbas upon appearing satisfied with the Line of 15. Miles square were informed that a new Survey should be made and when the Line was run the People settled within should be removed and no new Warrants granted them or any others to settle within those Limits. Upon which they desired a new Line should be run out immediately.
The Catawbas being asked if they approved Colo Ayres as their Chief or Emperor answered unanimously Yes. In consequence of such their Declaration the Governor and Superintendant accepted him.
Then the question was put to the respective Chiefs of the several Tribes of Indians whether in consequence of their good Professions towards the English they were inclined to enter into a Treaty of Peace &c in Writing for that Purpose and they all consenting thereto were informed that on the morrow being the 10th of Novbr they were to assemble at the same place at 11 o'clock when such a Treaty should be ready to be signed by the Governors, Superintendant and them.
The Prince of Choti made Overtures of Peace and Friendship to Pia Matta the Chief Chickesaw which being accepted the Prince of Choti gave him a String of White Beads.
The Young Warrior and Tiftoi (Cherokees) had friendly Talks with Mustisiqua and Fool Harry (two Creeks) and give Beads to each of them.
At a Congress held at Augusta in the Province of Georgia on the 10th of Nov: in the year of our Lord God 1763. by their ExcellenciesJames Wright. Esqr Governor GeorgiaArthur Dobbs. Esqr Governor No CarolinaThos Boone Esqr Governor So Carolina
The Honble Francis Fauquier Esqre Lieut: Gov: of Virginia and John Stuart Esqre Agent and Superintendant of Southern Indian Affairs.
A Treaty for the Preservation and continuance of a firm and perfect Peace and Friendship Between His most sacred Majesty George the Third by the Grace of God of Great Britain France and Ireland King Defender of the Faith and so forth and the several Indian Chiefs herein named who are authorized by the King's Head Men and Warriors of the Chickesaws Upper and Lower Creeks Chactaws Cherokees and Catawbas for and in behalf of themselves and their several Nations and Tribes
That a Perfect and perpetual Peace and sincere Friendship shall be continued between His Majesty King George the Third and all his subjects and the several Nations and Tribes of Indians herein mentioned that is to say the Chickesaws, Upper and Lower Creeks, Chactaws & Catawbas and each Nation of Indians hereby respectively engages to give the utmost attention to preserve and maintain
The Subjects of the Great King George and the aforesaid several Nations of Indians shall forever hereafter be looked upon as one People and the several Governors and Superintendant engage that they will encourage Persons to furnish and supply the several Nations and Tribes of Indians aforesaid with all sorts of Goods usually crrried amongst them in the manner in which they now are and which will be sufficient to answer all their Wants.
In consideration whereof the Indian Parties on their Part severally engage in the most selemn manner that the Traders and others who may go amongst them sball be perfectly safe and secure in their several persons and Effects and shall not on any account or pretence whatsoever be molested or disturbed whilst in any of the Indian Towns or Nations or on their journey to or from the Nations.
The English Governors and Superintendant engage for themselves and their successors as far as they can that they will always give due attention to the Interest of the Indians and will be ready on all Occasions to do them full and ample justice. And the several Indian Parties do expressly promise and engage for themselves severally and for their several Nations and Tribes pursuant to the full Right and Power which they shall have so to do that they will in all cases and upon all occasions do full and ample justice to the English and will use their utmost endeavours to prevent any of tbeir People from giving any disturbance or doing any damage to them in the Settlements or elsewhere as aforesaid either by stealing their Horses killing their Cattle or otherwise or by doing them any
And if any White Man shall kill or murder an Indian such White Man shall be tried for the Offence in the same manner as if he had murdered a White Man and if found guilty shall be executed accordingly in the presence of some of the relations of the Indians who may be murdered if they choose to be present.
Whereas Doubts and Disputes have frequently happened on account of Encroachments or supposed encroachments committed by the English Inhabitants of Georgia on the lands or hunting grounds reserved and claimed by the Creek Indians for their own use.
Wherefore to prevent any mistakes Doubts or Disputes for the future and in consideration of the great marks of Clemency and Friendship extended to us the said Creek Indians. We the King's Head Men and Warriors of the several Nations and Towns of both Upper and Lower Creeks by Virtue and in Pursuance of the full Right and Power which we now have and are possessed of Have consented and agreed that for the future the Boundary between the English Settlements and our Lands and hunting Grounds shall be known and settled by a Line extending up Savannah River to Little River and back to the Fork of Little River to the Ends of the South Branch of Briar Creek and down that Branch to the Lower Creek Path and along the Lower Creek Path to the Main Stream of Ogeechee River and down the Main Stream of that River just below the Path leading from Mount Pleasant and from thence in a Line cross to Santa Savilla on the Matamaha River and from thence to the Southward as far as Georgia extends or may be extended to remain to be regulated agreeable to former Treaties and His Majesty's Royal Instruction a copy of which was lately sent to you.
And We the Catawba Head Men and Warriors in Confirmation of an Agreement heretofore entered into with the White People
And we do by these Presents give grant and confirm unto his most sacred Majesty King George the Third all such Lands whatsoever as we the said Creek Indians have at any time heretofore been possessed of or claimed as our hunting grounds which lye between the sea and the River Savannah and the Lines herein before mentioned and described to hold the same unto the Great King George and his successors for ever. And we do fully and absolutely agree that from henceforth the above Lines and Boundary shall be the mark of Division of Lands between the English and Us the Creek Indians notwithstanding any former agreement or boundary to the contrary. And that we will not disturb the English in their Settlements or otherwise within the Lines aforesaid.
In consideration whereof it is agreed on the Part of his Majesty King George that none of His subjects shall settle upon or disturb the Indians in the Grounds or Lands to the Westward of the Lines herein before described and that if any shall presume to do so, then on complaint made to the Indians the party shall be proceeded against for the same and punished according to the Laws of the English.
In Testimony whereof we the underwritten have signed this present Treaty and put to it the Seals of our Arms the day and year above written And the several Kings and Chiefs of the several Nations and Tribes of Indians have also sent their Hands and Seals to the same at the Time and Place aforesaid.
The Ratification of Peace and Friendships being signed finished the General Congress at which time the Guns of Fort Augusta were discharged as they were at the opening of the Congress.
The Indians were informed that the Presents would begin to be distributed to them the following day by their Beloved Man the Superintendant to which they appearing satisfied their Excellencies and the Superintendant withdrew into the said Fort of Augusta and ordered the following letter to be engrossed and sent to the Secretary of State vizt
Augusta in Georgia
10th Nov:ber 1763.
In obedience to the King's commands signified to us severally by your Lordship by Letters of the 16th March we have met the different Chiefs of the Chickesaws, Chactaws, Creeks, Cherokees and Catawbas and have used our utmost Endeavours to carry His Majesty's Intentions into Execution.
The Removal of the French and Spaniards from the ceded Places which your Lordships meant the Indians should be apprized of by us they were before acquainted with. This was unavoidable. The dispatching of Invitations to Nations so remote as the Chactaws and Chickesaws necessarily took up a great deal of time their Consultation upon them not much less and their Journey hither still more However my Lord we do not apprehend that their receiving the above Intelligence from other hands has been detrimental to the King's service. The Chickesaws ever faithful to the British Interest are perfectly satisfied with the change The Chactaw Leader now in Confederacy with the Chickesaws had before made repeated Offers of declaring against the French provided he was supplied with English Goods and seems well pleased with the Neighborhood of the English whose assistance he had before courted. We have in our reply to him given him reason to expect that by the time he reaches home there will be Traders in his Nation by the way of Mobile and We beg leave to recommend to your Lordship that the Chactaws being supplied with goods from that Quarter as a Measure necessary to confirm them in their present possessions and to render them independent of the Creeks against whom they may be a very useful Check when their supplies are no longer so precarious as they now are by passing through the Creek Country.
The Creeks had been represented to be very ill disposed the murders they had committed were frequent even subsequent to the Receipt of your Lordships Letter since the holding of the Congress thō amply supplied with Provisions they have been accused of wantonly killing the people's Cattle yet their Talks have been more friendly than we expected and their voluntary offer of an augmentation of Boundary of Georgia upon the King's forgiveness of all past Injuries being signified to them supposing their Professions sincere and the Chiefs of consequence enough to act for the
Your Lordship will pardon us for suggesting that there never was a time more seasonable for the establishing the Commerce with Indians upon a general safe equitable footing and which we are afraid will never be done by respective Provinces.
The Catawbas Boundary as before agreed upon is now confirmed and they are well satisfied with it.
Permit us to refer your Lordship for all further particulars of the Congress to the original Papers which we shall have the honour of transmitting with the utmost dispatch and to hope we have faithfully executed the King's commands and approved ourselves, My Lordyour Lordships
most obedient & most hble servantsJA: WrightARTHUR DOBBS.THOs BOONEFRAN: FAUQUIERJOHN STUARTTo
The Earl of Egremont
His Majesty's principal
Secretary of State
for the Southern
Department. &c &c &c
Then the Secretary being ordered to withdraw Their Excellencies &c were pleased to agree that he should out of the Fund in his hands pay Mr Box the sum of ten pounds ten shillings sterling for assisting Fenwicke Bull their said Secretary at the Congress and that the said Fenwicke Bull should from the same Fund pay himself Fifty two pounds ten shillings sterling as a Gratuity for the executing his Office At the same time ordering him to write a fair Copy with Marginal Notes &c with all possible dispatch after his arrival in Charles Town to be forwarded to the Earl of Egremont His Majesty's principal Secretary of State for the South District &c &c &c &c and also that he procure 50. copies of the same to be printed from the said Fair Journal for the use of the Secretary of State Sir Jeffery Amherst (the four Governors Superintendant &c who attended at the Congress) and that they be also sent to the Northward America Governors and to those of the new ceded places that they may be informed of the proceedings at the said Congress.
Charles Town South Carolina Novber 21st 1763.
Since we had the pleasure of seeing you Governor Boone has received a Letterfrom Mr Samuel Smith of London Merchant acquainting him that he had a Ballance in his Hands from the money issued by the Treasury amounting to £354. 2. 11. over and above the costs and damages of the Presents which he was ready to pay to Governor Boone's Order towards the expence of distributing the Presents and contingencies of the Congress We have therefore agreed to draw for the whole to add £47. 10. 0. sterling more to the Gratification of 50. guineas already agreed to be given to Mr Bull in consequence of our thinking that he will have much more trouble than we at first imagined and that it will be necessary he should take a good deal of pains with the Papers to be transmitted to the Secretary of State the Remainder will be deposited in the Hands of the Superintendant to be applied towards the incidental Expences of the Congress. We should have been glad to have had your Concurrence but as this fresh step appears perfectly reasonable to us we have no doubt but it will be equally agreable to you & are &cTHOS: BOONEARTHUR DOBBS.FRAN: FAUQUIERHis Exey James Wright Esqre
Charles Town So Carolina 21st Novber 1763.
In consequence of your Letter of Advice dated the 10th Augst to His Exccy Govr Boone We have this day drawn Three Bills of Exchange on you for the Ballance vizt
1 at 30 Days in favour of the Honble Fran: Fauquier for 50. 1 at Do in favour of Willm Stead for 100: 0: 0 1 at Do in favour of Willm Stead for 104: 2: 11 sterl: £254: 2: 11
Amounting to Two Hundred Fifty Four Pounds Two Shillings & Eleven Pence Sterling which please to honour. We are &ceTHOs BOONE.ARTHUR DOBBSFRAN: FAUQUIERMr Samuel Smith
Cateaton Street London.
Fair Copy of the Journal of The Congress at Augusta, transcribed byFENWICKE BULL Secry
Recd Janry 26th 1764